OpenURL Knowledge Bases and Link Resolvers

Report
Knowledge Bases and trends in
Library Resource Management
and Access
An update on the current environment
Marshall Breeding
Independent Consultant
Founder and Publisher, Library Technology Guides
http://www.librarytechnology.org/
http://twitter.com/mbreeding
03 March 2014
NII ERDB Member Meeting
Agenda



National Institute of Informatics
ERDB (Electronic Resources Database)
Summarize findings and analysis of the current state
of the OpenURL Link Resolver and Knowledge Base
arena
General Observations



Both commercially produced and community-based
projects underway
Commercial products currently are more
comprehensive with more sophisticated support
mechanisms
Commercial:
 Serials
Solutions: 360 Link / KnowledgeWorks
 Ex Libris: SFX / SFX Global Knowledgebase
 EBSCO: LinkSource /
 OCLC: WorldCat knowledge base
Non-commercial Products and projects

Simon Frasier University:
 CUFTS

Colorado Alliance of Research Libraries
 Gold

/ GODOT
Rush
Kuali OLE Project
 Global
Open Knowledge Base (GOKb)
Related Initiatives

KBART
 More
standardized approach for information providers
to deliver representations of their content products to
KB providers




Project Transfer
JISC initiative for shared services for electronic
resource management
KnowledgeBase+
Open Discovery Initiative
 Specifically
related to index-based discovery
Future Directions
Transition away from Standalone
Products






Knowledge bases were originally developed for OpenURL link
resolution
Increasing emphasis on knowledgebase as part of the infrastructure
of broader strategic platforms
Ex Libris: SFX Global KnowledgeBase will become part of the
Community Catalog of Alma
Serials Solutions: KnowledgeWorks will expand to include print and
other materials in support of Intota
OCLC: WorldCat Link Manager already discontinued in favor of
WorldShare License Manager, WorldShare Management Services
EBSCO: Platform consolidation already underway between
LinkSource, EBSCO A-to-Z, and EBSCO Discovery Services. No
announcement of broader strategy yet announced.
Emerging Automation Models


New genre of Library Services Platforms replacing
Integrated library Systems
Support for multiple formats:
Print and physical media
 Electronic: subscribed and owned
 Digital: local and external collections of images, digital
recorded sound, video




Globally shared metadata models: knowledge bases
that support appropriate formats
Deployed through multi-tenant software as a service
platforms
Open API’s for interoperability and extensibility
Integrated (for print) Library System
Public Interfaces:
Staff Interfaces:
Interfaces
Business
Logic
Data
Stores
Circulation
BIB
Cataloging
Holding
/ Items
Circ
Transact
Acquisitions
User
Serials
Vendor
Online
Catalog
$$$
Funds
Policies
Fragmented Library Management











LMS for management of (mostly) print
Duplicative financial systems between library and local government or
other parent organization
E-book lending platform (multiple?)
Interlibrary loan (borrowing and lending)
Self-service and AMH infrastructure
Electronic Resource Management
PC Scheduling and print management
Event scheduling
Digital Collections Management platforms (CONTENTdm, DigiTool, etc.)
Discovery-layer services for broader access to library collections
No effective integration services / interoperability among disconnected
systems, non-aligned metadata schemes
LMS / ERM: Fragmented Model
Staff Interfaces:
Public Interfaces:
Application Programming Interfaces
CirculationCatalogingAcquisitions Serials
BIB
Online
Catalog
Protocols: CORE
`
Holding Circ
$$$
User Vendor
Policies
/ ItemsTransact
Funds
E-resource
License
Procurement Management
E-Journal
Titles
Vendors
License
Terms
Common approach for ERM
Staff Interfaces:
Public Interfaces:
Budget
License Terms
Application Programming Interfaces
CirculationCatalogingAcquisitions Serials
Online
Catalog
Titles / Holdings
Vendors
BIB
Holding Circ
$$$
User Vendor
Policies
/ ItemsTransact
Funds
Access Details
Comprehensive Resource Management





No longer sensible to use different software platforms
for managing different types of library materials
ILS + ERM + OpenURL Resolver + Digital Asset
management, etc. very inefficient model
Flexible platform capable of managing multiple type
of library materials, multiple metadata formats, with
appropriate workflows
Support for management of metadata in bulk
Continuous lifecycle chain initiated before publication
Library Services Platform


