2_SECO - E-waste Managmenet Forum

Report
State Secretariat for Economic Affairs
e-Waste Management in Developing Countries:
Donor’s Motivation and Expectation
Mathias Schluep (Empa),
Stefan Denzler (SECO)
E-Waste Management Forum:
“Green Business Opportunities”
(E-waste 2010),
23-24 November 2010,
Marrakech, Morocco
Table of Contents
• SECO‘s Economic Development Cooperation
• Knowledge Partnerships for e-Waste Recycling
• Sustainable Industries for Secondary Resources
• Future Challenges & Expectations
Objectives of SECO‘s
Economic Development Cooperation
Economic Dev. Cooperation SECO = Swiss Competency Center for
 Sustainable Economic Dev. of Developing and Transition Countries
 Sustainable Integration of Partner Countries into Global Economy
Objective Trade Promotion
 Trade Promotion along Value Chains (Goods and Services!)
 Framework Conditions for Trade (WTO; MEAs etc.)
 Market Access for Developing Countries to Switzerland and Europe
In-house competency within SECO
 Trade Agreements Switzerland (WTO and bilateral)
 Labour Conditions in Switzerland, and focal point for ILO
 Swiss Focal Point for OECD Guidelines on MNE
 Close Contact to Swiss Industry, Retailers, Traders (e.g. Commodities)
 Location Switzerland, Regional Economic Promotion incl. Tourism
Economic Development Cooperation
Geographic Focus
Framework Credit VII (approved by Swiss Parliament in December 2008):
Seven Priority Countries – Colombia, Peru, Egypt, Ghana, South Africa,
Vietnam, Indonesia. (50% of funds)
Cooperation with Transition Countries: Central Asia; Balkan
Cohesion Funds: 10 new EU Members; pending Romania and Bulgaria.
Sustainable Trade and Climate Issues: Emerging markets China and India
Operational Units / Instruments (total 60 staff; 220 million CHF/year)
Macroeconomic Support
Private Sector Promotion (Investment Promotion)
Trade Promotion
Infrastructure Financing
Cooperation Approach: Value Chains
SEQUENTIAL APPROACH : GLOBAL SUPPLY CHAIN SUPPORT
IMPROVED
COMMODITY
EXPORTS
IMPROVED
EXPORT
CAPACITIES OF
SMEs
I EXPORT PROMOTION
IMPROVED
INSTITUTIONAL
ENVIRONMENT
FOR EXPORTS
IMPROVED
INTEGRATION
INTO MULTILATERAL
TRADING
SYSTEM
II TRADE POLICY
• COMMODITIES: MULTISTAKEHOLDER
• SECTORAL POLICIES (SERVICES,
ROUNDTABLES FOR SUSTAINABLE
COMPETITION, TRIPS, GOVERNMENT
COMMODITIES
PROCUREMENT etc.)
•
• INNOVATIVE EXPORT PRODUCTS AND SERVICES IMPLEMENTATION, SUPPORT for MEA (KYOTO,
BIODIVERSITY)
(Nichemarketporducts FAIRTRADE, BIODIVERSITY,
ORGANIC etc.)
• SUPPORT of ESAs
• CONFORMITY ASSESSMENTS
• CLEANER PRODUCTION and CORE LABOUR
STANDARDS
• STANDARDISATION BODIES, LABORATORIES
• WTO ACCESSION SUPPORT and
IMPLEMENTATION
IMPROVED
ACCESS TO
SWISS AND EU
MARKET
III IMPORT PROMOTION
• GSP
• SIPPO
• LABELS
Examples of Trade Promotion Projects
Cleaner Production Centers (CPC): Information, Assessement, Trainings
for Industry and Local Consultants Regarding Eco-Efficiency (UNIDO);
Green Credit Lines: Colombia, Peru, Vietnam
Core Labour Standards at company level (Better Work ILO)
CDM Capacity Building: DNAs; CDM Methodologies (World Bank)
Commodity Sustainability Standards: Multi Stakeholder Processes for
Tropical Timber, Coffee, Soya, Sugar, Cotton, Biofuels
Biotrade (Biodiversity Management and Exports), UNCTAD
International Trade Center, Geneva
SIPPO = Swiss Import Promotion Program
Knowledge Partnerships for e-Waste Recycling
Why e-waste Recycling?
Information Technologies: Dynamic
sector with increasing waste flow;
enviromental and health problems when
recycling informally
International Regulation (Basel
Convention) but difficult to control – what is
second hand for use, what is waste?
