Reciprocal Teaching PowerPoint

Report
Professional Development to Practice
Reciprocal Teaching
The contents of this presentation were developed under a grant from the
US Department of Education to the Missouri Department of Elementary and
Secondary Education (#H323A120018). However, these contents do not
necessarily represent the policy of the US Department of Education, and
you should not assume endorsement by the Federal Government.
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Effective Teaching/ Learning
Practices (EP)
Overview and Purpose
of EP
Reciprocal
Teaching
Assessment
Capable
Learners
Spaced versus
Massed
Reciprocal
Teaching
Feedback
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How am I currently teaching my
students to predict, learn words,
question, and summarize to become
independent thinkers and readers?
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Expectations
During the training, participants will be exposed
to the concept of reciprocal teaching and how it
can be used in their classroom to increase
comprehension.
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Learning Objectives
In this training, the participants will:
Use reciprocal teaching terminology and
strategies (predicting, clarifying, question
generating, summarizing) to discuss text.
Explore how the implementation of reciprocal
teaching improves learning for all students.
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Questions We Will Address
During This Session
Why reciprocal teaching is an important
instructional practice?
What are the core components and
implementation steps?
How does this look and feel when I use this
practice in my classroom?
What resources are available to support me?
How do I assess reciprocal teaching?
What are my next steps?
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Essential Question
How does reciprocal teaching
improve students’
comprehension?
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Norms
Engagement
Respect
Choice and Responsibility
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Pre-Assessment
1. Reciprocal teaching is an important instructional practice, known to improve?
a) Vocabulary
b) Reading Comprehension
c) Reading Fluency
d) Phonemic Awareness
2. Which is NOT a component of Reciprocal Teaching?
a) Summarizing
b) Questioning
c) Condensing
d) Clarifying
e) Predicting
3. True or False
Reciprocal teaching involves only teacher led dialogue as student reads a
passage.
4. Which is not one of the four foundations used in reciprocal teaching?
a) Think-Alouds
b) Cooperative learning
c) Scaffolding
d) Jig-sawing
5. True or False
The four components of reciprocal teaching occur before, during, and after
reading the text.
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What is reciprocal teaching?
Reciprocal teaching is
_______________________________________and is defined
as
students____________________________________________;
they take turns __________________________.
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Definition
Reciprocal teaching is an effective teaching/
learning practice and is defined as students
summarizing, questioning, clarifying, and
predicting; they take turns being the teacher.
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Reciprocal Teaching Benefits
“Reciprocal teaching (RT) is an instructional procedure developed
by Palincsar and Brown (1984) to improve students’ text
comprehension skills through scaffolded instruction of four
comprehension-fostering and comprehension-monitoring
strategies (Palincsar & Brown, 1984; Palincsar, David, & Brown,
1989; Rosenshine & Meister, 1994), that is, (a) generating one’s
own questions, (b) summarizing parts of the text, (c) clarifying
word meanings and confusing text passages, and (d) predicting
what might come next in the text. These four strategies are
involved in RT in ongoing dialogues between a dialogue leader
and the remaining students of the learning group.”
Spörer, N., Brunstein, J. C., & Kieschke, U. (2009)
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Reciprocal Teaching
2 meta-analyses, 38 studies, Rank 9th
(Self-Reported Grades)
(.74 effect size)
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Reciprocal Teaching and
Missouri Educator Evaluation Standards
Reciprocal Teaching aligns with the following Missouri
Educator Evaluation Standards:
http://dese.mo.gov/eq//documents/TeacherStand
ards.pdf
Standard 1, Quality Indicator 1
Standard 1, Quality Indicator 4
Standard 4, Quality Indicator 3
Standard 6, Quality Indicator 3
Standard 6, Quality Indicator 4
Standard 7, Quality Indicator 3
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Reciprocal Teaching and
Missouri Educator Evaluation Standards
Standard 1: Content knowledge aligned with appropriate
instruction.
1.1: Content knowledge and academic language
1.4: Interdisciplinary instruction
Standard 4: Teaching for Critical Thinking
4.3: Cooperative, small group and independent learning
Standard 6: Effective Communication
6.3: Learner expression in speaking, writing and other media
6.4: Technology and media communication tools
Standard 7: Student Assessment and Data Analysis
7.3 Student-led assessment strategies
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Reciprocal Teaching and
Common Core Reading Anchor Standards
Standard 1: Read closely to determine what the text
says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it;
cite specific textual evidence when writing or
speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.