Library-specific software. Designed to help libraries
automate their internal operations, manage collections,
fulfillment requests, and deliver services
Services




Service oriented architecture
Exposes Web services and other API’s
Facilitates the services libraries offer to their users
Platform



General infrastructure for library automation
Consistent with the concept of Platform as a Service
Library programmers address the APIs of the platform to extend
functionality, create connections with other systems, dynamically
interact with data
Library Services Platform
Characteristics

Highly Shared data models



Delivered through software as a service



Multi-tenant
Unified workflows across formats and media
Flexible metadata management




Knowledgebase architecture
Some may take hybrid approach to accommodate local data
stores
MARC – Dublin Core – VRA – MODS – ONIX
Bibframe
New structures not yet invented
Open APIs for extensibility and interoperability
New Library Management Model
Unified Presentation Layer
Search:
Library Services
Platform
Digital
Coll
Search
Engine
API Layer
`
Consolidated index
Self-Check /
Automated
Return
ProQuest
EBSCO
…
JSTOR
Stock
Management
Other
Resources
Enterprise
Resource
Planning
Learning
Management
Smart Cad /
Payment
systems
Authentication
Service
Library Services Platforms
Category
WorldShare
Alma
Management
Services
OCLC.
Ex Libris
Intota
Key precepts
Global
network-level
approach to
management
and discovery.
Consolidate
workflows,
unified
management:
print,
electronic,
digital;
Hybrid data
model
Knowledgeba
se driven.
Pure multitenant SaaS
Software model
Proprietary
Proprietary
Proprietary
Responsible
Organization
Serials
Solutions
Sierra
Services
Platform
Innovative
Interfaces, Inc
Kuali OLE
Service-oriented
architecture
Technology
uplift for
Millennium ILS.
More open
source
components,
consolidated
modules and
workflows
Proprietary
Manage library
resources in a format
agnostic approach.
Integration into the
broader academic
enterprise
infrastructure
Kuali Foundation
Open Source
Library Services Platforms
Category
WorldShare
Alma
Management
Services
OCLC.
Ex Libris
Intota
Key precepts
Global
network-level
approach to
management
and discovery.
Consolidate
workflows,
unified
management:
print,
electronic,
digital;
Hybrid data
model
Knowledgeba
se driven.
Pure multitenant SaaS
Software model
Proprietary
Proprietary
Proprietary
Responsible
Organization
Serials
Solutions
Sierra
Services
Platform
Innovative
Interfaces, Inc
Kuali OLE
Service-oriented
architecture
Technology
uplift for
Millennium ILS.
More open
source
components,
consolidated
modules and
workflows
Proprietary
Manage library
resources in a format
agnostic approach.
Integration into the
broader academic
enterprise
infrastructure
Kuali Foundation
Open Source
Web-scale Index-based Discovery
(2009- present)
Digital
Collections
Search:
Profile of Library
Subscriptions
Customer
Profile
Consolidated Index
Search Results
Usagegenerated
Data
ILS Data
Web Site
Content
Institutional
Repositories
Aggregated
Content
packages
…
Open Access
E-Journals
Reference
Sources
Pre-built harvesting and
indexing
Bento Box Discovery Model
Aggregated
Content
packages
ILS Data
VuFind / Blacklight
Search Results
Web Site
Content
Digital
Collections
Institutional
Repositories
Consolidated Index
Search:
Open Access
E-Journals
Pre-built harvesting and
indexing
Evolving Role of Knowledgebases

Shift from multiple knowledge bases for different
product categories to more consolidated approach
 Support
infrastructure for electronic resource
management
 Basis for reference linking in broader end-user access
environment for scholarly content
 Basis for smart or direct linking within discovery
interfaces
 Basis for scoping for index-based discovery services
Continuity in the short term

All the vendors report that they will continue to
offer stand-alone linking products and knowledge
bases in the short term
Product leverage

Initial acquisition of link resolver and KB


Subsequent investment in discovery


Subsequent investment in new automation products
Decision drivers


In the past, link resolvers and their knowledge bases
were mostly independent decisions
Today, knowledge bases and link resolvers are mostly
tied to discovery strategies. Many libraries are shifting
to new resolvers to accommodate changes that they
have made in discovery products.


