August 2014 Presentation

Report
Monday, August 11, 2014
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Regulatory Framework
Considerations for Implementing
Direct Potable Reuse
Guy Carpenter, PE
Vice President
Reuse Technical Practice Director
Presentation Agenda
• Definitions
• Drivers for Potable Reuse
• Water Quality Criteria
• Treatment Technologies
• Risk Mitigation
• Public Perception
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• Status of IPR/DPR projects going on in the US
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Definitions
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What should I do with my reclaimed water?
Non-Potable Reuse (NPR) or
“Direct Reuse” (Purple Pipe)
Indirect Potable
Reuse - Surface
Water
Augmentation
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Indirect Potable
Reuse Groundwater
Recharge
Direct Potable
Reuse
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Drivers for Potable Reuse
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DPR Planning, Pilot Testing, and Full Scale
Implementation is Underway
DPR Demonstration
in Oregon
State Law Mandates Direct Potable Reuse Initiative
$$$M collected for DPR research
NWRI Expert Panel Formed for Cloudcroft
NM, DPR to soon follow
Initial DPR workshops
underway in Oklahoma
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Steering Committee
for AZ Potable Reuse
developing regulatory
framework
• “Big Spring” in operation, treatment performance analysis underway
• DPR planning and design happening throughout the state
IPR/DPR planning studies and
pilot studies for utilities across
CA
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But in Florida, Drivers are More Diverse
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Drivers in Florida
• Surface water quality
• Salt water intrusion - Biscayne
• Decreasing Availability of LowCost Fresh Water
– Central Florida
Coordinating Area
– Southwest Florida Southern
Water Use Caution Area
and Most Impacted Area
– South Florida Regional
Availability Rule
Eutrophication in St. Johns River
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• Everglades restoration
• South Florida Ocean Outfall
Legislation
Saltwater intrusion
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Water Quality Criteria
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What do you need to do to make drinking
water out of sewage?
Risk
Mitigation
Public
Acceptance
Treatment
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Pathogens
& Trace
Organic
Compounds
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Overall Goal: How do we make DPR safe?
WRRF Project 11-02 Addresses Two Key Questions:
1. What level of treatment must we achieve?
NDMA
Adenovirus
Cryptosporidium
fluoxetine
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2. How can we achieve that level of treatment?
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WRRF 11-02 Panel Report specifies
treatment goals
• From Raw
Wastewater to
Potable Water
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– 12-log virus
– 9-log bacteria
– 10-log protozoa
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NWRI Panel – Chemical Criteria
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Public health goals for DPR
• CDPH: 12 / 10 / 10
– 12-log virus
– 10-log Giardia and
Crypto reduction
• WRRF 11-02: 12 / 10 / 9
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– 12-log enteric virus
– 10-log Crypto (Giardia
implied)
– 9-log bacteria
• Both:
– Requirements for trace
chemicals
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Treatment Technologies
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What do you need to do to make drinking
water out of sewage?
Treatment
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Pathogens
& Trace
Organic
Compounds
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If you address the pathogens, you will address the
trace organic chemicals (WRRF-11-02)
Treatment Train
Crypto
CAS
MF
RO
UV/H2O2
Cl2
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12
18
CAS
O3
MF
RO
UV/H2O2
15
13
18
UF
O3
BAF
UV
14
11
16
O3
BAF
UF
UV
14
11
16
O3
BAF
MF
UV
13
11
16
12
10
9
CAS
CAS
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Virus
Total
Coliform
CAS
GOALS
From raw wastewater to potable water
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But what if a process fails?
Treatment Train
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X6
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UV/H2O2
15
13
18
BAF
UV
14
11
16
BAF
UF
UV
14
11
16
BAF
MF
UV
13
11
16
12
10
9
Cl2
MF
RO
UF
O3
O3
O3
MF
RO
CAS
O3
CAS
CAS
X
GOALS
Crypto
15 9
X
UV/H2O2
CAS
CAS
Virus
Total
Coliform
X 12
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Risk Mitigation
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What do you need to do to make drinking
water out of sewage?
Risk
Mitigation
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Pathogens
& Trace
Organic
Compounds
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The bottom line:
Processes WILL fail.
• Process failure cannot reduce delivered water
quality below target goals; so…
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– We must know when the failure has occurred
and divert flow from the potable stream; or
– We must have sufficient redundancy of
treatment, storage, and monitoring to know that
water quality goals are being met.
