text complexity band - Bagwell College of Education

Report
Text
Complexity
• How do you know if a student is
Why Text Complexity college-or career-ready? According
to ACT’s Reading Between the
Matters
Lines, “what appears to
differentiate those who are more
likely to be ready from those who
are less likely is their proficiency in
understanding complex texts.”
.
• Over the last 50 years, the
complexity of college and
workplace reading has increased,
while text complexity in K-12 have
remained stagnant.
ROAD BLOCKS TO ROBUST LEARNING
• K–12 Schooling: Declining complexity of texts and
a lack of reading of complex texts independently
• Not enough informational reading—too much
note taking without students having to read
• Too much copying vocabulary and just “looking”
up words versus understanding and using
academic language
• Limited reading and writing connection activities
The Staircase of Text Complexity
In many respects, text complexity is the hallmark of the
CCSS as it reveals the depth of educators’ commitment to
providing American students every opportunity to be
prepared to meet future global challenges.
The combination of the increased text complexity and the
depth of cognitive demand within the task, such as
incorporating discipline-specific questions, generates higher
levels of rigor.
The Staircase of Text Complexity
Providing a specific Standard
10 presence in each grade
level, the Common Core’s text
complexity standard provides a
backward-mapped format to
scaffold instruction. Notice the
scaffolded expectations in the
Staircase for Text Complexity
within the standard on the
next slide.
Specifically, within reading standard #10:
Anchor Standard:
R.CCR.10 Read and comprehend complex literary
and informational texts independently and
proficiently.
Example Grade-level Standard (6th grade):
RI.6.10 By the end of the year, read and
comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 6-8
text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding
as needed at the high end of the range.
Common Core Text Types
Literary Text
• In elementary grades this
includes stories and poetry
for both read alouds and
independent reading. Read
alouds include chapter
books, even at the
kindergarten level.
• In secondary grades this
includes novels, short
stories, poetry, and drama.
Informational Text
Informational text and literary
non-fiction for both elementary
and secondary grades includes:
• Exposition
• Historic non-fiction
• Biographies and autobiographies
• Speeches
• Historical documents
• Technical documents
Holistic Approach to Determining Text Complexity
Source for chart: Adapted from Sue Ellen Patterson’s presentation of chart from the 2011 Leadership and Learn
Center Conference, “Digging Deeper into the CCSS,” 2011
Low
Complexity of Text
Medium
Complexity of Text
High
Complexity of Text
Level of
Meaning
Single
More than 1 level
Multiple levels
Purpose
Clearly Stated
Inferred or implied
Unstated and/or obscure
Structure
Simple, direct,
conventional structure
that makes the
information more
cohesive (such as
chronological order in a
narrative text)
Mostly conventional
structure that is more
explicit than implicit
Unconventional or
discipline-specific
structure
Language
Literal
Some implied and/or
inferred meanings and
figurative language
Figurative language,
ironic, and/or specialized
vocabulary
Experiences,
Events,
Information
Common or “everyday”
to the reader
Some are uncommon or
unfamiliar to the reader
Complex, sophisticated,
or highly unfamiliar to
the reader
Measuring Text Complexity
1. Quantitative measures – readability and
other scores of text complexity often best
measured by computer software.
2. Qualitative measures – levels of meaning,
structure, language conventionality and
clarity, and knowledge demands often best
measured by an attentive human reader.
3. Reader and Task considerations –
background knowledge of reader, motivation,
interests, and complexity generated by tasks
assigned often best made by educators
employing their professional judgment.
Reader and Task
Where do we find texts in the appropriate text complexity
band?
Choose an excerpt of text
from Appendix B:
Or…
Use the Georgia
Text Complexity
Rubric!
.
How will you get there? What steps should I
take?
A Four-step Process:
1. Determine the quantitative measures of the
text.
2. Analyze the qualitative measures of the text.
3. Reflect upon the reader and task
considerations.
4. Recommend placement in the appropriate text
complexity band.
Step 1: Quantitative Measures
Measures such as:
• Word length
• Word frequency
• Word difficulty
• Sentence length
• Text length
• Text cohesion
The Quantitative Measures Ranges for Text Complexity
The following chart outlines the suggested ranges for each of the
text complexity bands using -Rigor Expectations of the CCGPS:
Lexile Alignment to College & Career
Readiness to Close the Gap:
Grade Band
Old Lexile
New Lexile
2-3
450-725
450-790
4-5
645-845
770-980
6-8
860-1010
955-1155
9-10
960-1115
1080-1305
11-CCR
1070-1220
1215-1355
Source: Susan Pimentel, November 3, 2010
Step 1: Quantitative Measures
Let’s imagine we want to see where a text falls on the
quantitative measures “leg” of the text complexity
triangle, using the Lexile text measures. (Video)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hjc2yKfHEso
For illustrative
purposes, let’s
choose Harper
Lee’s 1960 novel
To Kill a
Mockingbird.
Step 1: Quantitative Measures
Lexile Text
Measure:
ATOS Book
Level (a measure
used in the state
of Kansas):
In which of the text complexity
bands would this novel fall?
870L
5.6
Quantitative Measure Ranges for
Text Complexity Grade Bands—Taken from
Kansas Common Core State Standards
Text Complexity
Grade Bands
Suggested
Lexile Range
Suggested ATOS
Book Level Range**
K-1
100L – 500L*
1.0 – 2.5
2-3
450L – 790L
2.0 – 4.0
4-5
770L – 980L
3.0 – 5.7
6-8
955L – 1155L
4.0 – 8.0
9-10
1080L – 1305L
4.6 – 10.0
11-CCR
1215L – 1355L
4.8 – 12.0
* The K-1 suggested Lexile range was not identified by the Common Core State Standards and was added by Kansas.
