Culturally Responsive PBIS - The Equity Alliance at ASU

Report
PBIS INDIANA: ESTABLISHING A
STATEWIDE NETWORK OF
CULTURALLY RESPONSIVE PBIS
EQUITY ALLIANCE
Phoenix. Arizona
March 1, 2011
Shana Ritter
The Equity Project at Indiana University
THE EQUITY PROJECT
AT INDIANA UNIVERSITY
A consortium of projects dedicated to providing
high quality data to educational decision-makers
in order to better understand and address issues
regarding educational equity and bridge the gap
between research and practice.
 Our mission is to provide evidence-based
information specific to issues of school discipline,
school violence, special education and equality of
educational opportunity for all students.
 The Equity Project supports educators and
educational institutions in developing and
maintaining safe, effective, and equitable
learning opportunities for all students.

PBIS INDIANA
GOAL: “To develop and establish a sustainable
statewide network of culturally responsive
Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports”
State and federally funded: 4 ½ years
 Integrating PBIS, culture
 Development of six model sites
 Work with out-of-compliance schools

A collaboration of Center for Education and Life Long
Learning (CELL) and The Equity Project at I.U.
PBS Indiana: Scaling Up a New Model
State
Leadership
& Advisory
Teams
National
Advisory
Board
Assigned
Sites
Partial
PBIS
Schools
Year 4
Statewide Scaleup & Sustainability
Knowledge
&
CapacityBuilding
Years 1-3
Model
Sites
Implementation
Phase
PBIS
INDIANA
Resource
Center
WHY CONSIDER CR PBIS?
FACT OR FICTION?
 Out-of-school
suspensions and
expulsions are effective methods for
changing student behavior.
 There
is no evidence that out-ofschool suspension or expulsion are
effective in changing student
behavior.

30-50% of students suspended are repeat
offenders

Suspension functions as reinforcement...rather than
as punishment (Tobin, Sugai & Colvin,1996)
FACT OR FICTION?

Suspension and expulsion are associated with
improved school climates, lower dropout rates,
and higher achievement.

Higher rates of suspension and expulsion are
associated with poorer school climate, higher
dropout rates, and lower achievement.
Predict higher future rates of misbehavior
& discipline concerns
Long term relationship with dropout,
(Raffaele-Mendez; Ekstrom, 1986) failure
to graduate on time, juvenile
incarceration (Skiba et al, 2002)

FACT OR FICTION?

Suspension and expulsion creates equity for all
students.
Minority disproportionality in suspension and
expulsion has been consistently documented over
the last 30 years.
 Black students suspended 2-3x as frequently
 Racial/Ethnic Disproportionality also found in:
 Office referrals
 Expulsion
 Corporal Punishment
 Students with disabilities over-represented:
 11-14% of population
 Approx. 20-24% of suspensions
DISPROPORTIONALITY IN SCHOOL DISCIPLINE
AT THE NATIONAL LEVEL: 1972, 2000, 2003
Note: Derived from U.S.
Department of Education,
2004
FOR WHAT BEHAVIORS ARE STUDENTS
REFERRED?
Of 32 infractions, only 8 significant differences:
 White
students
referred more for:
Smoking
Vandalism
Leaving w/o
permission
Obscene Language
 Black
students
referred more for:
Disrespect
Excessive Noise
Threat
Loitering
WHAT IS PBIS INDIANA? (CR-PBIS)
PBIS INDIANA
blends evidence-based findings concerning
effective implementation of SW-PBIS with
culturally responsive practices, resulting in
perspectives, instruction and interventions which
promote equal access to learning and success for
all students.
GOALS & ACTIVITIES
Equity Project
CELL
District Level
School Level
Data Collection
School Training
Evaluation/Research
Coaching
Work with Assigned Sites
Work with Demo. Sites
Ensure CR Integrity
Ensure PBS Integrity
Commitment to PBS, CR, CSR, National Network
PBIS-IN: THE IMPLEMENTATION FRAMEWORK
Culture: What Is It?
Culture: the language, beliefs,
values, norms, behaviors, and
material objects that are passed
from one generation to another.
Every person on the planet is a
member of at least one culture
(Glenn Hoffarth,2002)
Three Things To Remember About Culture...
•Culture is dynamic, not static
•No culture is monolithic …. There are
cultures within cultures
•Our identity, including our values,
beliefs and behaviors, are formed by
Culture. Language, ethnicity and race,
as well as socio-economic status,
education, occupation, personal
experience, community, family and
personality traits all influence who we
are.
THREE KEY FACETS OF CULTURAL
RESPONSIVITY
Understanding
1.
your cultural
identity.
What do you value?
 What is your style of communication?
 What are your strengths and challenges around
teaching, learning, and behavior management?
 What are your expectations?
 What do you see through your cultural lens?

