Endocrine System Review 1. According to this diagram, a gland secretes a chemical. What is the name of this chemical? Hormone 2. The organs and tissues that the chemical is transported to by the blood is made up of what kind of cells? Target cells 3. What do hormones attach to on these cells? Receptors An important method of communication between cells is shown in the diagram. What is the chemical referred to in the diagram? 1. a hormone important in maintaining homeostasis 2. an enzyme detected by a cell membrane receptor 3. DNA necessary for regulating cell functions 4. a food molecule taken in by an organism Which substances are found on cell surfaces and respond to nerve and hormone signals? 1. starches and simple sugars 2. subunits of DNA 3. vitamins and minerals 4. receptor molecules 1. What does structure B represent? receptors 2. Explain why cell C is the target cell. Cell C has receptors that fit perfectly with the hormone. Which substances are found on cell surfaces and respond to nerve and hormone signals? 1. starches and simple sugars 2. subunits of DNA 3. vitamins and minerals 4. receptor molecules If a human system fails to function properly, what is the most likely result? 1. a stable rate of metabolism 2. a disturbance in homeostasis 3. a change in the method of cellular respiration 4. a change in the function of DNA Identify all glands labeled in the diagtam. Pituitary gland Parathyroid gland Thyroid gland Adrenal glands Pancreas Ovaries 1. A hormone that increases the rate and strength of heart contractions during times of sudden stress is secreted by which structure? What is the name of this hormone? Adrenal glands Adrenaline 2a.Hormones that regulate the ovaries are secreted by which structure? Pituitary gland 2b.What are the name of these hormones? Follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone 1. What is the name of the iodine-containing hormone that aids in the regulation of metabolic rate? What structure secretes this hormone? Thyroxine Thyroid 4. What structure regulates calcium metabolism? Parathyroid glands 5. Which structure regulates blood glucose levels? What is the name of those hormones? Pancreas Insulin Glucagon 1. What HORMONE causes blood sugar level to decrease? What GLAND produces this hormone? Insulin Pancreas 2. What part of the brain controls the pituitary gland? Hypothalamus 3. What hormones produced by the ovaries stimulate the production of female secondary sex characteristics? Estrogen 1. What is the name of the thyroid HORMONE which controls body metabolism? Thyroxine 1. Which HORMONE helps to stimulate the development of secondary sex characteristics in the male? Testosterone 3. Why is the pituitary glands called the “master gland?” It regulates other glands in the body. Increased perspiration, a higher body temperature, and a rapidly beating heart are all possible responses to a stressful situation. These body responses are most likely a direct result of the interaction of the 1. digestive and endocrine systems 2. digestive and respiratory systems 3. nervous and endocrine systems 4. nervous and reproductive systems Which graph of blood sugar level over a 12-hour period best illustrates the concept of homeostasis? Which statement describes a feedback mechanism involving the human pancreas? 1. The production of estrogen stimulates the formation of gametes for sexual reproduction. 2. The level of oxygen in the blood is related to heart rate. 3. The level of sugar in the blood is affected by the amount of insulin in the blood. 4. The production of urine allows for excretion of cell waste. Hormones and secretions of the nervous system are chemical messengers that 1. store genetic information 2. carry out the circulation of materials 3. extract energy from nutrients 4. control and coordinate system interactions 1. This diagram best illustrates a. recombination b. feedback c. insertion d. deletion 2. What is the function of this process? Maintain homeostasis. Regulate hormone levels in the blood.