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```Section VI
Using Skills, Concepts, and Attitudes for
Scientific Investigations in the Primary
Unit 38
Health and Nutrition
Primary Health and Nutrition
Concepts
• Understanding that for good health the
following are necessary:
– cleanliness
– nutrition
– exercise
– rest
Primary Learning Experiences
• Good health habits
– must begin early in life
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Treatment of cuts and scrapes
How the body gains energy
The MyPlate guidelines and food activities
Bones and teeth
Vitamins and minerals
the Human Body
• Inside me
– bones give the body shape
– our skeleton has joints
– How many things can you do with your hands?
– How many things can you do with your feet?
• My senses
EDU 251
Section VII
The Math and Science Environment
Unit 39
Materials and Resources for Math
and Science
Categories of Math Materials
• Preoperational children work with
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real objects
real objects used with pictorial representations
two-dimensional cutouts
pictures
• Concrete operational children and some in
transition can work with
– concrete materials
– wipe-off folders
– paper and pencil
Concrete Operations Period
• New concepts and skills should be
introduced with
– concrete manipulative materials
– pictorial materials
Pictorial Manipulative Materials
• Children’s picture books
– rich source of pictorial and
language information
– select carefully
• Stories, poems, and
pictures
– enrich math activities
– help teach math
vocabulary
– illustrate the use of math
in various settings
– expand children’s ideas of
how math can be used
Basic Math and Science
Materials
• Purchased
• Scrounged or contributed by parents
– set up a “good junk” box for contributions
Purchased Equipment for Math
• Unit blocks
– include miniature animals,
people, and vehicles
• Construction materials
• Unifix Cubes®
• Lego®
• Pegboards and pegs
• Picture lotto games
• Attribute blocks
• Geoboards
Selecting Math Materials
• Provide a variety of materials and time to
explore the materials
• Materials should be
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sturdy and versatile
fit the outcome objectives selected
fit the developmental level of the children
safe
easily supervised
free of gender, ethnic, age, and socioeconomic
bias
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Balance scales
Thermometer
Flannel board and
magnet board with felt
and magnet pieces
Montessori Cylinder
Blocks®
Manipulative clock
Base 10 blocks
Fraction pies
Calculators
Computers
Organizing and Storing Science
Materials
• Organized by concept being taught
– shoe boxes
– display a materials list on the outside
• Organized by learning centers
– store in boxes under or near the science center
The Math Learning Center
• Neatly place materials on low
shelves for easy access by
students
• Rotate materials according to
children’s needs and interests
• Set up focus centers when
introducing specific concepts
• Should be available to every
child every day
Commercial Materials for
Science
• Be sure illustrations accurately portray the
concepts being taught
• Science kits
– publisher kits
• available from most major companies
– general kits
• available from many sources
• may not fit your specific needs
– specific topic kits
• boxed by topic and grade level
– major drawbacks of kits
• maintaining the consumables
• finding the money to purchase the kits
Purchased Equipment for
Science
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Magnifiers
Eyedroppers
Plastic tubing
Mirrors
Rock and mineral set
Magnets
Batteries
Bulbs
Science Learning Centers
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Discovery center
Open learning center
Inquiry learning center
Science interest center
• Select clear objectives
• Know the children’s developmental levels
• Children must be able to participate in the
activities and methods independently
• Evaluate the center
Selecting Science Materials
• Provide materials that encourage
“messing around” and exploration
Selection criteria:
are the materials open-ended?
are the materials designed for action?
are the materials arranged to encourage
communication?
is there a variety of materials?
do the materials encourage “what if” statements?
are the materials appropriate for the maturity of
the children?
do the materials allow for individual differences?
how much direction is required?
do the materials stress process skills?
are the materials nonbiased?
Sensory Learning Center
• Give children the opportunity to
– taste
– smell
– touch
– observe
– hear their environment
Sensory Table
• Not just sand & water
Technology
Two or three computers per classroom
Variety of software
Technology
• Internet access
• Other tools such as iPads, iPhones,
calculators, smartboards, cameras, etc.
EDU 251
Unit 40
Math and Science in Action
Blocks
• They have the potential to function as
valuable concept-building materials for
primary children
• They allow children to apply basic
concepts
– they note differences in size
– they note differences in shape
– they work with fractions, parts, and wholes
– they enhance concept skills in art, literacy,
physical development, social studies, and
socioemotional development
The Block Area
• Needs plenty of space
• Should include:
– unit blocks and other construction materials
– small vehicles
– people dolls
– animals
• Materials should be neatly arranged on
low shelves
• Shelves should be marked with outline of
block shape for easy cleanup
Unit Blocks
• Should
– be made of good hardwood
– have beveled edges
– be smoothly sanded
– have precise sizes
Stages of Block Play
• Stage 1:
place.
• Stage 2:
blocks.
• Stage 3:
• Stage 4:
• Stage 5:
• Stage 6:
Carry blocks from place to
Make rows and lines of
Build bridges.
Make simple enclosures.
Make patterns.
Name the structures and use
them for dramatic play.
Materials
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Large, hollow, wood blocks
Cardboard blocks
Cardboard boxes
Straws
Blocks Encourage Thinking
• Blocks force children to
– distinguish
– classify
– sort
• Blocks demonstrate within systems
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balance
predictions
interactions
movement
Woodworking
• Provides hands-on experience with
– measurement
– balance
– power
– spatial relationships
– size relationships
Woodworking Area
• Should include
– sturdy workbench
• large enough for two children
– high-quality real tools
• older children can use a greater variety of tools
– assorted pieces of soft wood, like pine
Math Games
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Board games
Bingo and lotto boxed games
Bowling games
Games involving aim
Jumping rope
Math puzzlers and brainteasers
Math in the Environment
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Count things in the environment
Informal measurements outdoors
Chart and graph various items
Investigate
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noise pollution
water use and abuse
wind
other outdoor topics
Science in Action Outdoors
• Animal study
– animal homes
– finding insects
• Outdoor plants
– observe and learn
– scavenger hunts
Planning for Outdoor Learning
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What is the purpose of the outdoor experience?
What are the logistics?
Which science concepts will be developed?
What will be taught
– before the experience?
– during the experience?
– after the experience?
• How much talking needs to be done?
• How will you evaluate the experience?
• What types of follow-up learning will be provided?
Instructional Technology
• Software
• Internet
• World Wide Web
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