The Road to Independence Learning Objectives: • Tell how the French and Indian War gave England control of the New World • Describe the laws that angered the colonists • Describe how the colonists showed their anger toward British control • Describe the First Continental Congress Words to Know Act: a law Committee: a group of people chosen to do certain work Correspond: to write letters to someone and receive letters back Declaration: a public statement Delegate: chosen spokesperson Duty: a tax on goods brought in from a foreign country Hostile: hateful, angry Loyal: faithful to someone or something Protest: speak out or act against Repeal: cancel, put an end to Statesman: a person who is good at handling government business Tax: money people must pay to support a government United: joined together Colonists Look for New Lands The English colonies grew quickly so they decided to push WEST. On the other side of the Appalachian Mountains, there was rich land Ohio River Valley Oops- France already claimed the Ohio Valley!! They explored the land, made friends with the Native Americans, and started a fur trade! The French and Indian War Breaks Out Which nation, France or England, should control the Ohio Valley??? The war began in 1754, battling in both Europe and in the American Colonies. In America, the French received LOTS of help from the Native Americans They used surprise attacks to confuse their enemy- which they learned from the Native Americans. France was winning the war at first, but England sent over more soldiers and supplies. Then England began to win! They claimed the Ohio Valley and ALL of North America east of the Mississippi River. England also took control of Canada. Victory for England Brings New Problems The colonists helped England through the French and Indian War, But after England’s victory, the British took actions that were very unfair to the colonists. Passed acts/laws that would help England pay its huge war debts Made colonists pay a tax on certain goods One of King George III of England’s law said no colonists could settle in Ohio River Valley Proclamation of 1763 The government said that they could not protect its people against the hostile Native Americans. Although it was because they did not want the colonists spreading out and moving beyond its control Britain worried if colonists moved west, they would buy goods from other colonies instead- no longer sending money to England. New Acts Seem Unfair England went act-crazy! Were passing acts one right after another, making the colonists very angry!! Colonists did not want to give these new freedoms up! Stamp Act Passed in 1765 to enable to government to tax all legal and business papers used in America Colonists tarred and feathered tax collectors, burned legal papers and refused to pay the tax. Colonists boycotted all English goods. Finally Parliament removed the Tax. (Doesn’t mean King was done taxing) Townshend Acts Charles Townshend, minister of finance, looked at colonies as a source of money for England Reduced the colonists’ freedom to govern themselves Put new taxes on items that were important Colonists once again boycotted English goods Trade slowed and colonists were out of work Protests began to organize “No Taxation Without Representation” Since money collected from the taxes went back to England, instead of improving life in the colonies, many protested The colonists protested the British acts in different ways some Americans stopped buying goods from England, other refused to pay taxes (went to jail) “Sons of Liberty” were formed in towns all over the colonies. “No Taxation Without Representation” Colonists wanted a voice in decisions affecting the colonies Boston Massacre A crowd gathered near a group of British soldiers and a round of shots were fired. 1st to fall was a free black man, Crispus Attucks Few colonists were killed and several wounded Colonists demanded soldiers be removed from city! Governor agreed to prevent trouble. Boston Tea Party A group of colonists dressed as Mohawk Indians boarded ship in Boston’s harbor on 12-12-1773. Dumped more than 300 chests of tea into the harbor so the English would not unload and collect taxes on the tea Similar incidents took place in other cities as well. Showed colonists resistance to the English demands! British Reaction to the Tea Party The King’s reaction was to pass the: Intolerable Acts: Closed the port of Boston to all trade Banned town meetings Housed British troops in Boston Required that British soldiers accused of any unlawful act be tried in England 1st Continental Congress Sam Adams invited representatives from all the colonies to meet in Philadelphia for a convention in 1774 Wanted to discuss possible actions against the King All colonies, expect Georgia, elected delegates Some included George Washington, Patrick Henry, John Jay Agreed that a Declaration of American Rights should be adopted and sent to the King Also agreed to boycott British goods Another Congress would be held in 1775 if the king rejected the Declaration of American Rights. King and Parliament refused to compromise… 1st shots at Lexington & Concord were fired starting the AMERICAN REVOLUTION!