THREE KEY FACETS OF CULTURAL
RESPONSIVITY
2. Understanding your student’s cultural identity.





What do they value?
What is their style of communication?
What are their strengths and challenges around
teaching, learning, and behavior?
What are their expectations?
What do they see through their cultural lenses?
THREE KEY FACETS OF CULTURAL
RESPONSIVITY
3. Understanding what happens when different
cultures intersect.
How do you capitalize on cultural capital?
 How do you bridge differences?
 How do you create access to opportunities?

Self
Awareness
Cultural
Awareness
What cultural groups do I identify with? What are
my values, beliefs, ways of communicating?
How do I interpret the behaviors, beliefs, values
of other cultural groups? Am I aware of my biases
and prejudices towards other cultural groups?
Knowledge
Am I knowledgeable about communication
and conflict styles of different cultural groups,
and the implications those differences might have
educational outcomes?
on
Skill
Do I have the skills needed to work effectively
across cultures?
Actions
Do I actively change my perspective and behaviors
in order to adapt in culturally diverse settings?
Do I seek out interactions to broaden my
about cultural difference?
perspectives
Culturally Responsive Practice
Cultural
Awareness
Action
Self
Awareness
Skill
Cultural
Knowledge
Positive
Behavior
Interventions &
Support
OUTCOMES
PRACTICES
Adapted from OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports
Social Competence &
Academic Achievement
Elements
of SW PBS
that is
Culturally
Responsiv
e
Supporting
Staff
Behavior
Cultural
Equity
OUTCOMES
Cultural
Knowledge
and SelfAwareness
Cultural
Validity
Supporting
Decision
Making
PRACTICES
Vincent, C.G., Randall, C.,
Cartledge, G., Tobin, T.J., &
Swain-Bradway, J. (in press).
Cultural
Relevance
and
Validation
Supporting
Student Behavior
25
A BLUEPRINT FOR CULTURALLY RESPONSIVE PBIS
“ A profound focus on behavior you want.”
Look at the data
 racial/ethnic disparities
 infractions & consequences
 Make meaning of the data
 represent all groups and perspectives
 consider cultural norms
 Develop a culturally responsive lens leading to equitable
interventions
 know our students, their community and families
 Evaluate if the system is working equally well for all
students
 have we changed both rate and disproportionality?

CR-PBIS FRAMEWORK
District &
School
Leadership
Teams
ThreeTiered
System
Coaching
PBIS
Classroom
Addressing
Equity
Systems
Culturally
Responsive
Practice
DISTRICT LEADERSHIP TEAM
EQUITY
HYPOTHESIS WORKSHEET
WHAT DOES CULTURALLY RESPONSIVE PBIS LOOK
LIKE?
Component
Culturally Responsive PBIS
Establish
Commitment
• District and school-wide commitment to addressing
racial/ethnic disparities
• Admin support and active involvement
• Faculty/staff support
Establish and
Maintain Team
• Representative team established: racial/ethnic, SES
diversity, admin, teachers, gen ed., special ed., families
Self-Assessment
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Survey and interviews on culture
Disaggregated disciplinary data
Hypotheses about data that include culture
Develop culturally responsive interventions
Strengths based
Action Plan developed and presented to faculty
Implementation fidelity
Component
Culturally Responsive PBIS
School-wide
Expectations
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Examine intersection of culture and school
How does a cultural perspective affect instruction and management?
Teach with awareness of cultural differences
Bridge the gap between school and home behavioral expectations
Define school-wide behavior expectations
Plans to teach expectations
Reinforcement system
Define consequences for behaviors of concern
Establish
Information
Systems
•
•
•
•
•
•
Disaggregate outcome data
To what extent has intervention worked for all groups?
How does awareness of culture affect teaching?
System for gathering useful information
Process for summarizing data
Process for using information for decision-making
Build Capacity
for Functionbased Support
• Text-based discussion and critical friends to enhance awareness of
culture
• Institutional procedures for ensuring ongoing dialogue
• Personnel with behavioral expertise
• Time and procedures for identification, assessment, and
implementation
• School initiatives in alignment
CREATING A SCHOOL WIDE PLAN
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
School-wide Behavioral Expectations
Setting-Specific Behavioral Expectations
Teaching of behavior in settings
Establish Adult Responsibilities for
Settings
System to Acknowledge Expected
Behaviors
System to Respond to Behavioral Errors
Use data to monitor and make decisions
School Wide Expectations
1. Respect Learning
2. Respect Yourself
3. Respect Others
4. Respect the Environment
USING A CR LENS IN ALL ASPECTS
 It
is human nature to assume that
our unique individual and cultural
behaviors, beliefs, and perspectives
are universal human behaviors,
beliefs, and perspectives
(Sue & Sue, 2003).
Arrival
Respect Learning


Arrive between 8:30 and 8:45.
Walk to breakfast starting at 8:30.
Walk to class at 8:45.
Remove hats before entering building.
Respect Yourself

Walk on the sidewalk.
Respect Others

Wait on sidewalk near front entrance, or in foyer.
Stand away from doors.
Follow directions of adult supervisors.
Use a level 1 voice.





