APA Guidelines: - CSUSM Community

Adapted from the following sources:
ASU College of Education Graduate Resources
Robin Sontheimer University of Missouri-Kansas City Writing Center
CSUSM’s College of Education
Professional standard
Need to know when you publish
Need for continued graduate
Started in 1928
Anthropological and
psychological journal editors
Purpose: to standardize
publication formats
First guidelines 7 pages long
Latest 6th edition printed
2009 summer
Margins: 1 inch around
Font: Serif fonts only – e.g. Times,
Times New Roman, Courier; 12 pt
Line spacing: double spaced
Word spacing: see §4.01-4.02,
pp. 87-88
 1 space after commas, colons, & semi-colons
 1 space after period in name (A. B. Smith)
 1 space after period separating parts of
reference citation
 1 space after periods in sentences in text
2 spaces when submitting for review / feedback
Numbers expressing approximate lengths of
time are written as words (see §4.31-4.38)
Use zero before a decimal fraction (p. 113)
New ways to cite statistics and present tables
(ch. 5)
No more Page Header
No more
than 50
Full Title of Paper: Sentence Case, Centered Left to Right
Name of Author
Author’s Affiliation
Author Note
Author note with more information about affiliation, research grants, conflict
of interest and how to contact.
Full title is
centered and
positioned in
upper half of
the page
Use levels consecutively, meaning that, if
your paper has three levels, use levels 1, 2,
and 3
Level of
of Heading
 Levels have slightlyFormatting
Centered, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading
Flush Left, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading
Indented, boldface, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period.
Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period.
Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period.
I. Method
a. First type
In this paper I used two types of methods to figure out the results of
my experiment.
i. Part One
ii. Part Two
b. Second Type
i. Part One
ii. Part Two
II. Results
First Type: Sand Collecting
The first type of method I used was the sand collecting method.
Part one of the sand collecting method: collection. This part
included collecting sand and putting it into giant buckets to be sorted by
grain size.
Part two of the sand collecting method: testing. This part
A citation is giving credit whenever you
use someone’s ideas, figures, unique
approach, or specific reasoning. This is
done whether you paraphrase
another’s ideas or use direct quotes.
The purpose of using citations is
1.to give credit for the person whose
material you are using and
2.to offer a way for readers of your work
to find out more information about that
Plagiarism: act of using
someone else’s ideas, words,
figures, unique approach, or
specific reasoning without
giving appropriate credit.
It’s a bad thing!
Paraphrasing within text:
In a 1989 article, Gould explores some of Darwin’s most
effective metaphors.
Author cited in text:
Gould (1989) attributed Darwin’s success to his gift for
making the appropriate metaphor.
Author not cited in text:
As metaphors for the workings of nature, Darwin used the
tangled bank, the tree of life, and the face of nature
(Gould, 1989).
Direct quote from author:
Gould (1989) explains that Darwin used the metaphor
of the tree of life “to express the other form of
interconnectedness-genealogical rather than
ecological-and to illustrate both success and failure in
the history of life” (p.14).
Direct quote without name of author:
Darwin used the metaphor of the tree of life “to
express the other form of interconnectednessgenealogical rather than ecological” (Gould, 1989,
General format for long quotes (§6.03):
indented one-half inch
do not use quotation marks
citation appears one space after last punctuation of quote
Friedman (2006) draws connections between two seemingly disparate
events: November 9 (dismantling of the Berlin Wall) and September
11 (attack on the World Trade Center). He believes
these two dates represent the two competing forms of imagination at
work in the world today: the creative imagination of 11/9 and the
destructive imagination of 9/11. One brought down a wall and opened
the windows of the world. . . [the other] putting up new invisible and
concrete walls among people. (p. 543)
Several studies (Balda, 1980; Kammil,
1988; Pepperberg & Funk, 1990) confirm
the use of metaphors increases learning.
First citation in text:
 Wasserstein, Zappula, Rosen, German, and Rock
(1994) found. . .
 The use of metaphors was found to be helpful
(Wasserstein, Zappula, Rosen, German, & Rock, 1994)
Subsequent citations (3 or more authors):
 Wasserstein and colleagues (1994) found
 Wasserstein et al. (1994) found
 The use of metaphors was found to be helpful
(Wasserstein et al., 1994)
Seidenberg and McCelland’s study (as cited in Coltheart,
Curtis, Atkins, & Haller, 1993).
Reference page:
Coltheart, M., Curtis, B., Atkins, P., & Haller, M. (1993).
Models of reading aloud: Dual-route and paralleldistributed-processing approaches. Psychological Review,
100, 589-608.
Use sparingly!
References are listed on separate page
(A.) Only citations that appear in the text should
appear on the reference page, and
(B.) Everything cited in the text should appear on
the reference page.
References are double-spaced, flush left with
subsequent lines indented one-half inch
General format:
Author, A. A (year, add month and date of publication for daily or
weekly publications). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume
number(issue), pages.
Little, D. W. (200l). Leading change: Creating the future
for education technology. Syllabus International,
15(5), 22-24.
General format:
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year of publication).
Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle (number ed.).
Location City, State Abbreviation: Publisher.
Anderson, A. B., Smith, S. D., & Jones, J. C. (1978). A
distant mirror: The calamitous fourteenth century (3rd
ed.). New York, NY: Knopf.
General format:
Author, A. A. (date of publication). Title of chapter. In A. Editor
(Ed.), Title of book (pages of chapter). Location: Publisher.
James, J. E. (1988). Two sides of paradise: The Eden myth
according to Kirk and Spock. In D. Palumbo (Ed.),
Spectrum of the fantastic (pp. 219-223). Westport,
CT: Greenwood.
DOIs are unique strings of
numbers used to identify
online articles’ content and
provide a persistent link to
their location on the Internet.
1.When DOIs are present, no
longer have to include URL.
2.When DOIs are not present,
include URL
General format:
Author, A. A. (date). Title of article. Title of Journal,
volume(number), page numbers. doi: xx.xxxxxxx
Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer
support, marital status, and the survival times of
terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24, 225229. doi: 10.1037/0278-6133.24.2.225
General format:
Author, A. A. (date of publication). Title of article Title of
Journal, volume(number), page numbers. Retrieved
from URL
Sillick, T. J., & Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional
intelligence and self-esteem mediate between
perceived early parental love and adult
happiness. Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38-48.
Retrieved from
Generally, as little as possible. (see final bullet p.
Use when archival copy or print version of record
are not available. (see §6.24)
American Psychological Association (2010).
Publication manual of the American
Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington,
DC: Author.
APA Website: www.apastyle.org
Updated APA guideline notes on ELCSE website
under Student Resources
for a tutorial about APA Style
x.htm for a tutorial about the changes

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