Substance Use Disorders OPIATES What are Opiates? Opiates are powerful drugs derived from the poppy plant. They include &codeine. opium, heroin, morphine, Opiates are still the most effective pain relievers available to physicians for treating pain. When used as directed by a physician, opiates are safe and generally do not produce addiction. How Do Opiates Work? Activate Opiate Receptors in the brain Effects are usually pleasure and pain relief Opiates also act directly on the respiratory center in the brainstem, where they cause a slowdown in activity. HEROIN JUNK Heroin Paraphernalia HOW IS HEROIN USED & abused Heroin can be used in a variety of ways, depending on user preference and the purity of the drug. Heroin can be injected into a vein "mainlining” injected into a muscle, smoked in a water pipe or standard pipe, mixed in a marijuana joint or regular cigarette, inhaled as smoke through a straw, known as "chasing the dragon," or snorted as powder via the nose. Heroine: Health Hazards Heroin abuse is associated with serious health conditions, including fatal overdose, spontaneous abortion, collapsed veins, and, particularly in users who inject the drug, infectious diseases, including HIV/AIDS and hepatitis. Because of its chemical structure it penetrates the brain more quickly than other opiates Health Hazards Continued: The short-term effects of heroin abuse: After an injection of heroin, the user reports feeling a surge of euphoria ("rush") accompanied by a warm flushing of the skin, a dry mouth, and heavy extremities. Following this initial euphoria, the user goes "on the nod," an alternately wakeful and drowsy state. Mental functioning becomes clouded due to the depression of the central nervous system. Long-term effects of heroin appear after repeated use. Chronic users may develop collapsed veins, infection of the heart lining and valves, abscesses, boils, cellulitis, liver disease .and pulmonary complications. Health Hazards Continued: In addition to the effects of the drug itself, street heroin may have additives that do not readily dissolve and result in clogging the blood vessels that lead to the lungs, liver, kidneys, or brain. This can cause infection or even death of small patches of cells in vital organs. blood-borne bacterial infections, kidney disease, liver disease, lung infections track marks (scarred, collapsed veins due to needle use), tuberculosis. CHEESE "Cheese heroin" is a highly addictive, cheap drug. It is a blend of "Mexican black tar heroin" and over-the-counter medications that contain antihistamines found in products similar to Tylenol PM. "Cheese Heroin" is very cheap, and is marketed to teens in middle school. Prices are as low as $2 a hit, and $10 a gram. It causes drowsiness, lethargy, euphoria, disorientation and excessive thirst. "Cheese" can be snorted through a straw. When middle school students were asked if they knew a "cheese" dealer, almost all of them raised their hands. They also cheered at the mention that the US has the highest rate of drug users in the world. It is speculated that "cheese" is as common as pot.