Slide 1

Report
Air Quality Assessment AQA
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Assessment Methodologies for AQA:
• AQA involves;
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Identification, predication and evaluation of critical
variables such as source emission and meteorological
conditions etc, Potential quality of as a result of emission
from proposed project and ultimately an assessment to
ensure compliance with Ambient Air Quality Standards (
AAQS)
To quantify and quantify the impacts on air quality through
project design, planning and mitigate them.
• Canter identified six steps for AAIQA
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Identification of impact
Description of existing environmental conditions
Procurement of relevant AQS or guidelines
Impact predication
Identification and incorporation of mitigation measures.
1. Analysis of the exiting situations.
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This will include:
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Ambient Air pollution concentrations
Pollutant source and specific location
Meteorology
Local topography
Physical conditions affecting pollutant dispersion
Sensitive receptors and their location
2. Characteristics of emission sources:
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Nature of pollutant and its rate of emission.
Efflux velocity
Efflux temperature
Source morphology etc.
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3. Assessment of impacts:
• Comparison of AAQS and cumulative concentration
of pollution.
• Computer simulation models are used.
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Short term models for predicting the concentrations for few
minutes days or months.
Long term models for seasonal annual average
concentrations.
• Mathematical models are used such as Gaussian
Equation
• Many countries have their own standards and
guidelines.
• Pakistan Air Quality Standards ( PEPA)
Noise Assessment
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Procedure for noise assessment:
• Identify the noise levels of the alternatives during project
construction and operation
• Determine the existing baseline noise levels and identify the
unique noise source before the project.
• Obtain applicable noise standards
• Determine the micro scale impact of predicting anticipated
level for each alternative.
• Compare the predicted level with the standards
• Consider Noise Abatement strategies if the anticipated level
exceeds the standards
Landscape and Visual Impact Assessment
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Scoping:
• Size and duration of the facility
• Local Environmental setting
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Landscape resources.
The quality of views
Components of the landscape which are protected ( Cultural and
historical)
Proposal for development in local plans.
Local community involvement
Description of the development.
• The appearance and layout of the main elements of the facility.
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Size, material, color, form and non visual characteristics
Non visual characteristics of the project
• Nose, emission etc
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Baseline Assessment:
• Rivers, mountains, woodland and designated
areas.
• Study of existing data or filed study
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Impact Predication and significance:
• The area of landscape
• The zone of visual influence of structure
• The number of ways in which the visual or
functional landscape are affected.
• The overall effect of project on the landscape.
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Evaluation of the baseline quality.
• Visual Impact Assessment ( VIA)
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Visual intrusion
Visual obstruction
Techniques for VIA
• Low tech plans.
 Perspective sketches
 Physical plans.
 Photography
• High tech Models;
 Use of Digitized data
 GIS etc
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Nature of visual Effects
• Minimal Effect:
 The project occupies very small part of the area overall view
• Slight Effect:
 Minor portion of the site changes for a short duration
• Moderate Effect:
 Some changes occur but not for substantial length of time or
area.
• Substantial Effect:
 Where the overall scene is altered for substantial length and
time
• Sever Effect
 Where the overall view are altered for much of the operation
period
Ecological Assessment.
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Effect on natural environment
• Change in habitat
• The composition and population density of plants and animals.
• Habitat damage
• Displacement of flora and fauna
Assessment Methodology:
• Review of maps, aerial photographs, local authority plans, previous
ecological maps,
• Local Standards and data bases.
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Ecological Impact prediction and evaluation:
• Difficult to assess
• Use of overlay technique
• Different terminologies used
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Beetle Rarity Total ( BRT)
Species Rarity Total ( SRT)
Beetle Quality factor ( BQF)
Specie Quality Factor ( SQF)
Rarity Quality Factor ( RQF)
Water Assessment
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Surface water Assessment
Ground water Assessment
Pollutants in water alter aquatic
ecosystem in three ways;
• Reduce Concentration of dissolved Oxygen
• Reducing re-production capacity or causing
deaths directly
• Alteration of habitat or interfere with food
webs.
