Autonomous Motivation

Report
The Motivational Basis of
Effective Performance and
Well-being
Edward L. Deci
Motivation Concerns
the Energy for Action
It’s what Moves
People to Behave
Motivation is unitary
There are types of motivation
that function differently
Central Theoretical Aspect of SDT
•SDT is a motivational theory, that differentiates
autonomous and controlled types of motivation
Autonomous Motivation
•When a person fully endorse a behavior and
experiences volition and choice.
Controlled Motivation
•When a person feels coerced or seduced into
behaving, with the experience of pressure and
obligation.
Amotivation
•Both autonomous and controlled are types of
motivation. They energize people’s actions
•Amotivation refers to a lack of motivation.
When amotivated there is little or no intention or
action.
Outcomes Associated With High
Autonomous Motivation
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Greater persistence
More flexibility and creativity
Better heuristic performance
More interest/enjoyment
Better mental health and well-being
Better physical health
Higher quality of close personal relationships
 Clearly, support for autonomy has important functional effects
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Across the Life Span
Across Genders
Across SES
Across Cultures
•It is not independence
•It is not a stage of development
•It is not individualism
Outcomes Associated With
High Controlled Motivation
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Compliance if the reward is desired
Defiance when the control is too great
Short-term rote learning
Alienation and disaffection
Diminished well-being
Poorer quality personal relationships
Additional Key Aspect of SDT:
The Basic Psychological Needs
Competence

Sense of effectance and confidence
in one’s context
Autonomy

Behave in accord with abiding
values and interests; actions would be
reflectively self-endorsed
Relatedness

