George Lawson IR100 - The structure of international society: contemporary international society (week 3) Lecture slides Original citation: Lawson, G. (2012) IR100 - The structure of international society: contemporary international society (week 3). [Teaching Resource] © 2012 The Author This version available at: http://learningresources.lse.ac.uk/123/ Available in LSE Learning Resources Online: May 2012 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License. This license allows the user to remix, tweak, and build upon the work even for commercial purposes, as long as the user credits the author and licenses their new creations under the identical terms. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://learningresources.lse.ac.uk/ IR100 Lecture 3 2011-12 George Lawson The Traditional (Coxian) Agenda an anarchical system in which sovereign states are concerned primarily with their own security Westphalia: an intellectual ‘big bang’ – establishes norms of ‘sovereign territoriality’ and non-intervention 1919: a disciplinary ‘big bang’ – establishes a Western IR enterprise concerned with the causes of war and the potential for peace, i.e. the precariousness of order But: hierarchy vs. anarchy global modernity vs. Westphalia and 1919 Global Modernity Industrialization The modern state Ideologies of progress Image Placeholder Image: Cartoon globe with buildings and flying objects. Subscription resource: No URL: https://encryptedtbn1.google.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTTPR8i4Yl qq3Cb2Pp5UZjn7QeWMyIx0DHqDiB1vKMkxdTySi ML Edited: No This image was removed due to copyright being held by another party. The Industrial Revolution Extension world market, e.g. global trade x25 British power: 20% of world’s industrial output 1890; FDI rises from $500 million 1825 to $19.5 billion 1914; colonization – Britain conquers 100,000 square miles/year 1815-1865 Migration: 50 million Europeans emigrate 1800-1914 37 million laborers leave India, China, Malaya, Java The Modern State Permanent bureaucracies and militaries, e.g. state personnel Prussia/Germany from 55,000-1 million, 1860-1914 Infrastructure and communications, e.g. sending messages from Britain to India 1830s: 6 months via sailing ship 1850s: 1 month via rail and steamship 1870s: 1 day via telegraph 1900s: simultaneous via telephone The Invention of Progress Great international exhibitions, e.g. Philadelphia 1876 Modern universities, e.g. LSE established 1895 Academic disciplines, e.g. IR established … when? Ideologies Liberalism Socialism Racism Standards of civilization Key points Interconnections drive historical development Relations between societies intensify Differences between societies magnify The result: a power shift from Asia to Europe/the west a power gap between states at the forefront of the great transformation and those without industrialization, modern statehood and ideologies of progress a core-periphery international order A New Power Shift? Image Placeholder Image: G. John Ikenberry Subscription resource: No URL: http://wws.princeton.edu/_internal/cimg!0/d1hs3hk dva9p8yk6pqdg43affntccty Edited: No This image was removed due to copyright being held by another party. The Liberal Ascendancy Modernity = Liberal Autocracies = Weak Liberalism binds states into systems of mutual cooperation and mutual advantage ‘The liberal imagination is vast and the ideas and designs for liberal international order are extraordinarily wide ranging. At its most basic, liberal internationalism offers a vision of an open, rule-based system in which states trade and cooperate to achieve mutual gains.’ Hmmm. Maybe. But then again … Differences within liberalism, e.g. Europe vs. US The solution to the crisis of liberalism is … more liberalism? The dark side of liberalism: inequality and violence Is Ikenberry right? Rise of BRICS Stability of authoritarian capitalism Shifting centre of gravity within world economy Conclusion – decentred globalism Image Placeholder Image: Map of the world created through social connections. Subscription resource: No URL: http://images.smh.com.au/2010/12/15/2095995/lea d_facebook_world-420x0.jpg Edited: Yes, Facebook logo and date removed. This image was removed due to copyright being held by another party.