slides - Institute for Systems Research

Report
Systems Engineering of GM’s
Global EE / SW Product Line
Dr. Joseph D’Ambrosio
ECS Process, Methods,
& Tools
GLOBAL RESEARCH &
DEVELOPMENT
Outline
¶
Introduction
¶
Embedded Systems Development at GM
¶
Product Line Engineering
¶
Additional Topics
About Me – Dr. Joseph D’Ambrosio
¶
Automotive Industry 25+ years
– GM, Delphi
– Research, Advance Development,
Product Development
– Model-Based Sys. & SW
Development, Safety-Critical
Systems, Cyber Security, By-Wire
Systems, Vehicle Control Systems,
VLSI Design & Tools, Testing
– ISO Technical Expert – ISO 26262
Automotive Functional Safety
Standard
¶
PhD University of Michigan – EE
Design Methods / Optimization
¶
50+ publications, 7 patents
Warren, MI
SHANGHAI, CHINA
PALO ALTO, CA
HERZLIYA, ISRAEL
BIG THINGS ARE COMING…
There Has Never Been A
Better Time To Be An
AUTOMOTIVE
EMBEDDED SYSTEM
ENGINEER
AND WE HAVE A FRONT ROW SEAT!
Energized by
Petroleum
Energized by Biofuels,
Electricity, and
Hydrogen
Powered Mechanically by
Internal Combustion
Engine
Powered Electrically by
Electric Motors
Controlled
Mechanically
Controlled
Electronically
Stand-alone
“Connected”
Totally Dependence
on the Driver
Semi/Full Autonomous
Driving
Vehicle Sized for Max
Use – People and
Cargo
Vehicle Tailored to
Specific Use
CADILLAC DRIVER ASSISTANCE /
ACTIVE SAFETY
Package 1 – “Driver Awareness Package”
Package 2 – “Driver Assist Package”
Cadillac ATS
Cadillac XTS
Cadillac SRX
Cadillac ATS
Cadillac XTS
Cadillac SRX
Front Camera
Ultrasonic Sensors
Short Range Radars
Long/Mid Range Radar
Short Range Radars
Front Camera
Rear Camera
Ultrasonic Sensors
 Lane Departure Warning
Safety Alert Seat
 Forward Collision Alert
 Side Blind-Zone Alert
 Rear Cross-Traffic Alert
 Haptic Safety Alert Seat Feedback
Also includes:
 Rear Vision Camera
 Front & Rear Park Assist
Short Range Radars
Short Range Radar
Rear Camera
Package 1 plus:
 Full Speed-Range ACC (Stop w/Go Notifier)
 Auto Collision Preparation (includes Collision
Imminent Braking)
 Low-Speed Front/Rear Automatic Braking
(Emergency Braking to Avoid Contact)
7
7
Improving Safety with V2V/V2X
COMMUNICATIONS
+ “Warning”
“Warning”
AUTONOMOUS DRIVING
Forward Vision System
– Lane tracking
– Object detection
– Far IR Capability
ShortRange
Sensors Long-Range
Scanning
Sensor
ShortRange
Long- Sensors
Range
Sensors
Rear Vision SystemEnhanced
– Object detection
Digital Map
– Far IR Capability
System
Forward Vision System
Ultrasonic
Sensors
Ultrasonic
Sensors
Dedicated Short-Range
Communication + GPS (V2V)
EN-V VIDEO
Outline
¶
Introduction
¶
Embedded Systems Development at GM
¶
Product Line Engineering
¶
Additional Topics
OUR CONTRIBUTION…
History of GM Automotive
Computing
•
First Embedded Controllers
• 1977 – First GM production automotive microcontroller
•
Electronic spark timing
• 1981 – All GM North American vehicles use microcontrollerbased engine controls
•
•
•
3.9M vehicles total, 22K ECMs per day manufacturing rate
50,000 lines of assembly code, MC6800 – 8-bit 2 Mhz,
Comparison against PC industry
PC Sales
(in 1000s)
• Today
•
•
•
40-70 microcontrollers per vehicle
400K Lines of C Code for an engine control application
64Mb flash file system for infotainment application
GM Embedded Software History
Assembly
Language
1985
Modula-GM
(Ada-like)
1990
ANSI C
1995
Model-based
Development
2000
2005
2010
#include <stdio.h>
file.mat
structBuffer;
vehicle
DEFINITION MODULE
{
VAR nonempty,
nonfull:BOOLEAN; Calibration
13
make[15];
PROCEDURE putchar
(x:INTEGER);
PROCEDURE getlong
(VARmiles;
x:INTEGER);
float operating_costs;
END Buffer.
Calibration
};
13
Variable
Variable
Variable
void
show_vehicle(struct
vehicle *);
IMPLEMENTATION
MODULE
Buffer;
LDAACONST
#ACPRESUR
N=num_lines;
JSR VAR ADCON
Variable
main()
in, out:void
[0..N-1];
STAA n:
ACPRES
[0..N]; {
BRCLR INPUTS,IACREQ,ACPR050
struct vehicle car[] = {“Chevrolet: 100000L, 3456.78,
Cal_File
BRESET
DIAGMW3,M66DET,ACPR050
Ford, 11000L, 5000.00};
PROCEDURE put (x:INTEGER);
BRCLR
INPUTS,INOAC,ACPR060
show_vehicle (car)
BEGIN
ACPR050 BCLR IF
TBIMW,ACPRESHI
n<N THEN}
JMP IMNRO060
buf[n]:=x;
. . . . . .
void show_vehicle(struct vehicle *vehicle_ptr)
{ . . .
