Reproductive System

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Reproductive System
Male Reproductive System
Testes
• Also called gonads
• 2 of them
• Suspended in a sac called the
scrotum
• Produce sperm
• Located outside the body
where the temperature is lower
and won’t kill the sperm
• Produces testosterone, male
hormone
• Testosterone is responsible for
secondary sex characteristics
such as deeper voice, facial
hair, larger muscles, and body
hair
Epididymis
• Sperm leave the testes
and enter the epididymis
• Tightly coiled tube, 20
feet long
• Located in the scrotum,
just above the testes
• Function
– Store sperm until it
matures
– Produce fluid which
becomes part of semen
Vas Deferens
• Function
– Receives sperm from the
epididymis
– Temporarily stores sperm
• Extends from the
epididymis into the
abdominal cavity
• Tube that is cut during a
vasectomy, the procedure
to produce sterility in
males
Seminal Vesicles
• 2 small tubes located
behind the bladder
• Function
– Produce a thick,
yellow, rich in sugar
that nourish the sperm
– This fluid composes a
large part of the semen
Ejaculatory Ducts
• 2 short tubes
• Carry sperm and fluids
known as semen
through the prostate
gland into the urethra
Prostate Gland
• Doughnut – shaped
• Located below the bladder
• Produces an alkaline secretion
that increases sperm motility
and neutralizes the acidity of
the vagina
• During ejaculation, the
prostate gland
– Contracts causing the expulsion
of semen
– Closes off the urethra,
preventing urine passage
through the urethra
Cowper’s Gland
• 2 small glands located
below the prostate
gland
• Secrete a mucous-like
fluid that serves as a
lubricant for
intercourse and an
alkaline fluid to
decrease the acidity of
the urine residue in
the urethra
Urethra
• Tube that extends
from the bladder,
through the penis, to
the outside of the body
• Carries semen and
urine
• 5-7 inches long in
male
Penis
• External male reproductive
organ
• Enlarged structure on the end of
the penis – glands penis
• This is covered by the prepuce
or foreskin
• The foreskin is removed in a
procedure called circumcision
• Penis is made of spongy,
erectile tissue
• Functions
– When erect, male organ of
copulation/intercourse
– Provides for the elimination of
urine from the bladder
Diseases
Prostatic Hypertrophy
• Enlargement of the prostate
gland
• Common in men over 50
years old
• Causes
–
–
–
–
Benign, due to inflammation
Tumor
Change in hormonal activity
Malignant (cancerous)
condition
• Treatment
– Prostatectomy
– TUR – trans urethral resection
– Radiation
Testicular Cancer
• Cancer of the testicles
• Frequent in men 20-35
• Highly malignant and
spreads quickly
• Treatment
– Orchiectomy, radiation
• ACS
– American Cancer Society
– Recommends STE
– Self testicular exam
Self Testicular Exam
• STE should start at age 15
• Examine each testicle
after a warm shower,
exam each testicle
separately, gently roll
between fingers and
thumb to feel for lumps,
nodules or extreme
tenderness
• Also check for any signs
of swelling or change in
appearance
Female Reproductive System
Ovaries
• Female gonads
• 2 small almond-shaped glands,
located in the abdominal cavity,
attached to the uterus by
ligaments
• Contains thousands of small sacs
called follicles
• Each follicle contains an
immature egg or ovum
• Produce the hormones estrogen
and progesterone
• Responsible for the secondary
sex characteristics – breasts, hips
widen, body hair
Ovulation
• The maturing and
release of an egg every
• Occurs every 28 days
• If egg is not fertilized,
the body sheds the
lining of the uterus
and menstruation
occurs
Fallopian Tubes
• 2 of them
• 5 inches in length
• Attached to the upper part
of the uterus
• Function
– Move the ovum from the
ovary to the uterus
– Cilia and peristalsis keep the
ovum moving
– Site of fertilization, the
union of the egg and sperm
Uterus
• Hollow, muscular, pear-shaped
organ
• 3 parts
– Fundus – top
– Body – middle
– Cervix – narrow bottom
• Function
– Organ of menstruation
– Allows for the development and growth
of the fetus
– Contracts during birth to aid in the
expulsion of the fetus
• Layers
- endometrial
- If fertilization does not occur, this
lining deteriorate, resulting in
menstruation
Vagina
• Muscular tube that connects
the cervix to the outside of the
body
• Function
– Passageway for menstrual flow
– Receives sperm and semen from
the male
– Female organ of copulation
– Birth canal during delivery of the
infant
Bartholin’s Glands
• 2 small glands on either side
of the vaginal opening
• Secretes mucous for
lubrication during intercourse
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Vulva
• Collective name for the
external female genitalia
• Includes
– Mons pubis - pad of fat
– Labia majora – outer folds of
tissue covered with pubic
hair
– Labia minora – inner folds
of tissue
– Perineum – area between the
vagina and anus
Breasts
• Mammary glands
• Contain lobes that surface
at the nipples
• Function
– Secrete milk – lactate after
childbirth
Diseases
Female Reproductive System
Breast Tumors
• Benign or
• American Cancer
Society recommends
SBE
• Self Breast
Examination every
month for adult
females at the end of
menstruation
SBE
Mammograms
• ACS recommends a
baseline test between
35-40
Treatments
•
•
•
•
•
Lumpectomy
Simple mastectomy
Radical mastectomy
Radiation
Chemotherapy
Cancer of the Cervix
• Detected by a PAP
smear
• Treatment
– Hysterectomy
– Removal of cervix
and uterus
Endometriosis
• Growth of endometrial
tissue outside the
uterus
• Can occur during
surgery, through the
fallopian tubes, blood
and lymph
PMS Premenstrual Syndrome
• Group of symptoms
that appear 3-14 days
before menstruation
• Cause – unknown
• Related to hormonal
changes or
biochemical imbalance

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