Chapter 4: The Road to Independence

The Road to Independence
Learning Objectives:
• Tell how the French and Indian War gave
England control of the New World
• Describe the laws that angered the colonists
• Describe how the colonists showed their
anger toward British control
• Describe the First Continental Congress
Words to Know
Act: a law
Committee: a group of people chosen to
do certain work
Correspond: to write letters to someone
and receive letters back
Declaration: a public statement
Delegate: chosen spokesperson
Duty: a tax on goods brought in from a
foreign country
Hostile: hateful, angry
Loyal: faithful to someone or something
Protest: speak out or act against
Repeal: cancel, put an end to
Statesman: a person who is good at
handling government business
Tax: money people must pay to support a
United: joined together
Colonists Look for New Lands
The English colonies grew quickly so they
decided to push WEST.
On the other side of the Appalachian
Mountains, there was rich land
Ohio River Valley
Oops- France already claimed the Ohio Valley!!
They explored the land, made friends with the
Native Americans, and started a fur trade!
The French and Indian War
Breaks Out
 Which nation, France or England, should control the Ohio
 The war began in 1754, battling in both Europe and in the
American Colonies.
 In America, the French received LOTS of help from the
Native Americans
 They used surprise attacks to confuse their enemy- which
they learned from the Native Americans.
France was winning the war at first, but
England sent over more soldiers and
Then England began to win!
They claimed the Ohio Valley and ALL of
North America east of the Mississippi
England also took control of Canada.
Victory for England Brings New
 The colonists helped England through the French and
Indian War,
 But after England’s victory, the British took actions that
were very unfair to the colonists.
 Passed acts/laws that would help England pay its huge
war debts
 Made colonists pay a tax on certain goods
 One of King George III of England’s law said no
colonists could settle in Ohio River Valley
 Proclamation of 1763
 The government said that they could not protect its
people against the hostile Native Americans.
 Although it was because they did not want the
colonists spreading out and moving beyond its
 Britain worried if colonists moved west,
they would buy goods from other
colonies instead- no longer sending
money to England.
New Acts Seem Unfair
 England went act-crazy!
 Were passing acts one right after another, making the
colonists very angry!!
 Colonists did not want to give these new freedoms up!
Stamp Act
Passed in 1765 to enable to government to tax
all legal and business papers used in America
Colonists tarred and feathered tax collectors,
burned legal papers and refused to pay the tax.
Colonists boycotted all English goods.
Finally Parliament removed the
(Doesn’t mean King was done taxing)
Townshend Acts
Charles Townshend, minister of finance, looked
at colonies as a source of money for England
Reduced the colonists’ freedom to govern
Put new taxes on items that were important
Colonists once again boycotted English goods
Trade slowed and colonists were out of work
Protests began to organize
“No Taxation
Without Representation”
 Since money collected from the taxes went back to
England, instead of improving life in the colonies, many
 The colonists protested the British acts in different ways
 some Americans stopped buying goods from
 other refused to pay taxes (went to jail)
 “Sons of Liberty” were formed in towns all over the
 “No Taxation Without Representation”
 Colonists wanted a voice in decisions affecting the
Boston Massacre
A crowd gathered near a group of British
soldiers and a round of shots were fired.
1st to fall was a free black man, Crispus
Few colonists were killed and several wounded
Colonists demanded soldiers be removed from
Governor agreed to prevent trouble.
Boston Tea Party
 A group of colonists dressed as Mohawk Indians boarded
ship in Boston’s harbor on 12-12-1773.
 Dumped more than 300 chests of tea into the harbor so the
English would not unload and collect taxes on the tea
 Similar incidents took place in other cities as well.
 Showed colonists resistance to the English demands!
British Reaction to the Tea Party
 The King’s reaction was to pass the:
Intolerable Acts:
 Closed the port of Boston to all trade
 Banned town meetings
 Housed British troops in Boston
 Required that British soldiers accused of any unlawful
act be tried in England
1st Continental Congress
 Sam Adams invited representatives from all the colonies to
meet in Philadelphia for a convention in 1774
 Wanted to discuss possible actions against the King
 All colonies, expect Georgia, elected delegates
 Some included George Washington, Patrick Henry, John Jay
 Agreed that a Declaration of American Rights should be
adopted and sent to the King
 Also agreed to boycott British goods
 Another Congress would be held in 1775 if the king
rejected the Declaration of American Rights.
 King and Parliament refused to compromise…
 1st shots at Lexington & Concord were fired starting

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