Ch. 13 -New Global Patterns

Japan Modernizes
Southeast Asia and the Pacific
Self-Rule for Canada, Australia and New Zealand
Economic Imperialism for Latin America
Impact of Imperialism
Discontent in Tokugawa Japan
200 years of Shogun. Corruption/poor leadership brought discontent
Upper/Middle class – economy did not support their lifestyles
Merchant Class – no political power
Government tried to revive old ways
Opening up Japan
 External Pressure/Internal Revolt
 US Military presence – resisted – won trade concessions
 Japanese resented unequal trade agreements
Reforms under the Meiji
(15 year old emperor)
Replacing feudal lords with ne political and social system
Government: Emperor had autocratic power: Diet – elected body
Economic Reforms: modeled after west, economy boomed
Social Change: Ended class distinctions, schools set up
Homogeneous Society allowed for social reforms (ethnicity never an issue)
 Growing
Military Strength
 This small island nation lacked natural resources essential of
industrial growth
 Spurred by nationalism, Japan will move to build an empire
 Sino-Japanese war: Japan wins war with China (control of Taiwan)
 Russo-Japanese war: Japan wins war with Russia (control of Korea, Manchuria)
 Japanese ruthlessly controls Korea for next 37 years
 Korean Nationalist Movement against Japanese rule. Crushed by Japanese, many Korean massacred
 Japan biggest power in SE Asia from late 1800’s to mid 1900’s
 Looking
 Japan will continue to seek natural resources and territory
 It’s expansion will lead to a direct conflict with the US pre WWII
Europeans Colonize Southeast Asia
Dutch and British gain early control of region, but most maintain independence
Burma will battle Britain for territory. Burma will lose
British push through Malaya and control Hong Kong
France controls Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia (French Indochina)
By 1890, most of SE Asia controlled by European powers
Siam Survives (present day Thailand)
King did not underestimate European powers
• He accepted unequal treaties and moved to reform/modernize government and economy
Imperial Powers in the Pacific
American, British and French took interest in whaling/seals
• US secured unequal treaties with Samoa, Hawaii
The US and the Philippines
US gained control of Philippines by defeating Spain (with help of rebel Philippinos)
• US refused independence for Philippines. Philippine Nationalists fought for independence
• 100,000’s Philippinos died in uprisings
• US won, moved to modernize. Promised to give self-rule in the future
Looking Ahead
British, American, French and Germany claimed most every island in the Pacific. Japan
also tried to expand during this era (sets up run in with US in future)
Canada Achieves Self Rule (French then British control)
• 2 Canadas (Upper Canada – English and Lower Canada – French)
• Peoples in both Canadas believed the British ignored their needs
• Britain learned from American revolt and looked into the concerns of the
people of both Canadas
• 1840 – Britain passed the Act of Union – big step towards self-government
• Canada expanded west – 4 provinces created as a self-governing nation
• By 1914 – immigration enriched Canada – US powerful influence becomes a
Europeans in Australia
• Britain will claim in 1770
• Aborigines are native people, suffered under British control
• Penal Colony: Britain used as place to sent convicts
• Free peoples encouraged to immigrate and tame the outback
Killed or removed Aborigines
Sheep & Gold become huge profits for British
1901 – Britain helped colonies unite at Australia (modeled after US and Britain)
Close ties remain between Australia and Britain
New Zealand
• British claim in 1769 – Missionaries come to convert Maori
• Maori more concentrated, determined to defend their lands
• By 1870’s resistance crumbled – Maori population will plummet
• 1907 – NZ independence granted, close ties remain
• 1st nation to grant women suffrage, old age pensions, minimum wage
Lingering Political Problems
 Simon Bolivar had hope to create strong ties between Latin American countries
 Strong nationalism, geography and feuds among leaders shattered that dream
 The influence of the Roman Catholic church dominated development, poor people
rarely got any benefit out of political or economic development
 Racial discrimination, land/wealth in the hands of a few
 Regionalism, loyalty to a local area
 Local strongmen raised private armies to resist central government
The Economics of Dependence
 When underdeveloped countries export their raw materials for capital/$$$
 This creates a dependence upon the supplying country
 In the 1800’s, foreign goods flooded Latin American countries. Great profits went
