Managing Human Resources 15e.

Report
Training and Development
The Challenges of Human Resources Management
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1–1
Chapter Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be able to
LEARNING OUTCOME 1
Discuss the strategic approach to training and development.
LEARNING OUTCOME 2
Describe the components of a training needs assessment.
LEARNING OUTCOME 3
Identify the principles of learning and describe how they facilitate
training.
LEARNING OUTCOME 4
Identify the types of training methods used for managers and
nonmanagers.
LEARNING OUTCOME 5
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of various evaluation
criteria.
LEARNING OUTCOME 6
Describe additional training programs often conducted firms.
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Training and Development
and Other HRM Functions
Availability of training can aid
in recruitment
Recruitment
Provide an additional
source of trainees
Training may permit hiring
less-qualified applicants
Selection
Effective selection may
reduce training needs
Training aids in the
achievement of performance
Performance
Appraisal
A basis for assessing
training needs and results
Training and development may
lead to higher pay
Compensation
Management
A basis for determining
employee’s rate of pay
Training may include
a role for the union
Labor Relations
Union cooperation can
facilitate training efforts
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The Scope of Training
• Training


Effort initiated by an organization to foster learning
among its members.
Tends to be narrowly focused and oriented toward
short-term performance concerns.
• Development

Effort that is oriented more toward broadening an
individual’s skills for the future responsibilities.
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36
Training Expenditure Allocations by
Type of Worker
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A Strategic Approach to Training
• Four Phases

Needs assessment based on the firm’s
competitive objectives

Program design

Implementation

Evaluation
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Strategic Model of Training
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Phase 1: Conducting the Needs Assessment
• Organization Analysis

An examination of the environment, strategies, and
resources of the organization to determine where
training emphasis should be placed.
• Task Analysis

The process of determining what the content of a
training program should be on the basis of a study
of the tasks and duties involved in the job.
• Person Analysis

A determination of the specific individuals who
need training.
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Needs Assessment Training
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Needs Assessment
• Task Analysis
– The process of determining what the content of a
training program should be on the basis of a
study of the tasks and duties involved in the job.
• Step 1-list all the tasks and duties included in the job.
• Step 2-list the steps performed by the employee to
complete each task.
• Step 3-define the skills and knowledge necessary to
perform the task successfully.
– Competency Assessment
• Analysis of the sets of skills and knowledge needed for
decision-orientated and knowledge-intensive jobs.
7–11
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A Competency Assessment for a
Managerial Position
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A Competency Assessment for a
Managerial Position (cont.)
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A Competency Assessment for a Managerial
Position (cont.)
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Needs Assessment
• Person Analysis
– A determination of the specific individuals who
need training.
– Performance appraisal information can be
used for the purposes of conducting a person
analysis.
7–15
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Phase 2: Designing the Training Program
Issues in training design
Instructional objectives
Trainee readiness and motivation
Principles of learning
Characteristics of successful trainers
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Phase 2: Designing the Training Program (cont.)
• Instructional Objectives

Represent the desired outcomes of a training program
– Performance-centered objectives

Provide a basis for choosing methods
and materials and for selecting
the means for assessing
whether the instruction
will be successful.
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Trainee readiness and Motivation
• Two preconditions affect the success of
those receiving training:
– (1) trainee readiness
• the maturity and experience of the trainee
– (2) trainee motivation
• Employees who are conscientious, goal-orientated,
self-disciplined are more likely to perceive a link
between the effort they put into training and higher
performance on the job.
7–18
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Trainee Readiness and Motivation
• Strategies for Creating a Motivated
Training Environment:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Use positive reinforcement.
Eliminate threats and punishment.
Be flexible.
Have participants set personal goals.
Design interesting instruction.
Break down physical and psychological obstacles to
learning.
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Principles of Learning
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Principles of Learning
Focus on learning and transfer
Goal setting - What’s the value?
Meaningfulness of presentation
Behavioral modeling
Recognition of individual learning
differences
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Principles of Learning (cont.)
Focus on method and process
Active practice and repetition
Whole versus-part learning
Massed-vs-distributed learning
Feedback and reinforcement
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Feedback and Reinforcement
• Spot Rewards

Programs that award employees “on the spot” when
they do something particularly well during training or
on the job
• Behavior Modification

