sprinkler protection in atrium spaces, is deluge an option?

Report
SPRINKLER PROTECTION IN ATRIUM SPACES,
IS DELUGE AN OPTION?
Ing. J.C. (Johan) Hoogeweg
DGMR, Netherlands
Fire Sprinkler International 2014
Introduction:
Objective:
To give an insight in the daily practice of a fire engineer regarding
High atrium spaces and sprinklers.
2
Fire Sprinkler International 2014
The problem? (1)
Architect:
•Empty atrium / no fire load
•Larger and higher (>40 m)
3
Fire Sprinkler International 2014
Users:
no limits in usage:
•Seating area’s
•(Car) exhibition
•Service desks
•Shops
•Libraries
•Stages
The problem? (2)
Dutch building code:
•Fire compartiments (FC) max 1.000 m2, 60 minutes rating between FC’s:
•Atrium is > 1.000 m2
•Atrium is open with the surrounding floors (no walls/glass)
•Atrium wall is glass (60 minutes rating around 400-600 €/m2)
•In the past a atrium without fire compartments was acceptable if:
• Slow growing fire (max 25 m2 after 30 minutes)
• Smoke and heat venting
• However this is no longer generally accepted by the fire brigade
•Option: Sprinkler to control the fire
4
Fire Sprinkler International 2014
Sprinkler code limits
Code
Max hight
remark
EN 12845
12 meters
• Discussion if this is acceptable
(will K80 sprinklers control a
fire?)
FM global
30 meters
• Wet systems only
• Limited ceiling slope
• Lot of fire damage (fire and
smoke) due to late activation
• Test reports are ‘secret’.
NFPA 13
15,3 meters
•Discussion if this is acceptable
5
Fire Sprinkler International 2014
Deluge Concept (1)
Concept:
•100% based on existing sprinkler
technology
•Apply water over the total area of
the protected space
•Density the same as sprinkler code
(depends on hazard)
•System activated by fire detection
system
• Sidewall sprinklers or sprinklers under
the ceiling
6
Fire Sprinkler International 2014
Will it work (example case)?
Aspect
Real fire test
Deluge concept
Hazard
EN 12845: OH1
EN 12845: OH1
Density
5 mm/min
5 mm/min
72 m2
Total atrium (>72 m2)
8 meters
31 meters
Sprinkler head
Fire detection system
18:34 [min:sec]*
< 5 minutes
Large
Smaller than sprinkler
YES
YES
Design Area
Ceiling height
Activation
First sprinkler / system activated
Fire size
Fire controle
* source: VdS office OH1 fire test
7
Fire Sprinkler International 2014
Activation
ASD
• Activation by fire detection system
• reliable detection (false detection 
water!)
• Always ‘double knock’ system
•Smoke detection and flame
detection (all directions)
•Fire size:
•0.25 m2
•Foam
8
Fire Sprinkler International 2014
Flame detection
Safegards
It’s a complex systems, accidental activation of the system is possible!
To prevent unwanted activation:
1) ‘Double knock’ fire detection
2) Delay in activation of the system (manual override)
Sample:
Max. delay time [4:00]
Detection time flame
detection
Detection time smoke detection [3:00]
Activation time sprinkler (calculated/fire test) [7:00]
time
9
Fire Sprinkler International 2014
Sprinkler heads
Sprinkler heads:
•(EC) sidewall sprinklers
• (EC) pendent/upright sprinklers
• Listed/approved for risk (VdS/LPC/UL/CE)
• Glass bulb removed, after pressure test
10
Fire Sprinkler International 2014
Design Area (1)
Design area:
•Location 1: total atrium
•Location 2: normal design area sprinkler
(e.g. EN 12845 OH 72 m2)
•Location 3:
•Normal sprinklers + Deluge protection?
11
Fire Sprinkler International 2014
Design Area - Zoned systems
Limit water demand en water
Damage
Fire in zone A:
A+B activated
Fire in zone B:
B+C+D activated
•Advanced flame detection required (if possible)
•Not possible in square or round atriums
•More valves and piping required
12
Fire Sprinkler International 2014
Water management
In case of activation, water damage could be a issue:
•Water in elevator shafts/server rooms/storage  € € € € € € €
•Keep in mind:
•Water drains
•Barriers (2/3 cm is enough)
13
Fire Sprinkler International 2014
Deluge cases
Building
Police Academy, Apeldoorn
Curved ceiling
Outside FM 3-26 / FM 2-0 scope
Hirsch building, store
8 meter atrium
Architect: no sprinklers under glass
roof
Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
Protection of restaurant seating area
Existing roof structure
Eneco HQ Rotterdam
Atrium height: 25 m
Pre FM 3-26 K360
Hilton Schiphol
Atrium height: 42m
14
Case 1: Hilton Amsterdam Airport (1)
15
Fire Sprinkler International 2014
Case 1: Hilton Amsterdam Airport (2)
•Ceiling height: 42 meters
•676 m2 (26*26 meters)
•‘no limits’
• parking cars
• exhibitions
• stages
•Seating area’s
•Sprinkler code: NFPA 13
•Ordinary hazard group 2
16
Fire Sprinkler International 2014
Case 1: Hilton Amsterdam Airport (3)
Sprinkler design:
-Sidewall sprinklers only
-Design area sprinkler:
- 4,9 * 7,3 m
No coverage
in the centre of the
atrium
17
Fire Sprinkler International 2014
Case 1: Hilton Amsterdam Airport (4)
Solution: Sprinkler column
18
Case 1: Hilton Amsterdam Airport (5)
Design area atrium:
-3 columns
-24 sidewall sprinklers
19
Fire Sprinkler International 2014
Case 1: Hilton Amsterdam Airport (6)
Design area -atrium:
-24 sidewall sprinklers
-291 l/min/sprinkler
-Water demand:
-24 sprinklers * 291 l/min * 60 minutes *1.2 (hydraulic imbalance) =
503 m3
20
Fire Sprinkler International 2014
Case 2: Eneco World, Rotterdam
Position of flame detection
•Ceiling level: 25-35 m
•Horeca area
•Event area
•Sprinkler heads:
•Sidewall sprinklers
•In the koffee corner
Position of sprinkler heads
21
Fire Sprinkler International 2014
Conclusion
Is deluge THE solution: NO
Will deluge control a fire: same a sprinkler (maybe better)
Water damage: YES
Fire and smoke damage: Small
Is deluge A solution: in some cases?
22
Fire Sprinkler International 2014
Discussions
Questions, discussions?
[email protected]
23
Fire Sprinkler International 2014

similar documents