out of the country to the supplying country
 A few nations developed industries that brought wealth to their country
 Argentina –livestock, wheat * Chile – copper and nitrates
* Brazil – coffee, rubber, sugar
 Venezuela & Mexico - oil
 The poor did not earn enough to buy many goods. The money went to the wealthy
Mexico’s Struggle for Stability
• Land owners, military leaders and the Catholic Church dominate politics
• Santa Anna – War with the US over Texas ( a territory of Mexico)
• Treaty ending war cost Mexico ½ of its territory
• Struggle for power after war shook Mexican powerful
• LaReforma offered hope to oppressed; Juarez elected president
• Reforms expanded; his opponents asked Europe for help
• France (Napoleon) sent troops and set up Maximilian (austrian) as emperor
• After years of war, Juarez dies. He united Mexico and brought many reforms
• Diaz ruled as dictator. Strengthened central government, army, police
• The rich prospered under harsh rule,
 The Influence of the United States
• Monroe Doctrine: Policy that stated that Latin America was off
limits to European colonization. This would be key to US policy in
Latin America from then on. As a result of the Mexican American War, the
US gained much territory (TX, NM, AZ, NV, CA). As a result of the
Spanish-American War, the US gained even more territory (PR, Cuban,
Philippines, Guam)
• Intervention:
US economic interests in Latin America brought US
military intervention. With the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe
Doctrine, the US claimed (international police power). The US will
send in troops to intervene in many Latin American countries
• Panama Canal:
US wanted to connect east and west for military
and economic reasons. Worked with rebels in Panama to trick
Colombia out of rights to build. Canal was an example of what the US
could accomplish to the world, but the Latin America, it was another
example of “Yankee Imperialism”
New Economic Patterns:
The age of imperialism brought
confrontations between different cultures. A global economy emerged,
dominated by the US, Britain, France and Germany. Capital and
machinery flowed into underdeveloped nations and raw materials came
out of those nations. Most of the profits went to western nations
• Money Economy: Money replaced barter as primary
exchange. Taxes were raised on local populations to cover costs of
governing. As men followed jobs (migrant work), families were
• Economic Dependency: Cheap, factory made products
disrupted local economics. Self-sufficient local economies were
ruined. Most goods produced were sent out of the region. Famine,
ruin followed.
• Modernization: Colonial rule did bring some good to the regions.
New technology, modern banking, communications and transportation
came to these regions. The business class benefitted greatly by
Cultural Impact:
• Westernization: Wanted to “modernize” or “civilize” native people.
This meant government, technology and culture. There was strong
opposition in some areas to westernization
Schools and Hospitals: Missionaries built hospitals and schools. This
brought literacy and better healthcare (vaccines, hygiene). This often
undermined the local leader or healer
Religion: Missionaries came in to spread Christianity to the
“heathens.” Especially effective in Latin America and Africa. In areas
were Islam, Hinduism, Confucianism and Buddhism, they resisted.
Old and New Ways: Many old ways reevaluated (foot binding in
China). Many tried to balance new ways with the traditions they held
Impact on Western Culture: Imports from the 3rd world, brought
changes to the Western world (coffee, tea, tobacco)
New Political Tensions:
Tensions between western nations as they
competed for lands. Tensions between colonial nation and local nation.
Explain how IMPERIALISM affected
cultures in the imperialized countries.
Give 2 examples
What were the ADVANTAGES and
DISADVANTAGES brought by colonial
rule? Do you think subject people were
better or worse off as a result of
Imperialism? Explain
 Japan:
 Discontent & Opening of Japanese society
 Reforms of the Meiji
 SE
Asia & the Pacific
 Impact of Colonization on SE Asia
 Siam & how it remained independent
 Imperialism and the Pacific Islands
 Canada, Australia, &
New Zealand
 How each achieved independence
 How the native peoples were treated
 Latin
Bolivar – reforms he was trying to achieve
Political and Economic problems faced by Latin/South American countries
Mexico’s struggle for stability
The US’s influence in Latin America
 Impact
of Imperialism
 How Imperialism led to new economic patterns
 Cultural impact of imperialism
 Political Tensions that resulted because of New Imperialism

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