Impending Changes in Undergraduate Programme

Report
Prof. Gautam Biswas, FNA
JC Bose National Fellow and Director
Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati
First IR:
1775 Triggered by the Prime Movers.
Technology and Manufacturing
became the deciding factor for
World Power
Second IR: 1970 Triggered by the Transistors.
Microelectronics,
Computers and Communication.
Knowledge-based industry and
Information Technology
transformed the society and
started playing a major role in
World Economy.
FIRST TRANSISTOR BY BARDEEN 1947
A MODERN VLSI CHIP
CONTAINING MILLIONS
OF TRANSISTORS IN AN
AREA OF ABOUT 1 cm2
Energy is stored in the covalent bonds between phosphates.
ADP + Pi + Energy
ATP
Hydrolysis of ATP
ADP + Pi
ATP
ENERGY
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Data and Image analysis
Genomics, Proteomics, Biomics
TEM, FE-SEM
Telemetry
Bio- Informatics
Materials for Implants and Prostheses
Robotics, cognitive, sensory
Real Time In vivo sensors
Biochips
In order to accommodate emerging
Subjects, some subjects could be
Dropped. Mechanism for dropping?
Lipson
EMERGING ENGINEERING SUBJECTS
Molecular Engineering
Synthetic Biology
Smart Macromolecules and Intelligent Materials
Manufacturing by Self Assembly of Materials
Artificial Intelligence, Self Learning, Self
Correction
Self Replication
Many graduates are unable to take into consideration
economic, societal, and ethical considerations; unable to
work in teams. We require to look for remedies.
Increased economic gap between engineering and
practitioners of the ‘professions’. Also there is very little
understanding among the graduates about functioning of
the Government.
A plethora of new concepts (especially wrong
interpretation of Industry-connect) for better pedagogical
approaches for engineering . This issue requires more
focus and better understanding.
ABET Engineering Criteria 2000, EC 2000,
formalized some of the objectives of the reform in
the US.
‘Objectives’ and ‘Outcome’ are deciding parameters
Six progressive stages of cognitive thinking, known
as Bloom’s taxonomy, are:
(i) Recall, (ii) Comprehension, (iii) Application, (iv) Analysis
(v) Synthesis and (vi) Evaluation
Cognitive learning is demonstrated by knowledge recall and
the intellectual skills: comprehending information,
organizing ideas, analyzing and synthesizing data, applying
knowledge, choosing among alternatives in problem-solving
and evaluating ideas or actions.
Curriculum
 The current trend world over is to structure the academic programmes
in a Credit based academic system
 The Credits are defined for the activities of the teaching-learning
programme built into the curriculum.
Number of one-hour lectures per week = L
Number of tutorial-hours per week = T
Number of practical (laboratory) hours per week = P
L-T-P-C
calculation
Credit point for the course = C
One hour lecture in a week = 1 Credit
One hour tutorial in a week = 1 Credit
Two hours laboratory work in week = 1 Credit
The Credit nomenclature of a course unit is denoted by L-T-P-C
For example, the Credit nomenclature for the first course in
Mathematics may be identified as 3-1-0-4
Pedagogic thoughts following Grinter (President ASEE) Report
A minimum of 36 Credits of Maths and Basic Sciences must be there for
enhancing the capacity for Interdisciplinary Research
COURSE
L-T-P-C
Mathematics I
3-1-0-4
Mathematics II
3-1-0-4
Mathematics III
3-1-0-4
Physics I
3-1-0-4
Physics II
3-1-0-4
8 credits
Chemistry
3-1-0-4
4 credits
Biology
3-1-0-4
4 credits
Environmental Science
3-1-0-4
4 credits
Lab course (Phy & Chm)
1-0-6-4
4 credits
12 credits
36 credits
Prevailing thoughts in many Elite Institutes
Minimum of 12 Credits is recommended as the Compulsory
Engineering Science (ESc (C))courses
Fundamentals of Computing (2-0-4-4)
Introduction to Electronics (2-0-4-4)
Engineering Mechanics (3-1-0-4).
Two courses on Engineering Practices (EP) are needed for acquiring
engineering skills (Engineering Practices/ Design Practices)
Engineering Graphics/ Drawing (2-0-4-4)
Introduction to Manufacturing/ Fabrication/ Design
(1-0-6-4).