Standard 2: Determine central ideas or themes of a
text and analyze their development; summarize the
key supporting details and ideas.
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Standard 3: Analyze how and why individuals,
events, and ideas develop and interact over the
course of a text.
Standard 4: Interpret words and phrases as they
are used in a text, including determining technical,
connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze
how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.
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Reciprocal Teaching and Common Core
Speaking and Listening Anchor Standards
Standard 1: Prepare for and participate effectively
in a range of conversations and collaborations with
diverse partners, building on others’ ideas and
expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
Standard 4: Present information, findings, and
supporting evidence such that listeners can follow the
line of reasoning and the organization, development,
and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and
audience.
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Definition
Reciprocal teaching is an effective teaching/
learning practice and is defined as students
summarizing, questioning, clarifying, and
predicting; they take turns being the teacher.
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Jigsaw
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Jigsaw Protocol
 Number off 1-4 to form groups. (If you don’t use 4 articles, have a
group for each article read.) Reorganize people putting all the 1’s
together, 2’s together, etc.
 Assign each group a particular article to read. Individually they
read and highlight key points.
 Within their expert group they discuss the important points from
their reading and plan ways to share/teach .
 Next, regroup back into your base teams that contain a 1, 2, 3, 4
reader. Each person shares the key points from the article they
read.
 As a team, chart similarities of the articles on why reciprocal
teaching is an effective teaching and learning practice. Post
charts.
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Why use reciprocal
teaching?
What are you currently
doing with reciprocal
teaching in your
classroom?
Questions about the
reading
Steps for
Implementation
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Video Clip
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8oXskcnb4RA
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Reciprocal Teaching
What I Saw
Predicting
Clarifying
Questioning
Summarizing
What I Do
What I Could Do
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Missouri Collaborative Work Practice Profile
Foundations present in the implementation of each essential component: Commitment to the success of all students and to improving the quality of instruction.
Reciprocal Teaching
Far from Proficient
Close to Proficient
(Follow-up
(Skill is emerging, but
Exemplary proficiency
professional
not yet to ideal
Proficient
Ideal Implementation
Essential Function
development and
proficiency. Coaching
coaching is critical.)
is recommended.)
1 or less criteria are
2 of the 4 criteria are
3 of the 4
Evidence of the modeling and/or use of all four components:
Teacher models,
met.
met.
criteria are
 predicting
practices, and
met.
 clarifying
1 scaffolds the usage of
the four components
 questioning
of reciprocal teaching.
 summarizing
1 or less criteria are
2 of the 4 criteria are
3 of the 4
All criteria are met.
met.
met.
are
criteria
 Activates students’ prior knowledge (i.e., asks what students
Before reading the
met.
know or what the text reminds them of).
teacher activates
2 students’ prior
 Reviews all four strategies.
knowledge to
 Has students PREDICT what the reading will be about.
anticipate learning.
 Sets a purpose during reading (i.e., looking for words to
CLARIFY or QUESTIONS to ask).
1 or less criteria are
2 of the 5 criteria are
3 of the 5
All criteria are met.
During reading the
met.
met.
criteria are
teacher engages
 Coaches individual students in any of the four strategies.
met.
students in clarifying,
 Has students do the following as they read:
3 questioning,
--CLARIFY words or ideas
predicting, and
--Ask QUESTIONS about portions of the text
summarizing the
--PREDICT what the next portion of the text is about
reading material.
--SUMMARIZE small portions or chunks of the text.
1 or less criteria are
2 of the 5 criteria are
3 of the 5
All criteria are met.
met.
met.
criteria are
Guides students as they
met.
 Return to PREDICTIONS and discuss them.
After reading the
 CLARIFY words or ideas.
teacher engages
4
students in learning
 Ask one another QUESTIONS.
reflections.
 SUMMARIZE what was read.
 Reflect on strategy use and ask which strategies helped the
most today.
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Reciprocal Teaching Benefits
“Reciprocal teaching (RT) is an instructional procedure developed
by Palincsar and Brown (1984) to improve students’ text
comprehension skills through scaffolded instruction of four
comprehension-fostering and comprehension-monitoring
strategies (Palincsar & Brown, 1984; Palincsar, David, & Brown,
1989; Rosenshine & Meister, 1994), that is, (a) generating one’s
own questions, (b) summarizing parts of the text, (c) clarifying
word meanings and confusing text passages, and (d) predicting
what might come next in the text. These four strategies are
involved in RT in ongoing dialogues between a dialogue leader
and the remaining students of the learning group.”
