Unit 4 spring 2009x

The civil War 1860-1865 Union vs
Mexican War Ends- opens new lands to the
settlers and the debate increased over the
slavery issue
David Wilmot- Northern Democrat – bill that
proposed that slavery not be allowed in any
territory gained from Mexico- Wilmot proviso
Angered southerners –house passes bill ,
senate refused it.
Popular Sovereignty- gave new citizens of
territory the right to decide the slavery issue in
the territory
Election of 1848: Zachary Taylor wins avoids
slavery issue but he doesn’t think slavery
survival depends on expanding west
1848: gold discovered in California- rush of
people to the west. (Forty-Niners)
transcontinental Rail Road- to the west.
Gadsden Purchase: Mexico sells parts of
Arizona and New Mexico to the united states
Compromise of 1850
1. California to union as free states.
 2. unorganized western territory free
 3. Utah and New Mexico popular sovereignty
 4. Fugitive Slave Act: required that northern states
forcibly return escaped slaves to their owners in
the south.
Northern had to help or could go to jail.
Angered Northern.
Uncle Tom’s Cabin: Harriet Beecher StoweHorrors of slavery, stirs strong feeling in
Underground Railroad: Harriet Tubman,
famous conductor
Kansas –Nebraska act: bill proposed to allow
popular sovereignty in the territories of
Kansas and Nebraska, repelled to Missouri
Bleeding Kansas – pro slavery settlers
attacked antislavery settlers.
Violence on the senate floor senator Charles
Sumner beaten.
Kansas Nebraska act ended the Whig party
Nothern whigs joined anti slavery democrats and
others to form Republican Party – republican partydid not want slavery in new territory (undecided on
 American Party of Know-nothings –anti immigrant
/catholic dissolved
1856 Election : Southern Democrats nominate
James Buchanan who wins election
Dred Scott vs. Sandford- enslaved man sues
for freedom, supreme court- rules that slaves
were not citizens and could not sue in courts.
Northerners disliked decision, southerners call
for northerners to obey or south will leave the
Lincoln and Douglas Debates- Lincoln
established a positive nation reputation for
himself but losses the election.
John Brown’s Raid: abolitionist planned to
take over arsenal in Harpers Ferry, Va. Free
the slaves, insurrection.
Seized the arsenal- stopped by Robert E. Lee
and was tried, convicted and sentenced to
death. Brown was seen as hero in the northsouth against the north.
Abraham Lincoln (republicans) won the 1860
Presidential election. Southerners see this as
an end to their way of life.
There is no choice but to secede.
South Carolina- 1st to secede followed by
Lower south States.
Date of
December 20,
January 9, 1861
January 10, 1861
January 11, 1861
January 19, 1861
January 26, 1861
February 1, 1861
April 17, 1861*
May 6, 1861*
May 20, 1861*
June 8, 1861*
South seize all federal property in their states.
Except for fort Sumter and fort Pickens
Lincoln decides to resupply fort Sumter
Battle of Fort Sumter was the beginning of
the civil war
South Declares New Nation Confederate
States of America.
Capital of confederacy moved to Va.
Who is the president of the Confederacy :
Jefferson Davis
Lincoln works to keep middle states from
seceding and places Baltimore under martial
law. He suspend Habeas Corpus .
Robert E LeeHe was from Virginia
 Commander of the confederacy’s army of northern
 Surrendered to Grant
Ulysses S. Grant – lead the union army and
served two terms as president.
Know for winning at the battle at Vicksburg
General of the union in the west. He
eventually took over the entire Union army in
Accepted Gen. Lee surrender at Appomattox
court house
Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson- confederate.
Got name during battle of bull run.
Some believed the south would have won if
he wouldn’t have died
Used geography to his advantage
William T. Sherman- Union General
Victoria at the battle of Atlanta. Burned
Atlanta down
March to the sea
Opposing Sides: Comparison of North and South
Strong military tradition, Large # of
trained officers, military colleges in the
Strong naval tradition, strong navy, ship
9 million people
22 million people
Strong agriculture, 20% of factories,
producing only 10% of clothing and 7%
of pig Iron
Strong industrial economy, has 80% of
factories, 90% production of clothing and
93% of pig iron.
One factory producing cannons, few
manufactures of guns/gunpowder
Almost all firearms & gunpowder
factories located in the North
Modest rail system, one main line
Twice as much as in the South
Small banks with few reserves available
to loan to government
Large banks with large reserves located
in the North.