Courses
in Schools
Humanities
Prevailing thoughts in many well
known
A minimum of 16 Credits in Humanities, Social Sciences Arts,
Management, Economics and Communication-skills
Among 16 Credits:
(7) Credits are expected to be completed within first four semesters
other (9) Credits are to be completed during the remaining period
of the curriculum
Among first (7) Credits, one course should be on Communication
Skills (2-2-0-4)
Communication is the most important skill one should acquire
One dedicated course is essential for the students to improve their
oral and written communication skills during the first two years of
their training.
Prevailing thoughts in many well known Schools
Subjects categorized as the Engineering Science Options (ESc (O)) include 16
credits. Such courses are Thermodynamics, Solid Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics,
Transport Phenomena, Quantum Chemistry, Electrical Drives, Geo Sciences,
Materials Science, Data Structure, Analog Electronics, Digital Electronics , Big
Data Analytics etc.
Table-1: Courses appropriate for first four semesters of the B.Tech./ B.E./ BDes
Program.
Table-1 (First four semesters)
Type of Courses
Credits
Mathematics and Science Courses
36
Communication skills and Humanities
07
Engineering Science (Compulsory)
12
Courses on Engineering Practices
08
Engineering Science (Options)
16
Here are a few examples how Engineering Science Option can be used
by ECE and Mechanical Engineering Department
˃
˃
˃
˃
ECE BTech
Programme
Analog Electronics
Digital Electronics
Electromagnetics
Digital Image
Processing
Mechanical
Engineering
˃ Thermodynamics
˃ Fluid Mechanics
˃ Solid Mechanics
˃ Electrical Drives
Prof. Geogre M Whitesides
Courses in Humanities, Social Sciences and Liberal Arts
The students are to complete nine (9) credits (3 courses) in Humanities in the final
four semesters. There will be a basket of courses comprising of Advanced
Economics, Sociology, Psychology, Law, Political Science, International Relations,
and various courses pertaining to Liberal Arts. The courses in Liberal Arts may
include Music, Drama, Puppetry, Cinematography etc.
Engineering students are suggested to fulfill the same general education
requirements as all other graduates. Basic Economics may be made compulsory and
may be introduced during the first four semester. The basket should also include
courses in creative writing and foreign languages.
Total number of humanities courses taken by engineering students is expected to be
not fewer than five. More courses (a total of eight courses) are possible if any
engineering student chooses to take a Minor in Humanities and Social Sciences.
Curriculum Revision includes Syllabus Revision
Syllabus Revision is a Mammoth Task
Three strands —
• memory (less)
• concepts (more)
• problem-solving
(tinkering applications)
— inseparable
Example: In a Mathematics course it should be
told that Fourier Transform, Laplace
Transform would be needed in Fluid
Mechanics, Heat Transfer, Image Processing,
Signal Processing etc.
Courtesy: Prof. Sreerup Raychoudhury
(TIFR)
An Example of Syllabus Design (MIT): Thermodynamics
1 State of a system, Zero-th law, equation of state
13
Gibbs free energy
2 Work, heat, First law
14
Multicomponent systems, chemical potential
3 Internal energy, expansion work
15
Chemical equilibrium
4 Enthalpy
16
Temperature, pressure and Kp
5 Adiabatic changes
17
Equilibrium: application to drug design
6 Thermochemistry
18
Phase equilibria — one component
7 Calorimetry
19
Clausius-Clapeyron equation
20
Phase equilibria — two components
21
Ideal solutions
22
Non-ideal solutions
23
Colligative properties
24
Introduction to statistical mechanics
8 Second law
9 Entropy and the Clausius inequality
10 Entropy and irreversibility
11 Fundamental equation, absolute S, Third law
12 Criteria for spontaneous change
25
Partition function (q) — large N limit
26
Partition function (Q) — many particles
27
Statistical mechanics and discrete energy levels
28
Model systems
29
Applications: chemical and phase equilibria
30
Introduction to reaction kinetics
31
Complex reactions and mechanisms
32
Steady-state and equilibrium approximations
33
Chain reactions
34
Temperature dependence, Ea, catalysis
35
Enzyme catalysis
36
Autocatalysis and oscillators
Prevailing thoughts in many well known Schools
Table 2: The curriculum for the remaining four semesters
Table-2
Type of Courses
Credits (/Courses)
1. Compulsory Professional Courses
30 or 10 courses
2. Elective (Departmental) Courses
09 or 3 courses
3. Open Electives
15 or 5 courses
4. Departmental Laboratory Courses
08 or 2 courses
5. Humanities and Social Science
09 or 3 courses
6. Baccalaureate Project
10 or 2 courses
The final four semesters will have about 25 courses, i.e. equivalent to
81 Credits. The total Credit requirement for the Baccalaureate degree
is about 160. The above mentioned break-up is a sample/ model. The
colleges/ institutes will have enough freedom to add or subtract the
compulsory courses. All professional courses in final four semesters
may have L-T-P-C (3-0-0-3)
Prevailing thoughts in many well known Schools
Elective subjects develop the special talents of the individual
students to serve the varied needs of society & to take the
advantage of interdisciplinary developments
Definition of ‘Minor’
 students may be provided with the flexibility to credit a
sequence of three courses in the “open elective slots”
 These three courses could be from a specific department forming
their Minor
 Students should have flexibility for the ‘Minor’ option. One has to
complete open electives
 No special design is needed for any course to offered as ‘Minor’.
