Water and Organic Molecules in Protoplanetary Disks - High

Report
TMT science & instrument workshop
Oct. 16-17, 2013 @ Tokyo
Water and Organic
Molecules in
Protoplanetary Disks
- High-R Spectroscopy Hideko Nomura (Tokyo Tech.)
Matthew J. Richter (UC Davis)
§1 Introduction
From protoplanetary disk to planets
(e.g., Hayashi et al. 1985)
Dust growth
& settling
Planetisimal
Observationally diagnose
formation
planet formation theory and
origin of materials
Collisional growth
in our Solar System
of planetisimals
Planet formation
(C) Newton Press
Dispersal of gas
Obs. of Gas in Protoplanetary Disks
UV H2 Lyman-Werner
(sub)mm
band
transitions
TMT
will
be able to 12
observe
IR lines
CO 6-5, 3-2,
2-1, 1-0,
Optical
13CO 3-2, 2-1, 1-0,
with
high-R
&
high
sensitivity
[OI] 6300A
C18O 2-1, 1-0,
NIR
HCN, HNC, DCN, CN,
H2 v=1-0 S(1), S(0),
34S, C H, H CO,
CS,
C
2
2
CO Dv=2, Dv=1, etc.
+, H13CO+, DCO+,
HCO
MIR
H2 v=0-0 S(1), S(2), S(4) N2H+, HC3N, c-C3H2, etc.
H2O, OH, HCN, C2H2, CO2, NH3
(Ground & Spitzer Space Telescope)
100AU
ALMA SV
TW Hya
FIR
[OI] 63um, 145um,
CO, H2O, CH+, HD, etc.
(Herschel Space Observatory)
HCO+(4-3)
Need for High-R Spectroscopy
Typical width of IR lines from PPDs ~ 10-20km/s
→need high-R spectroscopy (R~15,000) for detection
need very high-R (R~100,000) for analysing profiles
AB Aur Gemini/TEXES (R>80,000)
H2 S(4)@8mm
S(2)@12mm
S(1)@17mm
F~10-14erg/s/cm2, Dv~10-20km/s
(Bitner et al. 2007, 2008)
Kepler rotation
Need for High-R Spectroscopy
Typical width of IR lines from PPDs ~ 10-20km/s
→need high-R spectroscopy (R~15,000) for detection
High-R [email protected] will
need very high-R (R~100,000) for analysing profiles
enable us to detect fainter lines
VLT/CRIRES
Subaru/IRCS (R=20,000)
(R=100,000)
& analyse profiles of weaker lines
SR21
HD141569
Inner hole @ 7AU
(Goto et al. 2006)
4.7mm CO line
MICHI
profiles
(Y.K. Okamoto) Kepler rotation
→
Line
emitting
Inner hole @ 11AU
regions
(Pontoppidan+ 2008)
→ See also Matt Richter’s poster
Water & Organic Mol. in PPDs
Detect H2O snow lines
Detect complex organic molecules
with high-R spectroscopy @ TMT
ESA
H2O, CO2, CH4, CH3OH,
H2CO, NH3, etc.
Halley
§3 H2O snow line
a
§2 formation
of organic mol.
§2
Formation of
Organic Moleclues
in PPDs
Observed Interstellar Molecules
CH+
HCN
H2CO
HC3N
CH3OH
HC5N
HCOOCH3
HC7N
CS
HNC
H2CS
HCOOH
CH3CN
CH3CCH
CH3C3N
HC9N
CO
HCO
H2CN
CH2NH
CH3NC
CH3NH2
CH3COOH
HC11N
CN
OCS
HNCO
CH2CO
CH3SH
CH3CHO
CH2CHCHO
C2H5CN
C2
CH2
HNCS
NH2CN
NH2CHO
CH2CHCN
CH2OHCHO
CH3C4H
C6H
H2C6
CH3C5N
Aminoc-C3H
acids
in comet
CO+ C3
c-C3H2
H2C4
STARDUST
CF+
CO2 @
C3N
H2C3
HC3NH+
CH
CN-
C2H
C2O
C3H
C4H
C5H
(Elsila
et CH2CN
al. 2009)C5NC3O
c-C2H4O
CH3OCH3
CH2CHOH
C2H5OH
C6H-
CH3CONH2
Amino
acids
in
meteorites
HCO+
CH3
HNCCC
⇔ C2H2
relation
HOC+
CH4 with
HCS+
HOCO+
H2COH+
interstellar
molecules
?
