Describe aspects of primary production in NZ

Report
Describe aspects of primary
production in NZ
AS 90920
Internal Assessment (3 credits)
 In the exam – the examiner will be looking for you ability to do
the following…
Achievement
Achievement with
Merit
Achievement with
Excellence
 Demonstrate
 Demonstrate
 Demonstrate
knowledge of the
detailed
comprehensive
geographic
knowledge of the
knowledge of the
distribution of
geographic
geographic
agricultural and
distribution of
distribution of
horticultural
agricultural and
agricultural and
primary production
horticultural
horticultural
primary production
primary production
in New Zealand.
in New Zealand.
in New Zealand.
Explanatory Notes
 Demonstrate knowledge requires description of the geographic distribution of
types of agricultural and horticultural primary production and of the
factors influencing this distribution.
 Demonstrate detailed knowledge requires explanation of the geographic
distribution of types of agricultural and horticultural primary production
and of the factors influencing this distribution.
 Demonstrate comprehensive knowledge requires applying knowledge of the
factors influencing geographic distribution of types of agricultural and
horticultural primary production. This may involve comparing and/or
contrasting specific factors influencing geographic distribution.





Factors influencing the geographic distribution of primary production refer to
physical, climatic and market factors.
Physical factors may include topography and soil.
Climatic factors may include sunshine, rainfall, frost, wind and
temperature.
Market factors may include labour availability, proximity and transport to
market, access to airports and/or seaports and access to processing plants.
Types of agricultural and horticultural primary production may include apples,
dairying, deer, fine wool, forestry, arable cropping, kiwifruit and grapes.
Contents
Distribution
 What is NZ’s Primary Industry
 Mapping NZ’s Primary Industry
 NZ Pipfruit Industry (apple focus)
 Marketing NZ apples
 The NZ Dairy industry
 Fonterra – increasing consumer demand
Resource - Aotearoa
Names
of Regions
Resource
A: Regions of New Zealand
1.
Northland
2.
Auckland
3.
Waikato
4.
Bay of Plenty
5.
Gisborne / East Coast
6.
Hawke’s Bay
7.
Taranaki
8.
Wanganui
9.
Manawatu
10.
Wairarapa
11.
Wellington
12.
Nelson & Bays
13.
Marlborough
14.
West Coast
15.
Canterbury
16.
South Canterbury / North Otago
17.
Otago
18.
Southland
[/]
Resource – Climate info
MEAN ANNUAL
Temperature
Very
lowest
(°C)
Number
of days
with
frosts
Rainfall (mm)
Sunshine (hours)
Temperature (°C)
Very
highest
(°C)
Northland
1412
2021
15.6
30.8
-0.1
5
Auckland
1240
2060
15.1
30.5
-2.5
10
Bay of Plenty
1198
2260
14.5
33.7
-5.3
42
Waikato
1190
2009
13.7
34.7
-9.9
63
Gisborne
1051
2180
14.3
38.1
-5.3
33
Taranaki
1432
2182
13.7
30.3
-2.4
15
Hawkes Bay
803
2188
14.5
35.8
-3.9
29
Wanganui
882
2043
14.0
32.3
-2.3
7
Manawatu
967
1733
13.3
33.0
-6.0
38
Wairarapa
979
1915
12.7
35.2
-6.9
60
Wellington
1249
2065
12.8
31.1
-1.9
10
Nelson
970
2405
12.6
36.3
-6.6
88
Marlborough
655
2409
12.9
36.0
-8.8
60
West Coast
2875
1860
11.7
30.0
-3.4
54
Canterbury
South Canterbury / North
Otago
648
2100
12.1
41.6
-7.1
70
573
1826
11.2
37.2
-6.8
84
Otago
812
1585
11.0
35.7
-8.0
58
Southland
1112
1614
9.9
32.2
-9.0
94
REGION
Resource D: Sea Ports and Airports
Sea port
International airport
What is NZ’s Primary Industry
Primary: Being first in a list, series, or
sequence
Industry:A specific branch of manufacture
and trade
 A Primary Industry is therefore a business
that is the first in a series of business?
 Primary Industry refers to a business that
turns natural resources into products eg
farming and fishing.
Which of these are not examples of a
primary industry.
NZ’s Primary industry sectors
•Agriculture
•Forestry
•Horticulture
•Aquaculture
Match the following primary Industries
to the correct sector
•Agriculture
 Dairying
 Pip fruit (eg apples)
 Berries
 Grapes
 Pork
•Forestry
 Citrus
 Cut flowers
 Arable crops (eg wheat)
•Horticulture
 Pinus radiata
 Poultry
 Deer
 Extensive sheep and beef
•Aquaculture
 Semi-intensive sheep and beef
 Market gardens
 wool
•Vitaculture
Map of
NZ
showing
trends in
Land-use
What are the factors that influence
what the land can be used for in NZ
Physical factors
 topography
 aspect
 Soil
Climate factors