Spörer, N., Brunstein, J. C., & Kieschke, U. (2009)
Professional Development to Practice
Reciprocal Teaching
2 meta-analyses, 38 studies, Rank 9th
(Self-Reported Grades)
(.74 effect size)
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Time to Model and Practice
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Application
Partner/Small Group Discussion
How might reciprocal teaching look and feel
when I use this practice in my classroom?
After watching the video segments and
practicing the reciprocal teaching, what
potential challenges might you face when
implementing it in your classroom? What
possible solutions do you see for these
challenges?
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Why use reciprocal
teaching?
What are you currently
doing with reciprocal
teaching in your
classroom?
Questions about the
reading
Steps for Implementation
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Brainstorm and Collaborate
What types of data might you
use in your classroom to
determine if reciprocal teaching
is effective?
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Various Tools and Resources
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Leader: Read the next topic sentence or subheading and, based on that, predict what you think
the next paragraph will be about.
Group Members: “My prediction is that the rest of
the paragraph will be about …”
Leader: “ What aspects of this paragraph do you
need to clarify?” (make clear)
Group Members:
“I’d like to know what the word …….... means?”
“Where is ……………………..located?”
“How is this word pronounced?”
“Based on the topic sentence, I think the paragraph
will be about … “
Leader: “In order to check if someone has fully
understood this passage, what questions could you
ask them?”
Group Members:
What…? Why…? When…? Which...?
Where...? Who…? How...?
(Then the whole group answer the questions)
What? Why?
When? Which?
Where?
Who? How?
Leader: “(name) would you please say / write a
sentence or two to summarize this passage.”
“ State the main points of this paragraph please
(name)”
“What are the most important facts / pieces of
information in this paragraph (name)?””
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Tic-Tac-Toe
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TAKE ACTION!
1. Decide how you will model the four strategies
from reciprocal teaching to your students.
2. Gather props and materials for the modeling
session and student practice session.
3. Explain to students why you are modeling
these strategies, and activate prior knowledge
about the topic to be studied.
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4. After modeling, break students into groups of
four and assign each a strategy role.
5. Monitor and guide students as they try out the
strategies, changing jobs after each page.
6. After the reading is completed, bring the class
together to discuss which of the strategies
helped them the most.
7. Reflect on the experience and consider what
instructional improvements you can make.
Decide how you will implement your next
hands-on reciprocal teaching session.
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Assessment Options for
Reciprocal Teaching
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The Four-Door Chart Assessment Tool
Directions for Making a Four-Door Chart
1. Place an 8.5-inch × 11-inch sheet of white paper
horizontally on a flat surface.
fold
fold
2. Fold both sides of the paper toward the middle
to form two doors.
3. Using scissors, cut the doors in half horizontally,
making four doors.
cut
cut
Reciprocal Teaching Strategies at Work: Improving Reading Comprehension, Grades 2-6: Video Viewing Guide and
Lesson Materials by Lori D. Oczkus, 2006 International Reading Association, p. 16.
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4.
Have students write the words
predict, question, clarify, and
summarize on the outside of
the doors.
5.
Have students write their name
on the back of their Four-Door Charts.
6.
Students use the chart to record their
written responses under each door.
predict
question
clarify
summarize
Reciprocal Teaching Strategies at Work: Improving Reading Comprehension, Grades 2-6: Video Viewing Guide and
Lesson Materials by Lori D. Oczkus, 2006 International Reading Association, p. 17.
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Reciprocal Teaching
Implementation Rubric
Use the reciprocal teaching implementation
rubric to outline implementation steps in your
personal teaching contexts and as a follow-up
when coaching teachers.
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Data: Implementation Fidelity &
Student Engagement
Reciprocal Teaching
Implementation Fidelity Checklist
Instructions: This checklist is designed for frequent checking on the fidelity of implementing reciprocal teaching. Fidelity should be monitored “early and
often” (Harn, Parisi, & Stoolmiller, 2013) especially early in implementation. It is recommended that educators self-monitor their fidelity daily during early
implementation. A on-site coach may also observe and use this form to record fidelity. Completed checklists can be discussed during coaching
conversations. If the number of 'Yes' items is repeatedly fewer than four(4), then coaching may be beneficial.