Calibration
Classes of Embedded Systems
•
Deeply Embedded
•
•
•
•
•
Moderately Embedded
•
•
•
•
•
Real Time, Possibly Safety Critical
Examples: Electronic Power Steering, Electronic Brake Controls,
Powertrain, Active safety
Development Tools: Simulink/Stateflow
Future SW Architecture: AUTOSAR
Loosely Real Time
Example: Body Control, Instrument Panel, Heating/Cooling
Development Tools: e.g., Rhapsody
Future SW Architecture: AUTOSAR
Lightly Embedded
•
•
•
Non Real Time, but may include data streaming; Security is important
Example: Infotainment Systems
Future SW Architecture: e.g., QNX/Linux, ANDROID, …
Classes of Embedded Systems
•
Closed-Loop Control Systems
• Based upon control system theory (e.g., PID control)
• Examples: Steering systems, braking systems, propulsion
systems
• GM Tools: Simulink/Stateflow
•
State-Based Systems
• Based upon state transition diagrams
• Example: Body control
• GM Tools: Rhapsody
Classes of Embedded Systems
•
Non Safety Critical – no potential to cause harm
• Detect fault, save diagnostic trouble code, possibly alert driver
• Tools: DFMEA, Requirements-Based Testing, …
•
Safety Critical – potential to cause harm; timing
properties are important
• Fail Safe – detect fault, shut down within required fault response
time, warn driver
• Fail Operational – detect fault, continue to operate, possibly in a
degraded mode, warn driver
• Tools: Preliminary Hazard Analysis, Safety Concept, DFMEA, Fault
Tree Analysis, Requirements Analysis, … Safety Case
Model-Based Development
Environment
¶
Algorithms: Simulink / Stateflow, Rhapsody
¶
Plant modeling: Simulink, Saber, GT Power,
AmeSim, CarSim, …
¶
Non Functional System Properties
– Timing / Utilization: SymtaS
¶
Electrical: Design Architect, Siemens NX
¶
DOORS, Gears, Rhapsody, RTC, Synergy
Outline
¶
Introduction
¶
Embedded Systems Development at GM
¶
Product Line Engineering
¶
Additional Topics
General Motors
Electrical, Controls and Software
¶
20
GM has one of the most complex
systems and software product line
engineering challenges in the world
–
3000 contributing engineers
–
300 hierarchical subsystems
–
Thousands of variant features
–
Millions of product instances per year
–
Tens-of-thousands of unique product variants
–
Dramatic increase in variation due to new
propulsion systems and active safety
–
Global diversity in legislative regulations
–
Extreme economic and competitive pressures
–
Product line and feature set evolves annually
–
15 concurrent development streams
System Design Motivation
200
160
140
120
Product Types
Supported
100
Simultaneous Parallel
Releases From Core
80
B u ild T im e s 2 0 0 4 -2 0 0 8 Q 1
60
120
40
20
100
0
99
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
CY of Engineering
M in u te s
Number of Core Software Parallel Releases
180
09
10
11
12
13
14
80
ECM
TCM
60
L in e a r (E C M )
L in e a r (T C M )
40
20
0
2004- 2004- 2004- 2004- 2005- 2005- 2005- 2005- 2006- 2006- 2006- 2006- 2007- 2007- 2007- 2007- 2008Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q u a rte rs
21
GM Enables massive Reuse through
Software Product Lines
¶
A Product Line is a set of systems sharing a
common, managed set of features that are
developed from a common set of core assets in a
prescribed way
¶Why Product Line over Products for GM Embedded
Software?
– As much as an 85% reduction in effort for a second
(third, fourth, etc.) application
– As much as a 70% reduction in field claims overall
Macro Engineering
Method
A System of Systems of Systems
Best Fit
Selection
Standardized
Set of
Deployments
Each Deployment Applied
to Multiple Vehicles
23
Development
ACC
LDW
LXC
CTD
KLE
VRP
ACC-v1
ACC-v1
ACC-v1
ACC-v1
ACCv1
IMC-v1
ACC-v1
ACC-v1
LXCv1
ACC-v1
ACC-v1
VRPv1
KLEC-v2
EngC-v1
ACC-v1
ACC-v1
KLEC-v1
ACC-v1
ACC-v1
LXCv3
EngC-v1
ACC-v1
ACC-v1
LDW-v1
DFI
ACC-v1
ACC-v1
CTDv1
ACC-v1
ACC-v1
ACCv1
EngCyc
IMC
ACCv3
VRPv2
DFI-v1
KLEC-v5
LXCv3
EngC-v1
DFI-v5
VRPv1
DFI-v3
CTDv1
Chevrolet
24
Buick
Software Product Line - Single Vehicle View
Vehicle
Controller
Increasing
level of
integration
Assembly
SW Components
Requirements
Decreasing
level of
abstraction
Subsystems – Chassis Engine, etc.
Vehicle
Software Product Line - Single Component View
Controllers 1-n
Assembly
Increasing
level of
integration
SW Component
Decreasing
level of
abstraction
Requirements
Subsystems – Chassis Engine, etc.
Vehicles
Software Product Line - Components X Vehicles
Represents all builds in
the Product Line
Represents all
components in the
Product Line
Represent all vehicles
supported by the
Product Line
Outline
¶
Introduction
¶
Embedded Systems Development at GM
¶
Product Line Engineering
¶
Additional Topics
Additional Topics
•
AUTOSAR
•
Multicore systems
•
Cyber Physical System
•
•
•
Virtual Development
Multi Domain Models
System Optimization
•
Safety-Critical Systems
•
SysML, AADL, East ADL, SystemC
Thank You!

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