Politically united
Somewhat politically divided
Lincoln’s goal - preserve the Union
Conscription – military draft – democrats oppose
and riot
suspends writs of Habeas Corpus – not to be
imprisoned unless charged with a crime
southern Government: States Rights, Central
government weak
Diplomatic Challenges
Union(U.S.) did not want European country in
the war, the south needed help, US blockades
the south. South stopped selling to Europe to
pressure them into the war.
Confederacy sends James Mason and John
Slidell to Europe on the ship called the Trent.
It was captured. The TRENT AFFAIR
Modern War- new technology – new tactics
cone shaped bullets – more accurate / faster to
trenches and barricades now used
Ironclads (Monitor and Merrimack 1st iron
clad battle)
Anaconda Plan: Union ( Winfield Scott)
blockade Confederate ports and send gunboats
down Mississippi to divide the south.
Surrounding the confederacy and cutting off all
supply lines.
The Emancipation Proclamation:
September 22,
Democrats opposed ending slavery. Republicans were split on the
Issue. As the way pushed on and casualties increased, many
began to agree that slavery had to end.
This proclamation was decree freeing all enslaved persons in states
still in rebellion after Jan. 1, 1863. Changed the purpose of the
war from preserving the Union to ending slavery.
Life During the War:
Economics: South’s transportation system gone. Food
shortages, southerners questioning the cause. North
had economic boom –supplying troops.
African Americans join the Union Army and Navy.
(54th Massachusetts )
Military Life: both sides endured hardships.
Food was scarce for South – bread made of cornmeal, North potatoes,
beans and hardtack.
Medical Care: Many casualties and injuries – but soldiers
suffered form diseases such as smallpox, dysentery, and
Elizabeth Blackwell - first female physician – nurses
Clara Barton – battle field nurse.
Prisoners of War: Early in war, none.
Andersonville Prison GA – Henry Wirz head
of the prison, 110 men a day died. Wirz only
person executed for war crimes
Antietam Creek – McClellan beat Lee –
bloodiest one day battle in the war
Battle of Gettysburg- key turning point in the
civil war. Bloodiest battle of the war. 51,000
causalities . Last time the south tried to invade
the north
**Vicksburg – union(Gen. Grant) took total
control of the Mississippi River . Split the
south into two pieces
Grant laid siege: residents ate horses , mules, dogs
and rats.
Four score and seven years ago our fathers
brought forth on this continent a new nation
conceived in liberty and dedicated to
proposition that all men are created equal.
Now we are engaged in a great civil war;
testing whether our nation or any nation so
conceived and so dedicated can long endure .
The War Ends: (See Battle Chart)
Final conflicts:
Grant gives command to Sherman in the West – Grant goes to
Washington to face General Lee in the North. Grant has a hard
time breaking the confederacy, Union has heavy losses – Grant
puts Petersburg under siege.
General Sherman forces move South and East to Atlanta, they
encircle the city and on September 1, 1864 Atlanta is taken.
Battle of Atlanta. Sherman burned Atlanta to the
ground. Sherman tangles the rail lines making them
into Sherman's Neckties.
On Nov. 15, 1864 – Sherman’s forces start their March to
the Sea. The troop burn, pillage and destroy
everything through Georgia, cutting a 60 mile wide
path through the state.
The South Surrenders:
The War
1864 election – Lincoln vs. McClellan Lincoln 55% of the vote
mandate – a clear sign from the voters to end slavery.
Jan. 31st, 1865 – 13th Amendment – banning slavery in the
General Lee withdrew from Petersburg , stopped in Appomattox.
Lee surrenders to Grant at Appomattox Courthouse. Apr.
9, 1865.
Grant assures US not to prosecute confederate troops for treason.
Lincoln assassinated at the Ford Theater. John Wilkes Booth
– Nation is shocked.
South is destroyed, changed American society by ending
slavery, saved the Union and strengthened the power of
the Federal Government.
Republican Rule in the South:
By 1870’s all the Southern States had rejoined the
many northerners moved south after civil war
and supported republican – Carpetbaggers.
Scalawags – Southern whites that worked with
Republican after the civil war.
1st African Americans take offices:
Joseph Rainey – House of Representatives
Hiram Revels – Senate
Republican government repelled the Black codes and improved
conditions for all.
Freedmen’s Bureau – education
Joseph Rainey
House of Representatives
South Carolina
Hiram Revels
Religion plays a big role in their lives:
African Americans work to establish their own churches and
organizations to help each other.
Southern Resistance: Not all was well for the African American.
Southern whites resented African Americans –
Ku Klux Klan – their goal was to drive Union
troops and carpet baggers out of the South and
have the Democratic take control.