** Taken from Accelerated Reader and the Common Core State Standards, available at the following URL:
http://doc.renlearn.com/KMNet/R004572117GKC46B.pdf
Remember, however, that the quantitative
measure is only the first of three “legs” of
the text complexity triangle.
Our final recommendation may be validated,
influenced, or even over-ruled by our
examination of
and the
.
Step 2: Qualitative Measures
Reader and Task
Measures such as:
• Levels of meaning
• Levels of purpose
• Structure
• Organization
• Language
conventionality
• Language clarity
• Prior knowledge
demands
Structure:
Complicated text-structures (chronological, problem-solution, cause-effect, etc.) will
add to a text’s complexity level.
*Holes, by Louis Sachar
Quantitative Measurement: 660 L
Qualitative Measurement:
Structure: Story continuously jumps back and forth between three
different time periods/settings, and character groups.
Adjusted text-complexity value: 5.9 – 7.5 for independent reading.
•
Possible “Stretch-Text” : In order to challenge students’ reading capacity—stretching
them to grow to a higher reading level--teachers might have students read the
Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, (7.9) describing the effects of racism during
the slavery period.
•
Scaffolding needed: Teacher should provide critical backgound knowledge, along with
teacher-directed reading of the text.
Levels of Meaning or Purpose:
Texts that contain multiple levels of meaning or purpose (connotative or implicit language,
satire in narrative texts; informational texts with implicit purposes) have a greater text
complexity than texts with a singular meaning or purpose.
The Sun Also Rises by Ernest Hemingway
but
the novel as a
Quantitative Measurement : 610 L
Qualitative Measurement: Hemingway uses
images and word choice to convey emotion
rather than describing it; words are sparse
and have multiple connotative meanings;
the story contains multiple themes.
Adjusted text-complexity value: 11.5+
Similar “stretch-texts”: The poems of Emily Dickinson (11.5+) and
Invisible Man by Ralph Ellison (12+) also use sparse, precise word
choice with multiple connotations.
Language Conventionality & Clarity:
Texts that rely on literal, clear, contemporary, and conversational language tend to be easier to
read than texts that rely on figurative, ironic, ambiguous, purposefully misleading, archaic or
otherwise unfamiliar language or on general academic and domain-specific vocabulary.
• Examples:
– Shakespeare
– Arcane classics
– Medieval, Puritan, or other dialects/ language
patterns
The actual reading level is not difficult, but due to
unfamiliar language patterns and old-fashioned
language, the reading becomes more difficult.
Knowledge Demands:
“Texts that make that make few assumptions about the extent of readers’ life experiences and the depths of
their cultural/literary and content/discipline knowledge are generally less complex than are texts that make
many assumptions in one or more of those areas.”
*A Raisin in the Sun, by Lorraine Hansberry
Quantitative Measurement: 6.8 (Fry Readability value). (NP)
Qualitative Measurement:
Knowledge Demands: To fully understand and appreciate the play, students
require a knowledge of the following: assimilationist debate
Pan-African Movement, the Great Migration, racial tension of
the time period, race/real estate issues
Adjusted text-complexity value:
9-11
•
Possible “Stretch-Text” : In order to challenge students’ reading levels and “bridge
the gap” to the next reading level, teachers might also want
students to read Black Boy by Richard Wright (10-11) or
Black Like Me by John Griffin (10-11)
•
Scaffolding needed: Teacher should provide critical backgound knowledge along with
teacher-directed reading of the text.
JIGSAW-EXPERT GROUPS
Four Corner Jigsaw
Activity:
Teacher Perspectives
Reader and Task
1. Levels of Meaning
2. Structure
3. Language
Conventionality
4. Background
Knowledge
Qualitative Dimensions Discussion
Four Corner Jigsaw Activity: Directions
1.
2.
3.
4.
Levels of Meaning
Structure
Language Conventionality
Background Knowledge
Step 1: Move to your assigned color station.
Step 2: Discuss and become experts about your assigned qualitative
dimension.
Step 3- Return to your original table, use the qualitative dimensions
flip-book graphic organizer to write down key points that you
learn from colleagues about their expert areas of study.
GEORGIA TEXT COMPLEXITY RUBRIC
The Georgia Text
Complexity Rubric
allows educators to
evaluate the
important elements
of text that are
often missed by
computer software
that tends to focus
on more easily
measured factors.
Use the qualitative section of the
Georgia rubric with the
To Kill A Mockingbird example.
From examining the quantitative measures, we knew:
Lexile Text Measure:
ATOS Book Level:
870L
5.6
But after reflecting upon the qualitative measures, we believed:
Step 3: Reader and Task Considerations
Examples of variables specific to readers:
Motivation
Knowledge
Experiences
Examples of variables specific to tasks:
Purpose for reading
Complexity of task
Complexity of questions asked
YOU are the best judge of what your students can manage.
READER AND TASK CONSIDERATIONS
are best evaluated by teachers employing their
professional judgment, experience, and
knowledge of their students and the subject.
Based upon our examination of the Reader and Task Considerations, we have
completed the third leg of the text complexity model and are now ready to
recommend a final placement within a text complexity band.
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4: Recommended Placement
Based upon all the information—all three legs
of the model—the final recommendation for
To Kill a Mockingbird is….
In this instance,
Appendix B
confirms our
evaluation of the
novel. To Kill a
Mockingbird is
placed within the
grade 9-10 text
complexity band.

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