Economic opportunities: Refurbishment;
precious metals, copper; in the long term:
Commodity supply problem for certain
metals
Switzerland has been pioneer in e-waste
recycling: Initiated by the OEM and run
through private system operators (SWICO
and SENS)
Challenges and opportunities
e-Waste is valuable ... creates jobs …
can be hazardous!
Copper sludge
desoldering of components
sorting of plastics
History e-Waste Programme
July 2003 concept clearance SECO for
entire 3-phase programme and funding for
Phase 1 (Assessment).
Decisions in Aug'04 for Phase 2
(Planning) and in Aug'05 for Phase 3
(Implementation).
Phase 3 completed in China, India (3Q05
-Dec'08) and South Africa (Dec’09).
Latin America extension Peru and
Colombia (assessment/planning in
2007/2008). Activities in both countries
officially started in Jul'09 for 3 years.
Currently investigating for a possible
Phase 4: widening the focus from “ewaste only” to “Sustainable Industries
for Secondary Resources”
Sustainable Industries
for Secondary Resources
GHG emissions
Energy
Source
e.g. Metals
feedback /
indicators
mine
refine,
process
manufacture
use &
consume
recycle e.g. Waste
control
input
Technology , Economics, Politics, Legislation, Society
Sink
Sustainable Industries
for Secondary Resources
refine,
purify,
enhance,
certify, ...
recycle,
recover,
dismantle,
segregate,
sort, ...
• A considerable and fast growing share of essential non renewable natural
resources end up in end-of-life consumer products in developing and
transitional countries
• There, if at all, they often are recovered inefficiently and at great external
costs by an informal sector / industry and hardly can compete with
established primary resources.
• Improvements in capacities and efficiencies for the recovery and return of
secondary resources as well as the participation of the aforementioned
industries in the global commodity trade is paramount
Example: Pilot Bangalore
Consume
Collection
Recycling
Disposal
Informal
Scrap Delaer
Middlemen
(Auction)
Corporate
1
Private
3
Informal
Disposal &
Burning
Informal
Sector
Rag Pickers
2
1
Auction and donation as a cheap disposal option
2
Insufficient handling of critical fractions, Burning of plastics,
Recovery of gold with cyanid und mercury
Emissions to the environment through leaching and burning
3
Example: Pilot Bangalore
Informal sector Bangalore
•
•
•
•
only  20% gets recovered
> 60% loss due to the manual
dimantling process
> 50 % loss due to the wet-chemical
leaching process
Emissions are dramatic: up to 400x
European thresholds
State of the art smelter
•
•
Recovery rate of up to 95%
Plus other metal, e.g. paladium, silver,
copper etc,
•
High – tech off-gass control and
treatment system
Example: Pilot Bangalore
Idea: Combination of the strengths = “Best of 2 Worlds:
participation of the informal sector in the global commodity trade
• Using the strengths
– local: collection, „intelligent“ sorting and dismantling (traditional strengths)
– International: High Tech Recycling in Europe of the critical fractions
(especially printed circuit boards & batteries)
• Solution:
– Development of a cooperative structurer for buying from the familiy
businesses and accumulating critical volumes
– When critical volumes are reached (container size) export to hight tech
refinery
– Financial return goes back to the informel sector via the cooperative structure
-> income should be higher than before and still pay for the transport
• Pilot currently enters the crucial phase (export licence for shipping the first
container) with internat. partnership with Empa, Umicore, GTZ & StEP
Future Challenges & Expectations
Scaling up/ consolidation of current achievements
Multiplication in other developing countries
Adaptation to local/national circumstances, find the most efficient way
E-waste recycling is a Public Private Partnership!
Regulation is needed; but public sector does not need to run recycling
facilities
Extended producer responsibility: „buy-in“ from the IT industry
International cooperation/trade with specialized recycling companies
International Standards for safe and efficient e-waste recycling
E-waste / Secondary Resources sustainability standard?
Contact
Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (Empa)
Technology and Society Laboratory
Mathias Schluep, Program Manager
Tel.: +41 71 274 78 57
Fax: +41 71 274 78 62
e-mail: [email protected]
Empa Web Site: www.empa.ch/tsl, www.ewasteguide.info
State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (SECO)
Trade Cooperation
Stefan Denzler, Program Manager
Tel.: +41 31 322 75 62
Fax: +41 31 322 86 30
e-mail: [email protected]
SECO Web Site: www.seco-cooperation.ch

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