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In addition to robust treatment, there are
two key components you need for
protecting public health and minimizing
cost in the case of process failure:
1. Quick response time
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2. Good monitoring to ensure expected treatment
result
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Basic Framework for Setting Engineered
Storage Size: Failure Response Time
For each individual process:
Identify Failure
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Sampling
Interval
Sample
TAT
Respond
System
Reaction
Minimum
Storage
Time
Failure Response Time (FRT)
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– process efficiency
– Monitoring method
sensitivity
Limit
Process
Efficiency
• Minimum of:
Method
Sensitivity
Log removal credits:
Log Removal Credits
Through research, we are increasing online monitoring
sensitivity (method detection), which allows for greater
confidence in actual removal
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WRRF-11-10 – Application of Risk Reduction
Principles to Direct Potable Reuse
• Project Goal – “A critical
initial evaluation of DPR,
including treatment,
monitoring, and
operation.”
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– Identify important weak
points in the advanced
treatment process train.
– Look at how and when
we can manage these
risks.
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Key Lessons
• Make things simpler
and/or less tightly
coupled.
• Control potential
failure points relative
to their risk.
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• Monitoring is key.
• For personnel:
– Training, training,
training.
– SOPs for critical
failure events.
– Simple checklists
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Public Acceptance
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What do you need to do to make drinking
water out of sewage?
Public
Acceptance
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Pathogens
& Trace
Organic
Compounds
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The general public has difficulty with the
concept of relative concentrations and risk
• There is a concern that “presence” in any amount is
a problem
• Adverse health effects are presumed if anything can
be detected.
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• There is no “zero”
of anything…
including risk.
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Pharmaceutically Active Compounds
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Amount of Water to Meet Acceptable Daily
Intake (for Humans) - Pharmaceuticals
Credit: Shane Snyder, University of Arizona
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Public Perception Lessons
• Hire an expert
• Well-conceived plan
• Validate “contagion”
mentality
• Watch your mouth!
– Different vocabulary
– Alarming words and
acronyms
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• Present DPR among other
options
– Energy
– Capital and O&M
– Social & Environmental
impacts
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We are nearly all “Downstream”
The majority of the world’s population drinks from rivers and streams that have
received treated discharges from upstream users. It is nothing new. We’ve been doing
it for centuries.
www.athirstyplanet.com
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The Ways of Water
The Ways of Water presents an overview of the many human interventions in the
water cycle and looks at the benefits around some of the key water provision
options including Direct Potable Reuse using easy-to-understand language
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Communicating
Risk of PPCPs
(Pharmaceuticals
and Personal Care
Products)
User & Public Friendly
Document
Includes a CD with
printable materials
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http://www.watereuse.or
g/catalog/toolkit
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The Words We Use
Really Do Matter
Number one impediment to
any water reuse project is
public perception
Can’t talk to public in the
same way we do to each
other
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http://www.watereuse.org/p
roduct/07-03
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So, all three components must fold into
the regulatory framework for DPR
Risk
Mitigation
Public
Acceptance
Treatment
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Pathogens
& Trace
Organic
Compounds
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Status of DPR Projects
in US
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Colorado River Municipal
Water District’s
Raw Water Production Facility
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at Big Spring
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Colorado River Municipal Water District
• Member cities:
Odessa
• Population served: 450,000
• Surface water reservoirs:
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– Lake J.B. Thomas (<2% full)
– E.V. Spence (<5% full)
– O.H. Ivie (<15% full)
• Five well fields (peaking)
Lake O.H. Ivie, April 2011
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Direct potable reuse is a reality for the
Colorado River Municipal Water District
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DPR at Big Spring
• Designed by Freese & Nichols
Raw water
from
E.V. Spence
Reservoir
• Operating since May 2013
Raw Water Production Facility
Advanced
Oxidation
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Filtered
secondary
effluent from
City of
Big Spring
Membrane Processes
Microfiltration
Moss
Creek
Lake
H2O2
Reverse
Osmosis
<20%
blend
UV
Filters pathogens,
Removes pathogens,
Kills pathogens and
pretreats for RO salt, and trace pollutants destroys trace pollutants
RO concentrate
to Beal’s Creek
Blended water
to conventional
drinking water
plants
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Carollo Led Monitoring Study Expanding
on WRRF Research
• Process evaluation, advanced
monitoring
• Detailed study of water quality
– Pathogens
– Trace chemicals
– Surrogate development
Ethinyl
estradiol
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H2O2
Secondary
Effluent
2
Microfiltration
3
Proposed Sample Locations
Moss
Creek
Lake
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Reverse
Osmosis
UV
4
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caffeine
RO concentrate
<20% blend
E.V. Spence
Pipeline
To drinking
water plants
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Clean Water Services
Oregon
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Clean Water Services (Oregon) Provides
Industry Leadership in the NW
• Phosphorus Recovery
• Reclaimed Water
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– Wetlands for nutrient removal
and reclaimed water applications
– Reclaimed water purification for
DPR and industrial use
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DPR Demonstration – Progressive
Analysis Using the Latest Industry Tools
• Clean Water Services
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–
–
–
–
Diane Taniguchi-Dennis
Rick Shanley
Adrienne Menniti
Forest Grove Plant Staff
• GE – UF and RO
Membranes
• Trojan – UV AOP
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Startup Testing Baselines Process
Performance
• UF Pressure Decay Results
Tracked and Are Stable and
Within Tolerance
• RO EC is Constant
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• Microbiological Reductions
through Process Train as
Expected (from a lot to zero!)