Date:
Teacher (I)…
Yes
Partially
No
If partially or no, explain.
1 Incorporates reciprocal teaching into lesson plans.
Models predicting, clarifying, questioning, and summarizing for
2
students unfamiliar with the process.
Provides examples of predicting, clarifying, questioning, and
3
summarizing for students unfamiliar with the process.
Prompts predicting, clarifying, questioning, and summarizing for
4
students unfamiliar with the process.
Collects data on class engagement in predicting, clarifying,
5
questioning, and summarizing.
Total
Reciprocal Teaching
Student Engagement Data
Instructions: This data worksheet is designed for monitoring your students' engagement in reciprocal teaching. Early in implementation,
collect this data frequently to record how your students are becoming fluent in reciprocal teaching. It is recommended that you record this
student data on the same days you record your implementation fidelity data. You can then compare your fidelity data to this student data.
When using reciprocal teaching, I observe my students engaging in the
following ways.
When predicting, students…
Use the language of prediction such as
*I predict...
*I think...
*I'll bet…
Use clues from the text to help form predictions and evidence from the text
and/or illustrations to support predictions.
*I predict ______________ because______________.
Use prior knowledge about the topic or from experience to help make logical
predictions.
*I predict ______________ because ______________.
Extent to which all students engage in reciprocal teaching
(check appropriate box)
More than half of the
Less than half of
All students in my
students in my
the students in my
classroom
classroom
classroom
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Reciprocal Teaching - Post-Assessment
1. Reciprocal teaching is an important instructional practice, known to improve?
a) Vocabulary
b) Reading Comprehension
c) Reading Fluency
d) Phonemic Awareness
2. Which is NOT a component of Reciprocal Teaching?
a) Summarizing
b) Questioning
c) Condensing
d) Clarifying
e) Predicting
3. True or False
Reciprocal teaching involves only teacher led dialogue as student reads a
passage.
4.
Which is not one of the four foundations used in reciprocal teaching?
a) Think-Alouds
b) Cooperative learning
c) Scaffolding
d) Jig-sawing
5. True or False
The four components of reciprocal teaching occur before, during, and after
reading the text.
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Next Steps: Action=Results
Next Steps: Actions = Results
Content Focus
Collaborative Data Teams
Effective Teaching/Learning Practices
School: _________________________
Common Formative Assessment
Data-based Decision-making
Date Next Steps Form Written:_______________________________
Teams (e.g. grade level or content): _________________________________________________________________________________
Action Planned
What?
Responsible
Person(s)
Who?
Timeline
When?
Resources/Support Needed
Results
So What?
What steps will you take to start implementing?
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References for Reciprocal Teaching
Books






Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student
Achievement by Robert J. Marzano, Debra J. Pickering, and Jane E. Pollock, 2001
(Alexandria, VA: ASCD)
Differentiating Instruction in a Whole-Group Setting by Betty Hollas, 2007.
(Petersborough, NH: SDE/Crystal Springs Books)
Reciprocal Teaching at Work: Strategies for Improving Reading Comprehension by Lori D.
Oczkus, 2003. (International Reading Association)
Teaching Reading in the Content Areas: If Not Me, Then Who? By Vicki Urquhart and
Dana Frazee, 2012. (Alexandria, VA: ASCD)
Texts and Lessons for Content-Area Reading by Harvey Daniels and Nancy Steineke, 2011.
(Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann)
Visible Learning for Teachers: Maximizing Impact on Learning by John Hattie, 2012.
(New York, NY: Routledge)
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Articles


Stricklin, Kelley (2011) Hands-on Reciprocal Teaching: A Comprehension Technique. The
Reading Teacher, 64(8),620-625.
Pilonieta, Paola and Medina, Adriana (2009) Reciprocal Teaching for the Primary Grades:
“We Can Do It, Too!” The Reading Teacher, 63(2), 120-129.
Websites



www.readingquest.org/strat/rt.html (Strategies-Reciprocal Teaching)
www.timeforkids.com
(articles for kids to read)
www.YouTube.com
(Summarization 6 Reciprocal Teaching Part 1)
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Questions You Have

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