Air pollution

Report
How does pollution affect human health?
How can we detect pollution & its impact
on environmental health?
Ecology
is the study of
interaction between organisms &
their environments. People
depend on the Earth’s
hydrosphere, atmosphere,
lithosphere and biosphere for
many needs. When these
resources become polluted, they
affect our health.
1. Everything is related to
everything else.
2. Everything must go somewhere.
• Nothing can really be thrown away.
3. Nature knows best.
• Humans must live in harmony with
the earth.
• Resources removed from
anywhere are not free & need to
be returned at some point in time
either by nature or human activity.
Nonpoint
source pollutants (NPS)
are carried far from their source.
• Common NPS: fertilizers,
pesticides, oil grease, pet
wastes, livestock wastes
Point
source pollutants (PS) are
contaminates that are coming
from an identifiable source.
Examples:
factory pipes,
slaughterhouses, domestic
sewage & factory smokestacks
Even
though water may be clear
it is not necessarily clean. In
most countries, households use
water that is treated to remove
dangerous pollutants. Some
pollutants still enter fresh bodies
of water that are used by
humans.
1. Common water pollutants are
sediment & nutrients. These
substances wash into the water
from farmland, construction
sites & other areas where the
ground has been disturbed.
2. Other pollutants enter the water
directly.
• Effluent: waste water from
factories & refineries that
released pollutants directly into
water supplies.
b. Sewage: is a type of effluent
waste. Sewage contains human
waste & other household
wastewater. Most sewage is
treated at a plant to remove the
dirt, organic matter & other
contaminants.
Eighty percent of US sewage is
treated; another 10% passes
through septic tanks before it is
allowed to seep into the ground;
another 10% is untreated &
passes directly into the ground.
c. Sludge: is a sediment of
sewage. Once it was untreated,
however, today sludge is dried
and maybe composted to be
used as fertilizer for crops or
forests.
1. Lead can leak into the water
from pipes & cause brain
damage.
2. Hydrogen sulfide is a gas that
comes from industrial waste &
gives water a rotten egg smell.
3. Radioactive
substances
can cause some types of
cancers.
Microbes (very tiny
pathogens) that can cause
disease. Common
disease from microbes
living in the water:
4.
• Cholera: intestinal infection
caused by water contaminated with
a bacteria. Cholera symptoms are
watery diarrhea & vomiting….leads
to dehydration. Cooking foods
properly & peeling fruits can
prevent cholera. Cholera is treated
with antibiotics and rehydration
fluids
Dysentery:
is an illness caused
by several types of bacteria.
Symptoms include bloody
diarrhea, abdominal cramps and
fever.
Dysentery
is spread by eating
and drinking contaminated
foods and water. Antibiotics
are used to treat dysentery.
Africa & Central America has
experienced several epidemics
in the past decades.
• Malara: is a parasitic disease
transmitted by mosquitoes
that breed in still bodies of
water. Parasite is transmitted
to human when bitten.
• Malaria symptoms typically
include flulike symptoms:
headache, fever, and
vomiting. If left untreated,
malaria can cause death. Most
malaria cases occur in the
tropical and subtropical
regions.
Cryptosporidiosis:
is a
gastrointestinal disease caused
by a protozoa that enters the
human body in a cyst form.
Cysts are ingested by drinking
contaminated water or by eating
contaminated food.
Symptoms
include
diarrhea, nausea,
abdominal cramps, weight
loss, and sometimes
dehydration. Usually lasts
10-14 days.
Giardiasis:
similar to cryptosporidiosis in
symptoms and transmission.
This is found in PA streams.
However, this
illness differs
because giardia cysts can be
killed by chlorine. Medication
can also be prescribed to kill the
cysts as well.
From
1971-1985, PA reported
more waterborne disease
outbreaks than any other state.
PA drinking water has improved
since 1990’s because we have
made improvements in the
monitoring of the state’s water
treatment plants.
Air
pollution is a serious
problem in many parts of our
world that is caused by both
natural events & human activities.
Some
causes of air pollution are
forest fires, lightning, arson, dust
storms, burning fossil fuels,
industrial processes & driving
vehicles.
Industrial
processes & driving
vehicles are the two main sources
of air pollution. They release
varies pollutants in the
atmosphere.
Air
pollutant – is any substance
which changes the physical or
chemical properties of clean air
and causes measurable affects
on humans, animals, vegetation
or materials.
Air
pollution is a very complex
subject. It can be caused by
natural events like fires,
lightning and volcanoes as well
as mankind.
Anthropogenic
(related to
mankind) activities like
industries and cars also help to
pollute.
Ozone (O3) is a form of oxygen
that protects the Earth’s from
solar radiation. Ozone that is
very close to the surface can
cause illness including eye
irritation, coughing, shortness of
breath, nausea, wheezing &
headaches.