Using a link resolver from another provider may result in the
need to operate multiple knowledge bases. Difficult to
synchronize
In the next cycle, knowledge bases will also be
associated with new library management products.
Decision Drivers



Today and in previous years link resolvers were
acquired on the basis of their functionality and
knowledge base completeness
Increasingly the link resolver will come as
components of broader systems.
Differentiation among knowledge bases will narrow
as data becomes available more universally and
consistently through KBART.
Open Access Knowledge Bases?

Previous efforts of open access knowledge bases
have not been sustained
 JAKE


GODOT not competitive with current commercial
offerings
Open access knowledge bases may pose more
substantial competition
 Global
Open Knowledge Base (Kuali OLE / JISC)
 KnowledgeBase+
Commercial Products
Comparison
KnowledgeBase
Company
SFX Global
KnowledgeBase
Ex Libris Group
Link Resolver
SFX
KnowledgeWo LinkSource
rks
Serials
EBSCO
Solutions
360 Link
LinkSource
A-Z utility
SFX A-Z list
360 Core
MARC Delivery
MarcIt
Service
Discovery Service Primo
Electronic Resource Verde
management
Library Services
Alma
Platform
WorldCat knowledge
base
OCLC
None (OCLC Link
Manager withdrawn)
EBSCO A-to-Z WorldCat Local includes
integrated A-Z listing
capability
360 MARC
MARC Updates Pilot project
Update Service service
Summon
EBSCO
WorldCat Local
Discovery
Service
360 Manager ERM Essentials WorldShare License
Manager
Intota
None
WorldShare
Management Services
Comparison
KnowledgeBase
SFX Global
Knowledge
KnowledgeBase
Works
LinkSource
WorldCat
knowledge base
Launched
2000
2003
2003
2006
Support FTE for KB
29
12
29
8
None
Through WorldShare
Platform
3000+
301
APIs
Number of
installations
Full APIs to
None now, but
support other
in 2012-13
interfaces
roadmap
2350
973
in 62 countries
Recent licensing
changes makes
LinkSource
available to all
libraries using A-Z
Comparing Comprehensiveness and
Quality




Assessment of the scope of the products cannot be
accomplished based on numerical comparisons
Numbers provided by each supplier not
comparable
Process for how libraries localize their
implementation for materials not covered differs
Quality and consistency as reported by supplier
sometimes not entirely consistent with library
perceptions
Library Survey


Conducted a survey completed by over 500 libraries using link
resolvers
Questions






How do you rate the overall performance of the Link Resolver and its
Knowledge Base?
How do you rate the performance of the link resolver in its effectiveness of
connecting users to appropriate copies of electronic resources?
How do you rate the comprehensiveness of the knowledge base relative to the
number of e-journals and other electronic resources held by your library?
How do you rate the accuracy of the knowledgebase in representing electronic
resources?
How do you rate the promptness in which errors reported by libraries are
corrected in the knowledge base?
How do you rate the tools offered for the library to configure and administer
the knowledge base and link resolver?
Ex Libris SFX & Global KnowledgeBase






First to acquire and commercialize OpenURL link
resolvers (Feb 2000)
Promoted OpenURL 0.1 as a de facto standard and
OpenURL 1.0 as a NISO Standard
SFX Global KnowledgeBase
Most Installations worldwide
Many new customers associated with ongoing sales
of Primo and Alma
Some erosion of customers to Serials Solutions
Serials Solutions KnowledgeWorks and
360 Link







KnowledgeWorks a core product of Serials Solutions
Emerged from E-Journal lists
Original ArticleLinker became 360 Link
Multi-tenant software as a service for all products
Uses both automated processes and human intervention
to maintain KB
Created Summon as the first index-based discovery
service
Recently announced Intota as its comprehensive library
management product
OCLC WorldCat Knowledge Base





Originated from the 1Cate product acquired from
Openly Informatics
Integrated into the WorldCat platform
Basis for WorldCat Link Manager
No longer a separate utility but provides the link
resolution functionality of WorldCat Local
Part of the underlying infrastructure of WorldShare
License Manager
EBSCO LinkSource and Knowledge
Base



EBSCO uses SmartLinks to create direct links within
the EBSCOhost environment
LinkSource provides link resolution to content outside
EBSCO products
Very large number of libraries use EBSCO A-to-Z
 Recent
product license changes makes LinkSource
available to any library subscribing to A-to-Z
Colorado Alliance of Research
Libraries Gold Rush



