Chapter 4 : Ancient Egypt and Kush Chapter 4 Section 1 Geography and Ancient Egypt • The Nile River is the most important thing in Egypt. • The Nile is the longest river in the world. • It stretches about 4000 miles in Africa. • Egyptian civilizations developed along a 750 mile stretch of the Nile in northern Africa. Chapter 4 Section 1 • Ancient Egypt included 2 regions. - Upper Egypt – which was the southern region (Upstream) - Lower Egypt – which was the northern region (Downstream) • They were named for the way the river flows, from the south to the north. Chapter 4 Section 1 • The Nile slices through the desert creating a fertile river valley about 13 miles wide. • Cataracts – are strong rapids in the river • These rapids made traveling the Nile river very difficult in Upper Egypt. Chapter 4 Section 1 • Delta – a triangle-shaped area of land made of soil deposited by a river. • The Nile Delta is located in Lower Egypt. • 2/3 of Egypt’s fertile farmland was located in the Nile Delta. • Flooding was predictable in the Nile, midsummer in Upper Egypt and in the fall in Lower Egypt. Chapter 4 Section 1 • Silt from the Nile made the soil ideal for farming. • Egyptians saw the flooding as a life-giving miracle. • Without the floods, Egypt would have never been settled. Chapter 4 Section 1 • Farmers in Egypt developed an irrigation system, like in Mesopotamia. • They also built a series of canals that could be used in the dry months to direct water from the basins to the fields where it was needed. • The Nile provided the Egyptians with an abundance of food. Chapter 4 Section 1 • In addition to stable food supply, the Nile Valley offered a natural barrier that made Egypt hard to invade. • The west was to big and harsh to cross, the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea also provided protection as well. Chapter 4 Section 1 • Around 3100 BC – Menes became the king in Upper Egypt. • He wanted to unify Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt. • His armies invaded and took control of Lower Egypt. • He married a princess from Lower Egypt to strengthen his control over the unified country. Chapter 4 Section 1 • Menes wore both the white crown of Upper Egypt and the red crown of Lower Egypt. • This symbolized his leadership over the 2 kingdoms. • Later he would combine the 2 crowns into a double crown. • Menes was considered Egypt’s 1st pharaoh. • He also founded Egypt’s 1st dynasty. Chapter 4 Section 1 • Dynasty – is a series of rulers from the same family. • Menes built a new capital city at the southern tip of the Nile Delta and was later named Memphis. • The 1st dynasty lasted about 200 years. • The pharaohs after Menes all wore the double crown symbolizing their rule over both Upper and Lower Egypt. Chapter 4 Section 2 • The 1st and 2nd Dynasties ruled Egypt for about 4 centuries. • The 3rd Dynasty began the Old Kingdom. • It lasted from about 2700 BC to 2200 BC. • During the 3rd Dynasty they believed that the pharaoh was both a king and a god. • The pharaohs status as a god came with many responsibilities. Chapter 4 Section 2 • People blamed him if crops didn’t grow well or if disease struck the kingdom. • The most famous pharaoh of the Old Kingdom was Khufu. (2500 BC) • He is best known for the monuments that were built for him. Chapter 4 Section 2 Egyptian Society Pharaohs – king or god Nobles – officials and priest Scribes and Craftspeople – wrote and produced goods Farmers, Servants and Slaves Chapter 4 Section 2 • The Egyptians had gods for nearly everything. • Many gods mixed human and animal forms. • Ex. Anubis – the god of the dead, had a human body but the head of a jackal. • Re or Amon-Re – the sun god • Osiris – the god of the underworld • Isis – the goddess of magic • Horus – a sky god and god of the pharaohs Chapter 4 Section 2 • Much of Egyptian religion focused on the afterlife, or life after death. • ka – a person’s life force • When a person died, his or her ka left the body and became a spirit. • To fulfill the ka’s needs, people filled tombs with objects for the afterlife. These objects included furniture, clothing, tools, jewelry and weapons. Chapter 4 Section 2 • The Egyptians believed that the body should be preserved. • They developed a method called embalming. • Embalming allowed bodies to be preserved for many, many years as mummies. • Mummies were specially treated bodies wrapped in cloth. Chapter 4 Section 2 • Embalming was a complex process that took several weeks. • Once embalmed and wrapped the mummy would be placed in a coffin. • Only royalty and the wealthy could afford to have mummies made. Chapter 4 Section 2 • Huge monuments were built to bury their rulers in. • Pyramids – huge royal tombs with four triangle-shaped walls that met in a point at the top • The size of the pyramid depended on the greatness of the pharaoh. Chapter 4 Section 2 • The largest pyramid is the Great Pyramid of Khufu near the town of Giza Chapter 4 Section 3 • Mentuhotep II rule began the Middle Kingdom, a period of order and stability that lasted until about 1750 BC. • Hyksos was a group from Southwest Asia that invaded Egypt. • They ruled Lower Egypt for about 200 years. • They Egyptians did not like being occupied by the Hyksos. Chapter 4 Section 3 • Eventually the Egyptians fought back. • In the mid-1500’s, Ahmose of Thebes drove the Hyksos out of Egypt. • Ahmose rise to power marked the beginning of the New Kingdom. • Conquest of other lands expanded the new empire. Egyptian trade also began to grow. Chapter 4 Section 3 • Queen Hatshepsut – increased Egyptian trade • She expanded trade to the North and the South. • She is also remembered for the many monuments and temples built during her reign Chapter 4 Section 3 • Ramses II or Ramses the Great – he had one of the longest reigns of any pharaoh • The Egyptians and the Hittites fought for many years, and would eventually become allies of each other. • Ramses was a great warrior and a great builder. Chapter 4 Section 3 • After the Middle Kingdom, Egypt created a professional army. • This offered a chance to rise in social status. • Soldiers received land as payment and kept any treasure they captured in war. • Farmers and peasants were at the bottom of the social scale. • They made the majority of the population. Chapter 4 Section 4 • Hieroglyphics – Egyptian writing system • Papyrus – a long-lasting, paper-like material made from reeds. • Rosetta Stone – a stone slab inscribed with hieroglyphics • The Book of the Dead – stories of the afterlife • Sphinxes – imaginary creatures with the bodies of a lion and the head of other animals or humans. Chapter 4 Section 4 • Obelisk – a tall four-sided pillar that is pointed on the top. • The sanctuary was the most sacred part of a temple. • 1922 King Tutankhamen’s tomb was found. The tomb was filled with treasures, including jewelry, robes, a burial mask and ivory statues. Chapter 4 Section 5 • Nubia was south of Egypt. • The Egyptians gave the Nubians the name Kush • Kush was a lot like Egypt. • Today desert covers much of Nubia, at one time it was a very fertile land. • Kush and Egypt did a lot of trading with each other. Chapter 4 Section 5 • Many buildings resembled those in Egypt. • They developed their on written language called Meroitic, historians have yet to be able to understand it. • The 1st women to rule Kush was Queen Shanakhdakheto. • One major problem in Kush was that the cattle overgraze the land, they ate all the grass and the wind blew the soil away so no food could be produced.