The technique that operates on the principle that
behavior that is rewarded, or positively reinforced, is
repeated more frequently, whereas behavior that is
penalized or unrewarded will decrease in frequency.
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A Typical Learning Curve
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Characteristics of Successful Instructors
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Knowledge of the subject
Adaptability
Sincerity
Sense of humor
Interest
Clear instructions
Individual assistance
Enthusiasm
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Phase 3: Implementing the Training Program
Choosing the instructional method
Nature of training
Type of trainees
Organizational extent of training
Importance of training outcomes
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Training Methods for Nonmanagerial Employees
1. On-the-Job Training (OJT)
2. Apprenticeship Training
3. Cooperative Training, Internships, and
Governmental Training
4. Classroom Instruction
5. Programmed Instruction
6. Audiovisual Methods
7. Simulation Method
8. E-Learning
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Training Methods for Nonmanagerial Employees
(cont.)
• On-the-job training (OJT)

Method by which employees are given hands-on
experience with instructions from their supervisor or
other trainer.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Coaching
Understudy assignments
Job rotation and lateral transfers
Special projects & junior boards
Action learning
Managerial staff meetings
Planned career progressions
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On-the-Job Training
• Overcoming OJT training problems
1. Develop realistic goals and/or measures for
each OJT area.
2. Plan a specific training schedule for each
trainee, including set periods for evaluation
and feedback.
3. Help managers establish a nonthreatening
atmosphere conducive to learning.
4. Conduct periodic evaluations, after training is
completed, to prevent regression.
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7–29
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The PROPER Way to Do On-the-Job Training
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36
Training Methods for Nonmanagerial Employees
(cont.)
• Internship Programs

Are jointly sponsored by colleges, universities, and
other organizations that offer students the opportunity
to gain real-life experience while allowing them to find
out how they will perform in work organizations.
• Classroom Instruction

Enables the maximum number of trainees to be
handled by the minimum number of instructors.
– “Blended” learning—lectures and demonstrations are
combined with films, DVDs, and videotapes or computer
instruction.
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© 2012
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Training Methods for Nonmanagerial Employees
(cont.)
• Programmed Instruction

Self-directed learning—use of books, manuals, or
computers to break down subject matter content into
highly organized, logical sequences that demand
continuous response on the part of the trainee.
• Audiovisual Methods




Video recordings, CDs and DVDs
Teleconferencing and videoconferencing
Web conferencing, webinars, and podcasts
Communities of practice, blogs, and wikis
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36
Training Methods for Nonmanagerial Employees
(cont.)
• Simulation

The simulation method emphasizes realism in
equipment and its operation at minimum cost and
maximum safety.

Used when it is either impractical or unwise to train
employees on the actual equipment used on the job.
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36
Training Methods for Nonmanagerial Employees
(cont.)
• E-Learning

Learning that takes place via web and computerbased training (CBT)

Allows the firm to bring the training to employees

Allows employees to customize their own learning in
their own time and space (just-in-time learning)

Provides continuously updated
training materials
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Learning Management Systems
• Learning Management Systems (LMS)

Online system that provides a variety of assessment,
communication, teaching and learning opportunities.
– Are “virtual learning environments”
– Can assess the skills of employees
– Can register them for courses
– Can deliver interactive learning modules directly to their
desktops when they need or want them
– Can evaluate and track their progress, and determine
when they are ready to be promoted
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Methods for Management Development
• On-the Job Experiences
• Seminars and Conferences
• Case Studies
• Management Games and Simulations
• Role-Playing
• Behavior Modeling
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On-the-Job Experiences
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Coaching
Understudy Assignment
Job Rotation
Lateral Transfer
Special Projects
Action Learning
Staff Meetings
Planned Career Progressions
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Case Studies
• The use of case studies is most appropriate
when:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Analytic, problem-solving, and critical thinking skills
are most important.
The KSAs are complex and participants need time
to master them.
Active participation is desired.
The process of learning (questioning, interpreting,
and so on) is as important as the content.
Team problem solving and interaction are possible.
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Methods for Management Development (cont.)
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Role Playing
• Successful role play requires that instructors:








Ensure that group members are comfortable with each other.
Select and prepare the role players by introducing a specific
situation.
To help participants prepare, ask them to describe
potential characters.
Realize that volunteers make better role players.
Prepare the observers by giving them specific tasks
(such as evaluation or feedback).
Guide the role-play enactment through its bumps
(because it is not scripted).
Keep it short.
Discuss the enactment and prepare bulleted points of
what was learned.
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Behavior Modeling
• Behavior Modeling

An approach that demonstrates desired behavior and
gives trainees the chance to practice and role-play
those behaviors and receive feedback.