Lower-level product
Smaller knowledge base with fewer automated
processes for updates and management
Lower cost
Simon Frasier University: CUFTS
GODOT


Open source link resovler
Open access knowledge base
 Maintained
primarily by technical services group at
Simon Frasier University

TrueSerials offers commercial subscriptions.
Kuali OLE: Global Open Knowledge
Base (GOKb)

Proposal to the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation
 Submitted
Jan 4, 2012 (Recently Approved)
 $498,621 requested for 1-year project
 April 1 2012 – March 31, 2013



Collaboration between JISC and KualiOLE
Lead institution: North Carolina State University
Principal Investigators:
 Susan
Nutter (NCSU)
 Rachel Bruce (JISC)
Broad Objectives



Create an community supported knowledge base
that can be used by multiple projects for the
management of electronic resources
Initially for JISC and Kuali OLE, but also for other
institutional and commercial uses
Hosted on a platform built on open source software
 Deployed
at multiple host sites (Initially Europe and US)
 Data and services delivered through open API’s
Addresses current problems





Insufficient data regarding publishers and
providers; simplistic representation of relationships
among content and provider roles
Absence of identifiers for entities in the supply chain
Inadequate normalization of data across or within
systems
Inability for libraries to openly access and
repurpose data within current knowledge bases
Inability to track changes over time of any given
title or other entities over time
Global Open Knowledge Base goals



A repository of high-quality metadata about the
electronic resources and their representation across
the supply chain from publisher to licensor to library
vendor to library customer, including representation
of marketing and packaging constructs as defined
by the suppliers;
the ability to track changes to product entities and
their associated organizations over time;
an open services platform that will enable libraries
and others to employ that data in local systems.
Quoted form the proposal to the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation
Data needed for Electronic Resource
Management
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Publications & their packaging - E-resource titles and their
associated packages and platforms as supplied by a given
publisher or provider, associated with brief descriptive metadata,
such as subject terms and identifiers
Actors - Information about organizations and their role in the
supply chain (publisher, provider, licensor, subscriber)
Terms - Information about licensing, terms of acquisition, use and
ongoing access
History - The historical record of changes in such as titles and
organizational roles, against which license terms and institutional
entitlements can be recorded
Local entitlements (holdings) - typically date ranges (in various
formats) and statements about embargoes if applicable and
access information (URL)
Quoted form the proposal to the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation
Proposed Solution

Bill of Materials data model
 used
in engineering and manufacturing sectors
 Data for item can be exploded into constituent parts


Ensure compatibility with open linked data
expectations through RDF data modeling
Relational RDMS as fallback
Data Elements

Organization. Institutional entity with a role in the supply chain.


Standard numbers. Identifiers for the journal title.


Elements: Names, identifiers, base URLs, terms under which a title is offered ("status"),
entitlement offered
Platform. A software solution for hosting journal title instances.


Elements: Names, title IDs, internal identifier.
Title instance (component). A title as supplied by a given licensor.


Elements: ISSN, e-ISSN, ISSN-L, DOI
Collection (combination). A branded set of titles instances offered by a provider.


Elements: Names, roles (publisher, provider, licensor, vendor, subscriber), administrative
information about organizations.
Elements: Names, internal identifier.
Model license agreement. Terms of acquisition and use for a deal or titles instances
as offered by the provider and prior to local negotiations.

Elements: Document, coded values, deal ID, title instance IDs, internal ID.
Quoted form the proposal to the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation
License for GOKb

Science Commons Protocol for Implementing Open
Access Data
 http://www.sciencecommons.org/projects/publishing/o
pen-access-data-protocol/


Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and
License (ODC-PDDL)
Creative Commons CC0 waiver
Sustainability and Data Maintenance


Project will produce initial population
Develop ongoing methods of updates
KnowledgeBase+



develop a centralised, shared, above-campus
knowledge base of data useful to electronic
resources management (ERM) at institutional level
provide institutions, and the services they use, with
timely, accurate, verified and structured ERM
information, including e-resources publication,
licensing, subscription and entitlements data
extend and enhance existing data and services
rather than creating yet another silo
SCONUL


Society of College, National and University
Libraries
Funded a 2011 project to analyze use case process
in UK Higher Education instiutions

similar documents