Stirling Presentation

```Bryan Tibbetts
California State University, Sacramento
Fall 2012
Reverend Dr. Robert Stirling
Born: October 25, 1790
Died: June 6, 1878
Studied divinity at the University of Glasgow and
the University of Edinburgh.
Became a minister of the Church of Scotland.
Obtained a patent for his “Heat Economiser” in
1816.
“Heat Economiser” now called the regenerator.
Built first practical engine in 1818 used to pump
water out of a quarry.
The thermodynamic cycle driving Stirling’s engine
was not completely understood until the work of
Sadi Carnot (1796 - 1832) and was named the
Stirling Cycle.
Stirling Cycle P-V Diagram
1  2: Isometric heat addition
P
2
T = const
2  3: Isothermal expansion
3  4: Isometric heat rejection
4  1: Isothermal compression
QR
Qin
3
1
Qout
Cycle is reversible, and so can be
mechanically powered to operate
as a heat pump for cooling.
QR
T = const
4
V
Stirling Cycle P-V Diagram
P
2
T = const
QR
Qin
3
1
Qout
QR
T = const
4
V
Stirling Cycle P-V Diagram
P
2
T = const
QR
Qin
3
1
Qout
QR
T = const
4
V
Stirling Cycle P-V Diagram
P
2
T = const
QR
Qin
3
1
Qout
QR
T = const
4
V
Stirling Cycle P-V Diagram
P
2
T = const
QR
Qin
3
1
Qout
QR
T = const
4
V
Authors: M.C. Campos, J.V.C. Vargas, J.C. Ordonez
Model based on Ford-Philips 4-215 engine
Authors: M.C. Campos, J.V.C. Vargas, J.C. Ordonez
Dimensionless Equations Describing System
Solved numerically using an adaptive time step fourth-fifth order Runge-Kutta method
Authors: M.C. Campos, J.V.C. Vargas, J.C. Ordonez
Optimized Efficiency and Work Plot
Two-way maximized system
efficiency (ηmax,max) based on
optimization of two system
characteristic parameters, φ and y.
φ is the ratio of the swept
expansion volume over the total
swept volume.
y is the ratio of the hot side heat
transfer area over the total heat
transfer area.
Author: Iskander Tlili
Finite Time Thermodynamic analysis accounts for a finite temperature difference
between the hot and cold sources and the working fluid of the engine (required for heat
transfer to occur) and the finite amount of heat transferred in a finite time period per
process.
Author: Iskander Tlili
Regenerator effectiveness only effects Thermal Efficiency
Hot and cold side heat exchanger effectiveness only effects maximum power output
Author: Iskander Tlili
Temperatures of the external hot and cold source fluids effect both the thermal
efficiency and maximum power output
Author: Iskander Tlili
Model based on General Motors GPU-3 engine
Author: Iskander Tlili
Equations Describing System
Author: Iskander Tlili
Results
Authors: M. Kuosa, K. Saari, A. Kankkunen, T.-M. Tveit
Problem Approached
No correlations existed for calculating heat transfer coefficient and friction
factor in oscillating flow
Annular Effect occurs in oscillating flow in a pipe, which is the maximum flow
velocity occurs near the wall instead of the center of the pipe
Fluid flow in a Stirling engine is comprised of laminar, transitional, and
turbulent flows during every cycle
Pressure losses for various geometries were also analyzed:
Authors: M. Kuosa, K. Saari, A. Kankkunen, T.-M. Tveit
Equations
Authors: M. Kuosa, K. Saari, A. Kankkunen, T.-M. Tveit
Nu vs. Re plot
Authors: M. Kuosa, K. Saari, A. Kankkunen, T.-M. Tveit
Results
The pressure losses and Nusselt numbers were examined to determine
that designs which form thinner boundary layers along the length of
heat exchanger tubes but do not significantly increase the dead
volume space or pressure losses are recommended
Authors: Chin-Hsiang Cheng, Hang-Suin Yang
Authors: Chin-Hsiang Cheng, Hang-Suin Yang
Authors: Chin-Hsiang Cheng, Hang-Suin Yang
Authors: Chin-Hsiang Cheng, Hang-Suin Yang
References:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
M.C. Campos, J.V.C. Vargas, J.C. Ordonez, Thermodynamic optimization of a Stirling engine, Energy, Volume 44, Issue 1, August
2012, Pages 902-910, ISSN 0360-5442, 10.1016/j.energy.2012.04.060.
Iskander Tlili, Finite time thermodynamic evaluation of endoreversible Stirling heat engine at maximum power conditions,
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 16, Issue 4, May 2012, Pages 2234-2241, ISSN 1364-0321,
10.1016/j.rser.2012.01.022.
Iskander Tlili, Thermodynamic Study on Optimal Solar Stirling Engine Cycle Taking Into Account the Irreversibilities Effects, Energy
Procedia, Volume 14, 2012, Pages 584-591, ISSN 1876-6102, 10.1016/j.egypro.2011.12.979.
M. Kuosa, K. Saari, A. Kankkunen, T.-M. Tveit, Oscillating flow in a stirling engine heat exchanger, Applied Thermal Engineering,
Volumes 45–46, December 2012, Pages 15-23, ISSN 1359-4311, 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2012.03.023.
Chin-Hsiang Cheng, Hang-Suin Yang, Analytical model for predicting the effect of operating speed on shaft power output of Stirling
engines, Energy, Volume 36, Issue 10, October 2011, Pages 5899-5908, ISSN 0360-5442, 10.1016/j.energy.2011.08.033.
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