Involves four basic components:
– Learning points
– Model
– Practice and role play
– Feedback and reinforcement
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Methods for Management Development (cont.)
• Tuition Assistance Programs

About half of all large corporations offer their
employees tuition assistance if they take courses
related to the firms’ businesses.
• Corporate Universities

It’s not unusual for large corporations to have their
own “universities” where they train their employees
and future managers.
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Phase 4: Evaluating the Training Program
Measuring program effectiveness
Criterion 1: Trainee reactions
Criterion 2: Extent of learning
Criterion 3: Learning transfer to job
Criterion 4: Results assessment
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Criteria for Evaluating Training
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Criterion 1: Reactions
• Participant Reactions

The simplest and most common approach to training
evaluation is assessing trainees.

Potential questions might include the following:
– What were your learning goals for this program?
– Did you achieve them?
– Did you like this program?
– Would you recommend it to others who have similar
learning goals?
– What suggestions do you have for improving the program?
– Should the organization continue to offer it?
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Criterion 2: Learning
• Checking to see whether they actually
learned anything.

Testing knowledge and skills before beginning a
training program gives a baseline standard on
trainees that can be measured again after training
to determine improvement.

However, in addition to testing trainees, test
employees who did not attend the training to
estimate the differential effect of the training.
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Criterion 3: Behavior
• Transfer of Training

Effective application of principles learned to what is
required on the job.
• Maximizing the Transfer of Training
1.
2.
3.
4.
Feature identical elements
Focus on general principles
Establish a climate for transfer.
Give employees transfer strategies
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Criterion 3: Behavior (cont.)
• Measuring the Utility of Training Programs

Calculating the benefits derived from training:
– How much did quality improve because of the training
program?
– How much has it contributed to profits?
– What reduction in turnover and wasted materials did the
company get after training?
– How much has productivity increased and by how much
have costs been reduced?
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Criterion 4: Results, or Return on Investment
(ROI)
• Measuring the Utility of Training Programs

Calculating the benefits derived from training:
– How much did quality improve because of the training
program?
– How much has it contributed to profits?
– What reduction in turnover and wasted materials did the
company get after training?
– How much has productivity increased and by how much
have costs been reduced?
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Criterion 4: Results, or Return on Investment
(ROI) (cont.)
• Return on Investment

Viewing training in terms of the extent to which it
provides knowledge and skills that create a
competitive advantage and a culture that is ready for
continuous change.

ROI = Results/Training Costs
– If the ROI ratio is >1, the benefits of the training
exceed the cost of the program
– If the ROI ratio is <1, the costs of the training
exceed the benefits.
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Criterion 4: Results (cont.)
• Benchmarking

The process of measuring one’s own services and
practices against the recognized leaders in order to
identify areas for improvement.
– Training activity: How much training is occurring?
– Training results: Do training and development achieve
their goals?
– Training efficiency: Are resources utilized in the pursuit
of this mission?
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Criterion 4: Results (cont.)
• Deming’s Benchmarking Model
1.
Plan: conduct a self-audit to identify areas for
benchmarking.
2.
Do: collect data about activities.
3.
Check: Analyze data.
4.
Act: Establish goals, implement changes, monitor
progress, and redefine benchmarks.
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Benchmarking HR Training
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Additional Training and Development Programs
Organization-wide training programs
Orientation training
Basic skills training
Team and cross-training
Diversity training
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Additional Training and Development Programs
• Orientation

A formal process of familiarizing new employees with
the organization, their jobs, and their work units.

Benefits:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Lower turnover
Increased productivity
Improved employee morale
Lower recruiting and training costs
Facilitation of learning
Reduction of the new employee’s anxiety
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Checklist for Orienting New Employees
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copied,
scanned,scanned,
or duplicated,
in whole or in
in whole
part, except
useexcept
as
©
2012Cengage
Cengage
Learning.
All Rights
Reserved.
May
be copied,
or duplicated,
or in for
part,
for use as
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distributed
withwith
a certain
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or otherwise
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58 of 66
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Additional Training and Development Programs
• Onboarding

The process of systematically socializing new
employees to help them get “on board” with an
organization. Onboarding goes beyond just orienting
new employees to their new environments. It brings
them into the organization’s fold so that they truly feel
as if they are a part of it. This is important because
new hires are at a high risk of quitting.
© 2012
Learning.
All Rights
Reserved.
May not
be not
copied,
scanned,scanned,
or duplicated,
in whole or in
in whole
part, except
useexcept
as
©
2012Cengage
Cengage
Learning.
All Rights
Reserved.
May
be copied,
or duplicated,
or in for
part,
for use as
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distributed
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a certain
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or otherwise
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36
Additional Training and Development Programs
• Basic Skills Training

