THE AGE OF NAPOLEON Chapter 6 section 4 Plebiscite- popular vote by ballot Napoleonic Code- body of French civil laws introduced in 1804, served as a model for many nations’ civil codes Annex- add a territory to an existing state or country Continental System- blockade designed by Napoleon to hurt Britain economically by closing European ports to British goods (ultimately successful). Guerilla warfare- fighting carried on through hit and run raids (the Spanish used this against the French soldiers) Scorched-earth policy- military tactic in which soldiers destroy everything in their path. (the Russians did this to prevent Napoleon’s army from conquering them) Abdicate- to give up or step down from power. Congress of Vienna- assembly of European leaders that met after the Napoleonic Era to piece Europe back together. Met from September 1814 to June 1815 in Vienna, Austria. Legitimacy- principle by which monarchies that had been unseated by the French Revolution or Napoleon were restored. Concert of Europe- a system in which Austria, Russia, Prussia, and Great Britain met periodically to discuss any post-Napoleonic Era Quadruple Alliance. 1. How did Napoleon rise to power so quickly in France? He was very ambitious and his military successes helped him gain power. 2. What reforms did Napoleon introduce during his rise to power? He enacted reforms to improve the economy, established a public school system, and introduced the Napoleonic Code. 3. How did Napoleon come to dominate most of Europe by 1812? He defeated European powers by moving large armies rapidly, taking risks, and being willing to suffer great losses. He annexed some lands and forced alliances on others. He put friends and family members on several European thrones. 4. What challenges threatened Napoleon’s empire and what led to the disaster in Russia? Nationalism in individual European states, guerilla warfare in Spain, Austria seeking revenge, and the devastating Russia winter. 5. How did Napoleon impact Europe and the rest of the world? He spread the ideas of nationalism across Europe and facilitated American expansion with the Louisiana Territory and abolished the Holy Roman Empire, which help create a new Germany.