Respect the
Environment



Use eyes only with objects in foyer.
Wipe your feet.
Keep hands off glass.
TEACHING LESSON PLAN TEMPLATE
Setting
Identify the SW Expectations and why
they are important for this setting.
Briefly describe the activity and what students
are going to do.
Student engagement/check for
understanding:
Student Engagement/ check for understanding:
Use the matrix to develop demonstrations of examples, non-examples. Engage students
in distinguishing between the two. Always end on an example.
Demonstration 1:
Demonstration 2:
Demonstration 3:
Student engagement/check for understanding:
Student Practice:
Additional student engagement/check for understanding
Follow-Up Activities:
Check for student understanding:
Arrival
Adult Responsibilities
•Arrive at duty post by 8:30
•Greet and interact with students
•Provide reminders of expected behaviors
•Greet students at classroom doors if no
duty
DATA SYSTEM

Big Five





Average Referrals Per Day, Per Month
Referrals by Problem Behavior
Referrals by Location
Referrals by Student
Referrals by Time
Ethnicity data
 Suspension and Expulsion Data
 Suspension and Expulsion Data by Ethnicity

WHAT DO YOU SEE IN SCHOOLS USING
SW-PBS THAT CONSIDERS CULTURE?

Teams meeting regularly to:
Review disaggregated data
 Determine if PBS and culturally responsive practices
are being used
 Determine if practices are being effective for all
student subgroups and their families
 Identify the smallest changes that are likely to
produce the largest effects


Focusing on the use of evidence-based practices
WHAT DO YOU SEE IN SCHOOLS USING
SW-PBS THAT CONSIDERS CULTURE?
Staff engaged in developing awareness of
students’ and their own cultural backgrounds.
 Staff engaged in difficult conversations that
directly address disparities evident in data.
 Team-based systems for Targeted and Intensive
behavior support for youth with more significant
needs.
 Teams include families.

SUPPORTING IMPLEMENTATION OF CR-PBS
Cultural Competence and Responsivity
 Demonstrate trust and respect for all cultures,
abilities, and experiences

Validate students’ cultural identity in classroom
practices and instructional materials

Understand how one’s own cultural views and
values influence practice

Communicating with families in ways which are
culturally meaningful
43
QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER…



Do our methods of behavior management draw form
the experience of our students and their communities?
Do our teaching styles relate to the multiplicity of
ways in which our students learn?
Are we engaged in professional development that is
ongoing and connected to practice and achievement?

Have we considered a range of possible hypotheses?

Who is not at the decision making table?
If our examination and understanding of
the root causes of social inequality are too
shallow, then our approach to corrective
action will necessarily be superficial and
ineffective.
- Christine Sleeter
TOOLS AND RESOURCES
Responsivity Self – Assessment
¢5x5 Walkthrough
¢District Data Audit
¢SAS
¢District Readiness
¢District Leadership Team Functions
¢CR Activities
¢Cultural
C
Current Status
 Feature
 Priority for Improvement
5
 Professional Development

DIFFICULT DIALOGUES
Conversing about issues of
equity, especially race, is a
developmental process; ample
time to build trust is necessary.
OWNERSHIP
Ownership of the process grows through
action: ongoing dialogue with colleagues,
gaining a deeper understanding of the
issues, design, implementation, and
assessment.
SUSTAINABILITY
Addressing issues of equity is more likely to be
ongoing:



When it is viewed as an effort that benefits all
children.
When incorporated into the district’s overall plans for
school improvement and other initiatives.
When the community is involved.
CREATING CHANGE
“The
world changes according to the way
people see it, and if you can alter, even
by a millimeter, the way people look at
reality, then you can change the
world.”
James Baldwin
PBIS INDIANA
WWW.INDIANA.EDU/~PBISIN
SHANA RITTER (PROJECTS COORDINATOR)
RUSS SKIBA (DIRECTOR)
SANDI COLE (CO- DIRECTOR)
The Equity Project at I.U.
Center for Evaluation and Education Policy
1900 E. 10th St.
Bloomington, IN 47406
812-855-4438
Shana Ritter [email protected]
http://www.indiana.edu/~equity

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