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Detailed Pathogen and CEC Testing
Complete
Process
Target
Monitoring
Notes
Full-Scale UV
Pathogens
Dose and total
coliform reduction
Provides bacteria
and protozoa
barrier
Pilot-Scale UF
Pathogens
Particle, protozoa,
and virus reduction
Includes seeding
and indigenous
monitoring
Pilot-Scale RO
Pathogens, CECs
Virus and CEC
reduction
Includes seeding of
virus, monitoring of
indigenous CECs
Pilot-Scale UV AOP
Pathogens, CECs
NDMA, CECs
Correlation of
NDMA reduction to
UV Dose
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2014 One Water Innovations Gala
• WEFTEC 2014
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• September 28, 2014
6-10 p.m.
The Republic
New Orleans, LA
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Cloudcroft New Mexico
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Notes from the Field,
Cloudcroft NM
• System is Not Operational
– 80% Constructed
– Online Spring 2015
• Highly Advanced and Redundant Processes
Wastewater
Purification
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Water
Treatment
Reverse
Osmosis
Membrane
Bioreactor
Chlorine
Disinfection
UV
UV/AOP
Ultrafiltration
Chlorine
Disinfection
1 MG Storage (10 days)
~50% Blending
with Raw Water
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Critical Issues Remain to Be Addressed
in Cloudcroft
• Water Supply is Low and DPR is
the Answer
– Vacation Community
– 9,000 feet, limited groundwater
resources
– No surface water resources
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– Population doubles/triples during
peak tourist season
– Water needed to sustain tourism
in the Village
• Public Support is Split
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Critical Issues Remain to Be Addressed
in Cloudcroft
• New Mexico Environment Department Needs Answers
– What level of treatment meets public health standards?
– Is the existing treatment scheme sufficient? What about
process monitoring?
– How will a small community properly operate an advanced
facility?
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• Existing WWTP is a trickling filter, is current staff and
training sufficient?
– What type of state-wide guidance is needed for big and
small DPR projects?
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NWRI Hired by NMED to Answer Key
Questions
• Independent Advisory Panel (IAP)
– Jeff Mosher, Supreme Leader
– Jim Crook, Chair
– Joe Cotruvo, Panelist
Panelist in
– Andrew Salveson, Panelist
Training (PIT)
– Bruce Thompson, Panelist
– John Stomp, Panelist
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– Assistance From:
– Village Trustees
– Eddie Livingston
– NMED
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NWRI IAP Preliminary
Conclusions
• Treatment Process is Robust
and Sufficient
• Additional Process Monitoring is
Recommended to Improve
Confidence
– Online TOC to monitor RO
performance
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– Online chloramines to monitor UV
AOP performance
– Online CT to measure chlorination
performance
– Offline microbial testing
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NWRI IAP Preliminary Conclusions
• O&M issues are Key!
– Training
– Retraining
– Staff Redundancy (small
community!)
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– Budgeting, this will be a
large increase in O&M
costs.
• Outreach & Education ASAP
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Questions/Discussion?
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Guy Carpenter
[email protected]
602-689-2678
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