Ozone
has been
associated with asthma &
respiratory disease.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is
a colorless and odorless
gas that forms from the
burning of fossil fuels.
Very small amounts of this
gas in the bloodstream can
produce toxic chemical
reactions that results in
serious illness.
Symptoms of low-level
carbon monoxide
exposure include
headaches, fatigue and
flu-like symptoms.
Sulfur
dioxide (SO2) is a
pollute that is a result of
burning coal. This gas
combines with moisture in
the air to form sulfuric acid
which damages plants and
harms organisms.
Health
problems
associated with SO2 include
difficulty breathing,
respiratory illness,
decreased lung functions &
aggravation of existing
heart disease.
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is
present in smog and forms
when fuels are burned.
Smog causes eye irritation,
stuffy nose, coughing, sore
throat, lung inflammation &
various human respiratory
illnesses.
.
Smog levels are
monitored and
conditions are reported.
Particulate
Matter are
solid particles in the air.
Particulate matter comes
from soil and construction
dust carried by wind as
well as bits of rubber,
asbestos from brake lining
and vehicle exhaust.
Particulate
matter causes
irritation and illnesses of
the human respiratory
system and some kinds of
cancer.
• Clean Air Act – 1963, 1970,
revised in 1990
Covers the entire country but the
state and local governments are
responsible for implementing
the law.
EPA
also formed in 1970.
(December 2, 1970)
http://www.epa.gov/40th/timeline.
html
Act was made stronger
because a cloud of industrial
pollution hovered over
Donora, PA for 5 days.
Twenty people were killed
and 6,000 out of the
town’s 14, 000 were sick.
Allergies
& asthma are
the respiratory disease
most triggered by air
pollutants.
Air
Quality index looks at five
major pollutants.
Ground level Ozone*
Particulate Pollution*
Carbon monoxide
Sulfur dioxide
Nitrogen dioxide
*Greatest health threat
http://www.airnow.gov/index.cf
m?action=airnow.local_city&cityi
d=165
http://www.dep.state.pa.us
Many
soil pollutes are a result of
human activities. Soil
pollutions can be caused by
farming, landfills, industrial
processes, mining and
radioactive wastes.
1. Farming: sediment, pesticides,
animal wastes & fertilizers
2. Landfills: buried solid wastes
can leak into the soil &
contaminate it with harmful
substances.
3. Industrial Processes: release
toxic substances including lead
& mercury into the air and
water
4. Mining: release acid mine
drainage, oil and gas can leak
from wells
5. Radioactive: these waste are
made by nuclear power plants,
hospitals, some industries and
research facilities. Two major
types of radioactive wastes.
High-level
waste(HLW) highly radioactive and will
cause health risks for thousands
of years. HLW is used nuclear
fuel for power plants. The US
Government is responsible to
disposing of this type of waste.
• Low-level waste (LLW) – is
radioactive waste that consist of
trash or other materials that
have been contaminated by
radioactive materials.
• This includes contaminated
clothes, filters, paper & glass
items used in medicine and
some radiation gauges. PA is
proposing a LLW facility to
dispose of these materials.
Americans
generate 1.6
million tons of harmful
household chemicals
The
average home
accumulates 100 pounds
of hazardous waste over
time
The
average American
household uses about 18
pounds of hazardous waste
each year.
Identifying
hazardous products
Proper storage
Proper disposal
Alternative cleaners
Hazardous Waste
is waste
with characteristics that
make it harmful to human
health and the
environment

CORROSIVE
• Chemical action can burn or
destroy living tissue & other
material brought into contact
Ignitable, flammable,
or combustible
• Easily set on fire
Explosive
• Explode when exposed to
heat, sudden shock,
pressure or certain
chemical substances
Toxic
• Hazardous substance that
causes adverse effects to
living things or
environment

Aerosols

Fluorescent Lamps

Appliances

Mercury Products

Batteries

Oil & Oil Filters

Corrosives

Paints

Electronics

Pesticides & Poisons

Flammable Liquids

Tires
Inhaling
Swallowing
Absorption
through skin &
eyes
Contact
from eating,
drinking or smoking
1.
2.
3.
4.
Skin rashes
Itchy or burning eyes
& nose
Breathing problems
Headaches
Gives
Lists
warnings
Gives
use
product description
directions for proper
Less Toxic
More Toxic
Caution
Mild hazard
Warning
moderate hazard
Danger:
Poison
extremely flammable,
corrosive or highly toxic
Why
is proper
disposal important?
Sometimes
the effect of
toxic substances is not
obvious or immediate.
If
you put the hazardous
products down the drains
or toilet, the wastewater
treatment plant may NOT
be able to remove the
chemicals.
If
the chemicals are not
removed, they will end up
in the nearest waterway.
• Susquehanna River to the
Chesapeake Bay or our
drinking water.
Fertilizers
& pesticides
placed on our lawns seep
into the soil or run into the
storm drains by rainwater.
Storm
water runoff contains
not only pesticides but
TRASH as well.
Storm
drains go
directly to the local
body of water.
•Susquehanna River
•Chesapeake Bay
Identify
risk
Choose an alternative
cleaner
Read
the labels
Choose the least harmful
product
Choose
low or no VOC
(volatile organic
compound) option
Buy
only what you
need.
Biodegradable
Non-toxic
Plant-based
ingredients
Green
Seal
US EPA Design for the
Environment
Greenguard
1. pH paper
2. Seismic vibrations – image
underground storage tanks
3. Spectometer – monitor
metallic hazardous wastes
4. Continuous Emissions
Monitoring System(CEMS)
– made of several different
tools to measure gas &
particulate concentrations
in the air.
5. CO
monitoring system –
detect colorless & odorless
gas levels
Forest
fires and oil spill can
pollute the Earth so can other
natural events such as El Nino
and Volcanic eruption.
Forest
fires and oil spill can
pollute the Earth so can other
natural events such as El Nino
and Volcanic eruption.
• A disruption in the
relationship between the
earth’s hydrosphere &
atmosphere
• Occur about every 4 years
• Results in floods, droughts,
hurricanes & other severe
weather
• Normally trade winds blow
east to west causing an
increase in warm surface
water. To replace this water,
cold nutrient-rich water rises
from the deep ocean.
• When El Nino occurs the
trade winds are decreased &
the nutrient rich water
subsides which decrease the
food supply & often kills
marine organisms.
•Volcanic eruptions
send gases, ash, and
dust high into the
atmosphere.
• Sulfur oxide will combine
with the air and make
sulfate aerosols. This
cloud will decrease the
amount of sunlight &
deplete the ozone levels.

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