### Proofs, Recursion and Analysis of Algorithms

```Graphs and Trees
Mathematical Structures
for Computer Science
Chapter 5
MSCS Slides
Graphs and Trees
Tree Terminology
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Section 5.2
A special type of graph called a tree turns out to be a
very useful representation of data.
DEFINITION: TREE A tree is an acyclic, connected
graph with one node designated as the root of the tree.
An acyclic, connected graph with no designated root
node is called a nonrooted tree or a free tree.
Trees and Their Representations
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Defining Trees Recursively
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Section 5.2
A tree can also be defined recursively. A single node is
a tree (with that node as its root). If T1, T2, ... , Tt are
disjoint trees with roots r1, r2, ... , rt, the graph formed
by attaching a new node r by a single arc to each of r1,
r2, ... , rt is a tree with root r. The nodes r1, r2, ... , rt
are children of r, and r is a parent of r1, r2, ... , rt.
Trees and Their Representations
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Tree Terminology
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Section 5.2
The depth of a node in a tree is the length of the path
from the root to the node; the root itself has depth 0.
The depth (height) of the tree is the maximum depth
of any node in the tree; in other words, it is the length
of the longest path from the root to any node.
A node with no children is called a leaf of the tree.
All nonleaves are internal nodes.
A forest is an acyclic graph (not necessarily
connected).
Trees and Their Representations
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Tree Terminology
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Section 5.2
Binary trees are those where each node has at most two
children.
Each child of a node is designated as either the left child or the
right child.
A full binary tree (as seen in the middle figure below) occurs
when all internal nodes have two children and all leaves are at
the same depth.
A complete binary tree (as seen in the right figure below) is an
almost-full binary tree; the bottom level of the tree is filling
from left to right but may not have its full complement of
leaves.
Trees and Their Representations
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Applications of Trees
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Section 5.2
Decision trees were used to solve counting problems
in Chapter 3.
By using trees, a collection of records can be
efficiently searched to locate a particular record or to
determine that a record is not in the collection.
A family tree is usually, indeed, a tree.
Files stored on a computer are organized in a
hierarchical (treelike) structure.
Algebraic expressions involving binary operations can
be represented by labeled binary trees.
Trees and Their Representations
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Binary Tree Representation
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Section 5.2
Because a tree is also a graph, representations for
graphs in general can also be used for trees.
Binary trees, however, have special characteristics that
we want to capture in the representation, namely, the
identity of the left and right child.
The equivalent of an adjacency matrix is a twocolumn array (or an array of records) where the data
for each node is the left and right child of that node.
The equivalent of the adjacency list representation is a
collection of records with three fields containing,
respectively, the current node, a pointer to the record
for the left-child node, and a pointer to the record for
the right-child node.
Trees and Their Representations
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Binary Tree Representation Example
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Section 5.2
The tree represented by the figure above has the following
Trees and Their Representations
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Tree Traversal Algorithms
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Section 5.2
If a tree structure is being used to store data, it is often
helpful to have a systematic mechanism for writing out the
data values stored at all the nodes.
This can be accomplished by traversing the tree, that is,
visiting each of the nodes in the tree structure.
The three common tree traversal algorithms are preorder,
inorder, and postorder traversal.
The terms preorder, inorder, and postorder refer to the
order in which the root of a tree is visited compared to the
subtree nodes.
Trees and Their Representations
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Tree Traversal Algorithms
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Section 5.2
In preorder traversal, the root of the tree is visited first
and then the subtrees are processed left to right, each in
preorder.
ALGORITHM Preorder
Preorder(tree T)
//Writes the nodes of a tree with root r in preorder
write(r)
for i 1 to t do
Preorder(Ti)
end for
end Preorder
Trees and Their Representations
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Tree Traversal Algorithms
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Section 5.2
In inorder traversal, the left subtree is processed by an inorder
traversal, then the root is visited, and then the remaining
subtrees are processed from left to right, each in inorder. If the
tree is binary, the result is that the root is visited between
processing of the two subtrees.
ALGORITHM Inorder
Inorder(tree T )
//Writes the nodes of a tree with root r in inorder
Inorder(T1)
write(r)
for i 2 to t do
Inorder(Ti)
end for
end Inorder
Trees and Their Representations
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Tree Traversal Algorithms
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Section 5.2
In postorder traversal, the root is visited last, after all
subtrees have been processed from left to right in
postorder.
ALGORITHM Postorder
Postorder(tree T )
//Writes the nodes of a tree with root r in postorder
for i 1 to t do
Postorder(Ti)
end for
write(r)
end Postorder
Trees and Their Representations
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Tree Traversal Algorithms Example
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Section 5.2
What is the preorder, inorder, and postorder traversal
for the following tree?
The preorder (root, left, right) traversal produces: a, b, d, e, c, f,
h, i, g.
The inorder (left, root, right) traversal produces: d, b, e, a, h, f, i,
c, g.
The postorder (left, right, root) traversal produces: d, e, b, h i, f,
g, c, a.
Trees and Their Representations
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Infix Notation
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Section 5.2
The binary tree in the figure below represents the algebraic
expression (2 + x)  (y * 3). If we do an inorder traversal
of the expression tree, we retrieve the original algebraic
expression.
Parentheses are added as we complete the processing of a
subtree.
This is called infix notation.
Trees and Their Representations
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Polish Notation
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Section 5.2
A preorder traversal of a tree as seen in this figure gives the expression
* 2 x 4.
Here the operation symbol precedes its operands. This form of an
expression is called prefix notation, or Polish notation. The
expression can be translated into infix form as follows:
* + 2 x 4  * (2 + x) 4  (2 + x ) * 4
A postorder traversal gives the expression 2 x 4 *, where the operation
symbol follows its operands. This form of an expression is called
postfix notation, or reverse Polish notation (or just RPN). The
expression can be translated into infix form as follows:
2 x 4 *  (2 + x) 4 *  (2 + x) * 4
Neither prefix nor postfix form requires parentheses to avoid
ambiguity.
Trees and Their Representations
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