C2S
C3S
HCNH+
C3N-
HCCNC
C4H-
by ~1975
CH3COCH3
OHCH2CH2OH
C2H5OCHO
→ amino acids NH2CH2COOH?
?
after ~1997
C8H-
Complex Molecule Fomration
on Grain Surface
cold: < 20K
H
C, O, N,
S, CO, …
grain surface
desorption UV, CR,
X-rays
themal
warm: 30-50K
NH2,
HCO, …
UV
CH3O
grain surface
\
migrate
Saturated mol.
CH4, H2O, NH3,
H2S, CH3OH, …
Unsaturated mol.
HCOOCH3, NH2CHO, …
(e.g., Garrod+ 2006, 2008)
Complex molecules are formed on grains
More complex molecules on warm grains
Complex Molecules on Warm Grains
(Harada et al. 2010, Garrod et al. 2008)
CH3OH
Z/R
Tdust
Methanol
will be observable only at
30-50K
CH3OH line spectra
disk
even with ALMA…
3 4 6outer
7 8
9
10
↓
Detect complex
molecules & understand
C2H5OH
CH3COCH3
grain surface reactions at planetaceton
forming
region with TMT!
Z/R
Density [Jy]
Flux
ALMA
band
Frequency
R [AU] [GHz]
R [AU]
Strong methanol
lines
Complex
mol. are
formed on warm grains at
will
be observable
T~30-35K(~50A)
= cometary region
(Walsh, Millar, HN et al. 2013, submitted)
OSU chemical network
MIR HCOOH Lines @ TMT!
telluric
HCOOH
Try first detection
of
MIR
formic
acid
lines
2
Line flux [erg/s/cm ]
5e-17
from protoplanetary
Line widthdisks
[km/s]with TMT!
20
Z/R
ALMA
TMT!
R [AU]
R
NELF [erg/s/cm2]
S/N
Integration time [min]
15,000
5e-16
3
15
§3
H2O Snow Line
CO Snow Lines in Disks
HD163296
SMA
[email protected] [email protected]
[email protected] [email protected]
dust settling
[email protected] [email protected]
H2O snow lines aroundCOlow
mass
stars
will
snow
line @
R~155AU
et al. 2011)
be difficult to access even with(QiALMA…
TW Hya
↓
ALMA SV
ALMA
[email protected],
H2O snow lines by cycle 0
+ 5-4
DCO
obs. with high-spectral res. @ TMT!
N2H+ 5-4
[DCO+]
/[HCO+]
=0.3
(Mathews et al. 2013)
CO snow
line @
R~30AU
(Qi et al. 2013c)
Obs. of water lines from PPDs
H2O, OH, HCN, C2H2
Spitzer/IRS AA Tau
(Riviere-Marichalar+
2012)
[OI]
Herschel/HIFI
TW Hya
H2O
Herschel/PACS
(Hogerheijde+ 2011)
AA Tau
cold FIR
lines
(Carr & Najita 2008)
hot MIR
lines
warm FIR
lines
Spitzer hot [email protected], TTSs: detect, HAEBEs: upper limits
Herschel warm H2O TTSs, HAEBEs: @55-180mm
Herschel cold H2O @267mm, 539mm, TW Hya, HD100546
H2O snow lines in PPDs
Spitzer/IRS
model
TW Hya
Spitzer/IRS
Inner
hole
AA Tau
H2O line ratios + disk model
DR Tau
→ predict H2O snow lines
Herschel
PACS
HIFI
AS 205
The results are model dependent…
model with snow line
H2O Snow line @ ~1AU
(Meijerink+ 2009)
H2O Snow line @ ~4AU
H2O Snow Line by High-R Obs.
Line width ~ 10-20km/s
→need high-R spectroscopy
(R~100,000) for analysis
Line fluxes @ Spitzer
> 1e-14 erg/s/cm2
(Carr & Najita 2011)
TMT will be able to analyze
statistical
TMT/MICHI
properties of
snow lines!
2]
LineH2O
flux [erg/s/cm
1e-15
Kepler rotation
Line width [km/s]
R
NELF [erg/s/cm2]
S/N
Integration time [min]
20
120,000
2e-16
25
20
Summary
High-R spectroscopy of transition lines of
water & organic molecules in PPDs
Detect H2O snow line by very high (R~100,000)
spectroscopy for understanding
rocky/gaseous planet forming regions
Detect complex organic molecules and
understand grain surface reactions
in planet forming regions by high (R~15,000)
spectroscopy for predicting formation of more
complex molecules

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