Slide 1

Section VI
Using Skills, Concepts, and Attitudes for
Scientific Investigations in the Primary
Unit 38
Health and Nutrition
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Primary Health and Nutrition
• Understanding that for good health the
following are necessary:
– cleanliness
– nutrition
– exercise
– rest
©2013 Cengage Learning.
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Primary Learning Experiences
• Good health habits
– must begin early in life
Treatment of cuts and scrapes
How the body gains energy
The MyPlate guidelines and food activities
Bones and teeth
Vitamins and minerals
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Strategies for Teaching about
the Human Body
• Inside me
– bones give the body shape
– our skeleton has joints
• All about me
– How many things can you do with your hands?
– How many things can you do with your feet?
• My senses
©2013 Cengage Learning.
All Rights Reserved.
EDU 251
Section VII
The Math and Science Environment
Unit 39
Materials and Resources for Math
and Science
Categories of Math Materials
• Preoperational children work with
real objects
real objects used with pictorial representations
two-dimensional cutouts
• Concrete operational children and some in
transition can work with
– concrete materials
– wipe-off folders
– paper and pencil
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Concrete Operations Period
• New concepts and skills should be
introduced with
– concrete manipulative materials
– pictorial materials
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Pictorial Manipulative Materials
• Children’s picture books
– rich source of pictorial and
language information
– select carefully
• Stories, poems, and
– enrich math activities
– help teach math
– illustrate the use of math
in various settings
– expand children’s ideas of
how math can be used
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Basic Math and Science
• Purchased
• Scrounged or contributed by parents
– set up a “good junk” box for contributions
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Purchased Equipment for Math
• Unit blocks
– include miniature animals,
people, and vehicles
• Construction materials
• Unifix Cubes®
• Lego®
• Multilinks®
• Pegboards and pegs
• Picture lotto games
• Beads and string
• Attribute blocks
• Geoboards
Selecting Math Materials
• Provide a variety of materials and time to
explore the materials
• Materials should be
sturdy and versatile
fit the outcome objectives selected
fit the developmental level of the children
easily supervised
free of gender, ethnic, age, and socioeconomic
Balance scales
Flannel board and
magnet board with felt
and magnet pieces
Montessori Cylinder
Manipulative clock
Base 10 blocks
Fraction pies
Organizing and Storing Science
• Organized by concept being taught
– shoe boxes
– display a materials list on the outside
• Organized by learning centers
– store in boxes under or near the science center
The Math Learning Center
• Neatly place materials on low
shelves for easy access by
• Rotate materials according to
children’s needs and interests
• Set up focus centers when
introducing specific concepts
• Should be available to every
child every day
Commercial Materials for
• Be sure illustrations accurately portray the
concepts being taught
• Science kits
– publisher kits
• available from most major companies
– general kits
• available from many sources
• may not fit your specific needs
– specific topic kits
• boxed by topic and grade level
– major drawbacks of kits
• maintaining the consumables
• finding the money to purchase the kits
©2013 Cengage Learning.
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Purchased Equipment for
Plastic tubing
Rock and mineral set
Science Learning Centers
Discovery center
Open learning center
Inquiry learning center
Science interest center
Planning Your Center
• Select clear objectives
• Know the children’s developmental levels
• Children must be able to participate in the
activities and methods independently
• Evaluate the center
Selecting Science Materials
• Provide materials that encourage
“messing around” and exploration
Selection criteria:
are the materials open-ended?
are the materials designed for action?
are the materials arranged to encourage
is there a variety of materials?
do the materials encourage “what if” statements?
are the materials appropriate for the maturity of
the children?
do the materials allow for individual differences?
how much direction is required?
do the materials stress process skills?
are the materials nonbiased?
Sensory Learning Center
• Give children the opportunity to
– taste
– smell
– touch
– observe
– hear their environment
Sensory Table
• Not just sand & water
Two or three computers per classroom
Variety of software
• Internet access
• Other tools such as iPads, iPhones,
calculators, smartboards, cameras, etc.
©2013 Cengage Learning.
All Rights Reserved.
EDU 251
Unit 40
Math and Science in Action
• They have the potential to function as
valuable concept-building materials for
primary children
• They allow children to apply basic
– they note differences in size
– they note differences in shape
– they work with fractions, parts, and wholes
– they enhance concept skills in art, literacy,
physical development, social studies, and
socioemotional development
The Block Area
• Needs plenty of space
• Should include:
– unit blocks and other construction materials
– small vehicles
– people dolls
– animals
• Materials should be neatly arranged on
low shelves
• Shelves should be marked with outline of
block shape for easy cleanup
Unit Blocks
• Should
– be made of good hardwood
– have beveled edges
– be smoothly sanded
– have precise sizes
Stages of Block Play
• Stage 1:
• Stage 2:
• Stage 3:
• Stage 4:
• Stage 5:
• Stage 6:
Carry blocks from place to
Make rows and lines of
Build bridges.
Make simple enclosures.
Make patterns.
Name the structures and use
them for dramatic play.
Additional Construction
Large, hollow, wood blocks
Cardboard blocks
Cardboard boxes
Blocks Encourage Thinking
• Blocks force children to
– distinguish
– classify
– sort
• Blocks demonstrate within systems
• Provides hands-on experience with
– measurement
– balance
– power
– spatial relationships
– size relationships
Woodworking Area
• Should include
– sturdy workbench
• large enough for two children
– high-quality real tools
• older children can use a greater variety of tools
– assorted pieces of soft wood, like pine
Math Games
Board games
Bingo and lotto boxed games
Bowling games
Games involving aim
Jumping rope
Math puzzlers and brainteasers
Math in the Environment
Count things in the environment
Informal measurements outdoors
Chart and graph various items
noise pollution
water use and abuse
other outdoor topics
Science in Action Outdoors
• Animal study
– animal homes
– finding insects
• Outdoor plants
– observe and learn
about wild plants
– scavenger hunts
Planning for Outdoor Learning
What is the purpose of the outdoor experience?
What are the logistics?
Which science concepts will be developed?
What will be taught
– before the experience?
– during the experience?
– after the experience?
• How much talking needs to be done?
• How will you evaluate the experience?
• What types of follow-up learning will be provided?
Instructional Technology
• Software
• Internet
• World Wide Web

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