Usual open electives are to be floated with thorough rigor
 The students who would be earning ‘Minor’ are supposed be very
well performing students
Prevailing thoughts in many Elite Institutes
For some specific Branches, one/ two of the ESc (C) courses may be shifted to
5th or 6th semester. In lieu of that two professional courses can be moved to 3rd or 4th
semester.
Fundamentals of Computing (2-0-4-4)
Introduction to Electronics (2-0-4-4)
Engineering Mechanics (3-1-0-4).
Similarly, one course from the basket of ‘EP’ can be interchanged with one professional
level course of 6th semester.
Engineering Graphics/ Drawing (2-0-4-4)
Introduction to Manufacturing/ Fabrication/ Design
(1-0-6-4).
Realizing the importance of exposing engineering students to end to end
solutions, a Project Work required to be introduced
Table 3. No of suggested courses in different categories
Phy
Num
ber
of
cours
es
2
Chm
Core
lab
Math
Esc
(C)
Esc
(O)
HSS
ENV
&
Bio
EP
OE
Major
Proj
ect
Total
1
1
3
3
4
5
2
2
5
15
2
45
(ESc (C) = Eng Science Compulsory, ESc (O) Eng Science Optional, OE Open Elective)
HSS = Communication skills, Humanities and Social Sciences , EP =Engineering
Practices. ‘Minor’ is a sequence of three open electives from a specific branch.
Undergraduate Research
MIT's Undergraduate Research Opportunities
Program (UROP) is ver well known.
The paradigm of Engineering Research is on the verge of third Industrial
Revolution. It is becoming increasingly clear that in the future the
machines and devices will be guided substantially by the principals of life
sciences. Quite a few new subjects have started emerging.
The Bio-inspired interdisciplinary subjects, such as,
Biomimetics, Microfluidics, Microsystems technology,
Bottom-up fabrication, Bioenergetics etc are emerging
fast.
These subjects require being included as the Department Electives or the
Open Electives in all disciplines.
Undergraduate Research
The students may be asked to design/ develop/ fabricate, on a laboratory/
pilot plant scale, processes, products, devices, equipment etc for teaching,
research, industry or society at large.
Hon'ble Prime Minister of India suggested the IITs to focus on:
Early Introduction to Research in the Areas of National Need.
Some undergraduate students can be assigned challenging research
projects at an early stage so that they can complete the work by the time
they graduate. As a result some projects may culminate into complete
product.
Examples of such projects:
•Manufacturing Suspension System of a Vehicle to be used in Rough Terrain
•Bio-inspired Micro-aerial Vehicles
•Amplifier Design for Active Piezoelectric MEMS Resonators
» Many of our technologies have been commoditized
and are easily available even to non-engineers and
school children.
» We require to develop bridges between disciplines:
Minors, Joint Interdisciplinary Projects
» We need to educate young engineers to work in
teams and teach them crossing disciplinary
barriers through ‘life long learning’
» Young engineers have to be prepared to work at
the intersections of their own disciplines and
electronics, computer science, mathematics, the
life sciences.

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