To Control the Klan: The Enforcement Acts
1. Federal Crime to interfere in voting rights
2. Federal Elections under supervision
3. Ku Klux Klan Act – Outlawed Klan acts, member arrested
Reconstruction Collapses:
Grant becomes president – Union War General – Little experience
in politics.
Grants 1st Term was good, congress kept up the push for
Grants 2nd Term is marred by scandal:
Whiskey Ring – cheating of taxes on alcohol
Panic of 1873 – Smaller banks closed, stock market dropped, high
1874 – people lose trust in the Republican Party and they lose control
of the house of Representatives and lose seats in the Senate.
With the Democrats in charge the End of Reconstruction is near.
Reconstruction Ends:
Southern Democrats now take control of the state and local
By 1876 Democrats take control of most of the state legislatures in
the South.
Rutherford B Hayes is elected as president and wants to END
RECONSTRUCTION. For Hayes to win the election a deal is
Compromise of 1877 – promise to pull Federal Troops out of the south
and stop the district sections if Hayes was put into office.
Hayes pulled the troops out ending reconstruction and the advances
for Freedmen and African Americans.
The New South:
Rich Southerners and Northerners form together to increase the
economic output in the south. This brings an end to African
American hopes for gaining land the South.
Many become dependent on the Rich White of the South almost
pushing all back into slavery.
Tenant farming – paying rent for land they farmed
sharecroppers- paid their rent with a portion of their crops They
often were charge 40% interest on materials and supplies.
Debt peonage – trapped sharecroppers on the land - could not pay
their debts and leave. Some forced into labor
New Freedoms African Americans had gained during reconstruction
now was lost.
Chapter 12
Pages 386 -407
Ideas for Reconstruction - Plans:
South was destroyed:
Value of Land down
Confederate money worthless
Economy in shambles
Railroads destroyed
Lost work force
Agricultural output comes to a stop.
Lincoln’s Plan: bring the states back without high punishments:
Amnesty- pardons to all southerners that take oath of loyalty to
the United States. 10% of states population take the oath states
can form a new government.
Amnesty to all most all Southerners who took a
loyalty oath.
10 %of population taken loyalty oath states can
organize new govt.
Former high ranking official would not receive
Amnesty for those taking loyalty oath excludes
high ranking officials and property owners of
$20,000 or more
States must ratify 13th amendment
Two thoughts to the forgiveness:
Moderate Republicans:
Lincoln to easy on the south
Wanted: to keep the south down – no right to officials
Wade-Davis Bill Radical Republican – Thaddeus Stevens – opposed Lincoln’s plan.
Wanted to punish the south
Wanted: Prevent south from gaining power
Republican party to become strong in the south
government to help African Americans gain equality
in the south – vote.
Keep the south out of congress.
Wade Davis Bill passed but Lincoln used a pocket veto to stop it.
Congressional Reconstruction:
Lincoln Assassinated: Andrew Johnson takes over. Similar plan to
Lincoln. Against the upper elite of the south – felt they caused the
Johnson’ s Plan:
Pardon all former citizens and return their property
Upper elite not pardoned
Each state had to ratify the 13th Amendment
Rejection of debt acquired
Southern States return to the US. Election to congress increased the
south's representation.
13th amendment – no more slavery
South passes new laws in the South – Black Codes limiting rights if
freedmen in the South.
Headed by Thaddeus Stevens
Military Reconstruction act
14th and 15th amendment
Voting rights for African Americans
Promoted equal opportunity in govt and
education for African Americans.
Punish the south
Radical Republicans take charge of Congress,
oppose Johnson’s plan.
1866 Civil Rights Act – citizenship to all except
Native Americans, African Americans can own
land and be treated equal in court.
14th Amendment: equal protection under the
law, citizenship for all americans (including
African americans
1867 – Military Reconstruction Act. Divided the
confederacy into 5 districts. Union Generals
placed in charge of each. Each district had to
pass a constitutional plan through Congress.
Congress had Edwin Stanton (Sec of War) on their
side to enforce policy.
Passed Tenure of Office to protect him from being
fired by Johnson.
Johnson fired Stanton anyway and was impeached –
one vote short of removal.
Johnson’s power was now gone. Republican Congress
15 Amendment passed - African Americans right to
The Freedman Bureau: First ever Federal Relief Agency
Feed, cloth, educated and helped freedmen find work.
(Morehouse College )
Morehouse college
-Originally called Atlanta Baptist Seminary then Atlanta Baptist
-originally founded to train African American men to be
ministers and teachers
- called the “black Harvard”
- paved the way for higher education for blacks

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