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Surface Water Assessment
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Conceptual framework required for
• Accurate assessment of the concentration of
pollutants and time period during which it will
be in contact with the water.
• Effects of these concentrations on the aquatic
life
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Types of pollutants
• Developed and emitted
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Relation of proposed effluents to quality
standards
Prediction of water pollutants
Groundwater Pollution:
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Determine water quality and quantity impact from the proposed
development
Describe existing groundwater conditions
Describe unique groundwater resource conditions
Identify applicable groundwater standards
Document existing potential source of groundwater pollution
Consider phase impact
Describe meso-scale ( Large scale) impact
Determine micro scale impact
Consider mitigation and control measures
Consider other related impact issues
Archeological and Cultural heritage impact
assessment
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The absence of evidence of archeological
assessment doesn't constitute evidence for
absence.
Techniques may include
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Remote Sensing
Geographical surveys
Filed walking
Data gathering may include;
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Consultation of the statutory lists , registers,
records.
Detailed research of existing secondary data
Detailed Walkover surveys
Structural surveys
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Social Impact Assessment ( SIA)
The process of assessing or estimating in
advance the social consequences from a
project.
• Assessment Methodology;
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Health and Safety
• Crime level
• Public risk and injury
• Psychological environment
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Economy
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Employment
Housing
Commerce
Cost of living
Cultural and Urban resources;
• Religions and belief system
• Identification
• Recreational and Scientific resources
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Regional Growth and infrastructure
• Provision of social services
• Changes in land use
• Government laws and policies
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Population Characteristics
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Birth and death rates
Density and distribution
Immigration and Emigration
Age structure
Sex ratio
Key stakeholders
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Local people affected by a proposal.
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Proponent and project beneficiaries.
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Government agencies.
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NGOs.
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Others, e.g. donors, the private
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sector, academics
Principles of public involvement
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The process should be inclusive – covers all
stakeholders
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Open and transparent – steps and activities are
understood
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Relevant – focused on the issues that matter
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Fair – conducted impartially and without bias toward
any stakeholder
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Responsive – to stakeholder requirements and
inputs
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Credible – builds confidence and trust
Public involvement in key stages of the EIA process
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Screening
• determining the need for, and level, of EIA
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Scoping
• identifying the key issues and alternatives
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Impact analysis
• Identifying the significant impacts and Mitigating
measures
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Review
• commenting on/responding to the EIA report
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Implementation and monitoring
• Checking EIA follow up
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Developing a public involvement program
typically involves:
• determining its scope
• identifying interested and affected Public
• Selecting appropriate techniques
• Considering the relationship to decision-making
• Providing feedback to stakeholders
• Undertaking the analysis of stakeholder inputs
• Keeping to budget and time lines
• Confidentiality
Principles for successful application of public
involvement techniques
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Provide the right information
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Allow sufficient time to review and respond
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Provide appropriate opportunities/means
for stakeholder involvement
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Respond issues and concerns raised
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Feed back the results of public input
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Choose venues and times of events to suit
stakeholders
Levels of public involvement
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Information
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One way flow from proponent to public
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Consultation
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Two way exchange of information
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Participation
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Interaction with the public
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Negotiation
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Face to face discussion
Principles for minimizing Conflict
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Involve all stakeholders
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Establish communication channels
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Describe the proposal and its objectives
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Listen to the concerns and interests of affected
people
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Treat people fairly and impartially
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Be empathetic and flexible
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Mitigate impacts and compensate for loss and
damage
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Acknowledge concerns and provide feed-back
Common reasons given for avoiding public
involvement
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It’s too early
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It will take too long and will cost too much
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It will stir up opposition
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We will only hear from the articulate
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We’ll raise expectations
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People won’t understand
Factors affecting the effectiveness of public
involvement
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Poverty
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Remote and rural settings
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Illiteracy
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Culture/local values
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Language
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Legal systems override traditional systems
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Dominance of interest groups
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Proponent confidentiality

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