Feeling cared for, connected to,
sense of belonging with others
Basic Psychological Needs
•Evolved necessities for healthy development
•Satisfaction of these needs promotes autonomous
motivation and psychological well-being
•Thwarting of the needs leads to controlled motivation or
amotivation, and to ill-being
•Needs are not necessarily consciously valued or pursued,
but failing to satisfy them still has negative consequences
•They are universal, not culturally specific
Autonomous Motivation
•Includes intrinsically motivated behaviors
•Includes extrinsically motivated behaviors
that have been fully internalized
Intrinsic Motivation
•Doing an activity
because it is interesting
and enjoyable
•Satisfies people’s basic
psychological needs for
competence, autonomy,
and relatedness
•It’s the prototype of
autonomy
Extrinsic Rewards
Doing an activity
specifically because it
leads to a separate
consequence such as a
reward, avoidance of a
punishment, or social
approval.
Intrinsic Motivation
Extrinsic Rewards
Initiated internally
Initiated externally
Activity is the reward
Reward is separate
Focus on the activity
Focus on the reward
The First Reward Studies
•Monetary rewards to college students
decreased intrinsic motivation for a puzzlesolving activity (Deci, 1971)
Meta-analytic Results of the Effects of
Extrinsic Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation
Effect
Size
Type of Rewards
Tangible Rewards
-0.34*
# of
Studies
(92)
•The negative effects of tangible rewards on intrinsic
motivation appear when the rewards are
•contingent upon doing the task,
•expected when doing the task, and
•salient.
* Significant at p < .05 or greater.
Deci, Koestner, and Ryan (1999)
Why Do Tangible Rewards
Undermine Intrinsic Motivation?
Because people have
a fundamental human
need to be
autonomous rather
than controlled.
Chasing the carrot is
being controlled, and
thwarts autonomy.
Other Extrinsic Motivators That Have
Negative Effects
Threats of Punishment
(Deci & Cascio)
Deadlines
(Amabile et al.)
Evaluations
(Smith)
Competition
(Deci et al.)
Why? Because they tend to control people
externally and thus undermine autonomy.
Some External Events with Positive
Effects
Providing Choice
(Zuckerman et al.)
Acknowledging feelings (Koestner et al.)
Why?
Because they enhance people’s
experience of autonomy
Positive Feedback
Negative Feedback
Increases intrinsic motivation
Decreases intrinsic motivation
Why?
Because we also have a fundamental
psychological need to be competent
Some activities in our lives are not
intrinsically interesting, and that’s where
extrinsic motivation comes in.
People tend to internalize aspects
of the environment (e.g., extrinsic
motivation) that are endorsed by
important others.
Why?
Because they have
a need for
relatedness
Types of Extrinsic Motivation
External Regulation:
No Internalization
* Pressured by external contingencies
Introjected Regulation: Partial Internalization
* Pressured by internal contingencies
* Not true self-regulation
Identified/Integrated Regulation: Full Internalization
* Feel a sense of full sense of autonomy and choice
Autonomous Motivation
Intrinsic motivation + Identified/Integrated regulation
Controlled Motivation
External regulation + Introjected regulation
Basic Need Satisfaction
and Internalization
•The social contextual factors that maintain intrinsic
motivation are essentially the same as those that
promote internalization of extrinsic motivation
•They are the conditions that facilitate satisfaction
of the basics psychological needs for competence,
autonomy, and relatedness
Social Contexts
•Comprised in part of specific events such as the offer of
a reward, the opportunity for choice, or provision of
feedback, as already discussed
•But social contexts can also be characterized as a kind
of composite that conveys the general ambience or
climate of a situation (e.g., home, classroom, work
group)
•Contexts can be need supportive, controlling, or
amotivating
Needsupportive
Contexts
Need Supportive Contexts
•Relate from the others’ perspective
•Encourage self-initiation & exploration
•Offer relevant choices
•Provide meaningful rationale
•Provide positive and constructive feedback
Need support satisfies basic psychological needs
and promotes autonomous motivation
Controlling Contexts
Pressure people (through
coercion or seduction) to
perform as you demand, with
•Threats
•Rewards
•Demanding language
•Evaluations and criticism
They undermine autonomous
motivation and promote
controlled motivation
Amotivating Contexts
•Convey incompetence and unlovability
•Thwart all three needs
Amotivating contexts
undermine all motivation
and self-regulation
Manipulating Need Support
Experimentally
Controlling
Interest
Need-Supportive
2.92
3.39
14.45
9.62
Conceptual Learning
3.22
4.02
Rote Recall Loss at 1 week
-4.16
-0.96
Rote Recall
Correlations between Mother’s and Father’s
Need Support and Children’s Classroom
Behaviors Mothers Fathers
Children self reports
Perceived autonomy
.36*
.22
Perceived competence
.15
.31*
Disruptive
-.43**
-.29
Learning problems
-.42**
-.24
Competence
.55**
.49**
Achievement tests
.19
.34**
Grades
.46**
.33*
Teacher ratings
Objective measures
Grolnick & Ryan, 1989
Path Analysis of Basic Need Satisfaction,
Work Performance, and Adjustment in Banks
Manager’s
Need Support
Autonomous
Causality
Orientation
Baard, Deci, and Ryan (2004)
N=495
.57**
.14**
.24**
Work-Related
Autonomy
Competence
Relatedness
Work
Performance
Evaluation
.57**
Well-Being and
Mental Health
Motivation for Medication Adherence
in Adult Patients
Two day
pill count
Need support from
physician
Patients’ autonomous
motivation
Two week
pill count
Composite
.24*
.17*
.18*
.41***
.52***
.59***
Williams, Rodin, Grolnick, Ryan, & Deci, 1998
Aspirations: Life Goals
Extrinsic Aspirations
 Intrinsic Aspirations
Financial Success
 Personal Growth
Social Recognition (Fame)
 Meaningful
Relationships
Attractive Image
 Community Involvement
Relations of the Importance of Intrinsic and
Extrinsic Goals to Well-Being in Students
Relative Goal Importance
Intrinsic
Extrinsic
Self-actualization
.59**
-.67**
Vitality
.31**
-.34**
Depression
-.27*
.30*
Narcissism
-.31**
.35**
Physical Symptoms
-.35*
.43*
Relations of Parental Need Support to Their
Children’s Extrinsic Aspirations & Risk Behaviors
Adolescents’ Extrinsic Aspirations
Parental Autonomy Support
-.26
Adolescents’ Risk behavior index
Adolescents’ Extrinsic aspirations
.21
Risk behaviors: use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana, and sexual intercourse
Effects of Intrinsic (Personal Growth) versus Extrinsic
(Wealth) Goal Contents on Test Performance and Persistence
Extrinsic
Intrinsic
Test
Performance
5.38
6.49
Persistence
1.66
2.79
Vansteenkiste et al., JPSP, 2004
Summary
 Autonomous and controlled motivations
are very different.
 Intrinsic and extrinsic goals are different.
 Support for the three needs promotes
autonomous motivation and intrinsic goals.
 Autonomous motivation and intrinsic goals
yield enhanced learning, performance,
persistence, and well-being.
http://selfdeterminationtheory.org

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