Basic skills have become essential occupational
qualifications, having profound implications for product
quality, customer service, internal efficiency, and
workplace and environmental safety.
• Typical basic skills:

Reading, writing, computing, speaking, listening,
problem solving, managing oneself, knowing how to
learn, working as part of a team, leading others.
© 2012
Learning.
All Rights
Reserved.
May not
be not
copied,
scanned,scanned,
or duplicated,
in whole or in
in whole
part, except
useexcept
as
©
2012Cengage
Cengage
Learning.
All Rights
Reserved.
May
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or in for
part,
for use as
permitted
distributed
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a certain
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36
Additional Training and Development Programs
• To implement a successful program in basic
and remedial skills:





Explain to employees why and how the training
will help them in their jobs.
Relate the training to the employees’ goals.
Respect and consider participant experiences,
and use these as a resource.
Use a task-centered or problem-centered approach
so that participants “learn by doing.”
Give feedback on progress toward meeting
learning objectives.
© 2012
Learning.
All Rights
Reserved.
May not
be not
copied,
scanned,scanned,
or duplicated,
in whole or in
in whole
part, except
useexcept
as
©
2012Cengage
Cengage
Learning.
All Rights
Reserved.
May
be copied,
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or in for
part,
for use as
permitted
distributed
withwith
a certain
product
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or otherwise
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distributed
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product
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61 of 66
36
Additional Training and Development Programs
• Team Training Issues
1.
Team building is a difficult and comprehensive
process.
2.
Team development is not always a linear sequence
of “forming, storming, norming, and performing.”
3.
Additional training is required to assimilate new
members.
4.
Behavioral and process skills need to be acquired
through participative exercises.
© 2012
Learning.
All Rights
Reserved.
May not
be not
copied,
scanned,scanned,
or duplicated,
in whole or in
in whole
part, except
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as
©
2012Cengage
Cengage
Learning.
All Rights
Reserved.
May
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part,
for use as
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distributed
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Additional Training and Development Programs
© 2012
Learning.
All Rights
Reserved.
May not
be not
copied,
scanned,scanned,
or duplicated,
in whole or in
in whole
part, except
useexcept
as
©
2012Cengage
Cengage
Learning.
All Rights
Reserved.
May
be copied,
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or in for
part,
for use as
permitted
distributed
withwith
a certain
product
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36
Additional Training and Development Programs
• Cross-Training

The process of training employees to do multiple jobs
within an organization
– Gives firms flexible capacity.
– Cuts turnover
– Increase productivity
– Pares down labor costs
– Lays the foundation for careers rather than
dead-end jobs.
© 2012
Learning.
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Reserved.
May not
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in whole
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©
2012Cengage
Cengage
Learning.
All Rights
Reserved.
May
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part,
for use as
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distributed
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a certain
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64 of 66
36
Additional Training and Development Programs
• Ethics Training



Requires top management support
Should be a part of new employee orientation
Should be regularly available to all employees
• Chief Ethics Officer

A high-ranking manager directly responsible for
fostering the ethical climate within the firm
© 2012
Learning.
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Reserved.
May not
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copied,
scanned,scanned,
or duplicated,
in whole or in
in whole
part, except
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©
2012Cengage
Cengage
Learning.
All Rights
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May
be copied,
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part,
for use as
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36
Additional Training and Development Programs
• Types of Diversity Training

Awareness building
– Helps employees appreciate the benefits of diversity

Skill building
– Provides employees with the KSAs necessary for
working with people who are different from them.
© 2012
Learning.
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Reserved.
May not
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in whole
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©
2012Cengage
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Learning.
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May
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36
Additional Training and Development Programs
• Diversity Training

To avoid the pitfalls of substandard diversity training,
managers should do the following:
– Forge a strategic link.
– Check out consultant qualifications.
– Don’t settle for “off the shelf” programs.
– Choose training methods carefully.
– Document individual and organizational benefits.
© 2012
Learning.
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Reserved.
May not
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©
2012Cengage
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Learning.
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Additional Training and Development Programs
© 2012
Learning.
All Rights
Reserved.
May not
be not
copied,
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or duplicated,
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in whole
part, except
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©
2012Cengage
Cengage
Learning.
All Rights
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May
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