Rainfall
Temperature (inc frost)
Sunlight hours
Wind
Market factors
 labour availability
 market proximity
Case study one. NZ apples
 Apples are NZ’s third
largest horticultural crop
 In 2007 export apples
earned NZ $343,000,000
Apples in NZ
 Apple trees require a dry summer and cool winter.
 The apple tree thrives in locations that have a distinct winter




period (the tree must have a dormancy period of at least
1200 hours per year under 7.2ºC)
The summer needs to be dry and warm with intense
sunshine.
Nelson, Hawkes Bay and Otago and have the climate and soil
fertility ideally suited for growing apples
Conditions found in Nelson produce fantastic colour, texture
and flavour in apples.
Link to ENZA – showing varieties grown in each region
Apples in NZ
Major apple growing
regions in NZ
 Hawke’s Bay
 Nelson
 Otago
Minor regions
 Wairarapa
 Marlborough
Link to Niwa climate data - graphs
Apples in NZ
 Practice Question
Explain how TWO physical factors influence the location
of the apple orchards in NZ.
Explanation of physical factor (climatic):
The climate ideally is moderate in rainfall so that the grower does not have the cost
of irrigation.
High sunshine hours, cool winters, and warm summers allow the fruit to develop
and ripen.
Explanation of physical factor (topography):
the topography of the land used for apple trees is flat plains, which allows for easier
harvesting and management of the trees (pruning and thinning).
Apples in NZ
Labour availability
 Apples require major seasonal work inputs.
o Feb March April – Picking
o June July August – Prunning
o November – Thinning
o This requires the orchards to be located in areas where
seasonal workers live or can easily relocate to.
 Click for link to Seasonal work website
Apples in NZ
Market Proximity
 The majority of apples in NZ are exported as ‘fresh’. A
minor amount are exported as processed (eg apple juice).
 Each orchard needs to be able to transport their apples
quickly to a packing and storage facility.
 Nelson has multiple packing houses and coolstores
Link to Jazz site – packaging options
Link to jazz – promotional website
Apples in NZ
 If your orchard is close to a pack house and cool store
 Transport costs are reduced
 Risk of damage in transit is reduced
 Product can be placed in ideal storage conditions quickly,
reducing perishability.
NZ Dairy Industry
 The value of New Zealand dairy exports in 2009-10 was $NZ




10.1 billion,
The dairy industry is New Zealand’s biggest export earner
New Zealand has 11,618 dairy herds and 4.25 million dairy cows
and heifers in milk in (2008/09).
New Zealand produces about 2% of total world production at
around 16 billion litres per annum but, unlike most other
countries, around 95% of it's dairy produce is exported rather
than consumed by the domestic market.
New Zealand is the world’s largest butter exporter and accounts
for about 44% of all traded butter.
NZ Dairy Industry
 In summary NZ is very good at making top quality dairy
products at a low cost!
 Key strengths of New Zealand’s world-class dairy industry
are its:
 efficient all-grass farming system,
 large-scale processing,
NZ Dairy Industry
Dairy cow Feed supply curve (when does the grass grow)
The better matched feed supply is
to feed demand – the cheaper it is
to produce milk
Feed Demand information (NZ Dairy Website)
Daily milking cow requirements: kg
DM/cow/day at 11.0 MJ ME/kg DM
 Breed

 J




350
J
400
J x F 450
Fr 500
Fr 550
Data from DairyNZ
kg Lwt
1.0
1.2
11.1 12.5
11.5 12.9
12.2 13.7
12.8 14.3
13.3 14.8
kg MS/cow/day
1.4
1.6
1.8
13.9 15.3 16.7
14.3 15.7 17.2
15.2 16.6 18.1
15.8 17.3 18.8
16.3 17.8 19.3
- http://www.dairynz.co.nz/file/fileid/33397
NZ Dairy Industry
 Dairy Cow Feed demand Curve
Late summer
drying off
Birth (start of lactation)
Feed
require
ments
NZ Dairy Industry
The better matched feed supply is
to feed demand – the cheaper it is
to produce milk
Too much
grass
Too little
grass
Feed Demand information (NZ Dairy Website)
NZ Dairy Industry
Feed supply – when does the grass grow
A top producing dairy farm would
have a pasture growth curve more
like the red line. Note the more
even seasonal growth giving less
dips and peaks in pasture growth.
Feed Demand information (NZ Dairy Website)
NZ Dairy Industry
 In summary a good diary farm will have a climate that
enables the grass to grow all year round.
 Climate conditions for this include
 Mild winters (warm winter temperatures)
 This keeps the soil temperature up over winter and allows a good ‘cover’
of grass going into calving
 Reliable rainfall over summer
 This enables the grass to keep over summer and extend the lactation
period through to autumn
 Note: ‘cover’ of grass = amount of grass stored in the paddock waiting to
be fed to the cows
Key Dairy Farm areas in NZ
 Northland
 Waikato
 Taranaki
 Manawatu
 Otago/Southland (with
the introduction of
irrigation)
Link to picture of irrigated Southland
dairy farm
NZ Dairy Industry
 Market Factors.
 Most NZ dairy farms have the ability to store their milk for 2 to 3
days in one of these. After this it needs one of these to visit.
NZ Dairy Industry
 Therefore dairy farms need to be close to a milk processing
factory or collection point.
Link to map showing location
of Fontera dairy factories
NZ Dairy Industry
When formed in 2001, Fonterra was owned by 11,000 dairy farmers and supplied 95% of the
country’s milk.
The volume and reliability of Fonterra’s milk supply, which comes from more than
12,000 dairy farmers, has made it one of the top 10 dairy companies in the world.
It is the leading New Zealand exporter of dairy products and is responsible for a third of
international dairy trade.
Fonterra’s global milk supply comes from farms in New Zealand, Australia, Chile and China,
and it sells products to customers and consumers in 140 countries. It collects more than 13
billion litres of milk a year, and manufactures and markets over 1.8 million tonnes of product
annually. It has around 20,000 staff in 40 countries, with over half of its staff working outside
New Zealand.
NZ Dairy Industry
 How does Fontera as a grower organisation increase
consumer demand?
 By having a large and reliable supply – Fontera can negotiate
large trade agreements with different countries or large
companies.
 These trade aggreements mean that NZ dairy farmers have
access to these markets and can therefore produce more milk
to fill t he market needs.

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