Chapter 6

Chapter 6
Birth Control, Pregnancy, and
Methods of Fertility Control
• Fertility - ability to
• Conception - fertilization
of an ovum by a sperm
• Contraception prevention of conception
• Condom - latex cover for
penis to catch sperm
upon ejaculation
Methods of Fertility Control
• Contraception effectiveness
rate - % of women who
become pregnant while
correctly using a method
• Oral Contraception -” the
pill” - prevents ovulation /
regulating hormones
Methods of Fertility Control
• Morning-after pill taken within three days
after intercourse
• Spermicides - kills sperm
• Female Condom - singleuse polyurethane sheath
• Diaphragm - latex device
to prevent sperm access
to uterus
Methods of Fertility Control
• Intrauterine devise
(IUD) - T shaped
device implanted into
• Withdrawal - removing
the penis before
• Depo-Provera injectable form of BC
lasts three months
Methods of Fertility Control
• Norplant - 6 silicon capsules
surgically inserted under the skin
of women’s upper arm
• Fertility awareness methods natural methods…… examples
• Cervical mucus method - based
on specific changes to cervical
• Body temp. method - monitor
body temperature for signals of
Methods of Fertility Control
• Calendar Methods mapping the
woman’s menstrual
cycle for safer time
for intercourse
• Sterilization permanent fertility
control through
surgical procedures
Methods of Fertility Control
• Tubal Ligation female has fallopian
tubes cut and tied off
• Hysterectomy removal of uterus
• Vasectomy - male has
vasa deferentia cut
and tied off
Abortion - medical means of terminating
• Vacuum aspirations - gentle
suction to remove foetal
• Dilation + Evacuation - foetal
is both sucked and scraped
out of the uterus
• Hysterectomy - surgical
removal of foetal
• Induction abortion chemicals used to remove
foetal from uterus
Planning a Pregnancy
• Emotional Health
• Paternal Health
• Financial Evaluation
• Contingency Planning
Prenatal care - living a healthy
Choosing a Practitioner
Alcohol and Drugs
• Tertogenic -causing birth
defects from drugs,
chemicals, x-rays or disease
• Foetal alcohol syndrome - a
collection of
The Process
Early signs of Pregnancy
missed menstrual cycle
breast tenderness
extreme fatigue
emotional upset
vomiting (morning
Trimesters - a three month segment during
pregnancy with specific developmental
• The First Trimester
• The Second
• The Third Trimester
Prenatal Testing & Screening
• Amniocentesis - fluid
drawn from the amniotic
sac / identify specific
medical problems
• Amniotic sac -protective
pouch surrounding baby
Childbirth - Choosing Where to Have
Your Baby
• Hospitals
• Birthing centers, etc, etc.
Labour and Delivery • Transition -cervix almost
completely dilated / foetus head
moves into birth canal
• Episotomy - straight incision
into the mother’s perineum
• Afterbirth - expelled placenta
• Prenatal Education
• Drugs in the Delivery
• Breast-Feeding and the
Postpartum Period
• Postpartum depression low energy, anxiety, mood
swings and depression
Complications - problems that can occur
even with a successful pregnancy
• caesarian section (C-Section)
• removal of baby via incision of
abdominal and uterine walls
• Rh factor - blood protein related
to antibody development
• …..if a Rh -negative mother has
a Rh-positive baby / mother’s
antibodies will attack the baby
Complications - problems that can occur
even with a successful pregnancy
• Stillbirth - birth of a
dead baby
• Miscarriage - loss of
foetus before viable /
spontaneous abortion
• Sudden Infant Death
Syndrome - infants
under one year of age
Infertility - Difficulties in Conceiving
• Pelvic inflammatory
disease - infection
that scars the
fallopian tubes /
blocks sperm
• Endometriosis uterine lining
establishes itself
outside uterus
Infertility - Difficulties in Conceiving
• Low sperm count leading cause of
infertility in men /
below 60 million
sperm per millilitre
of semen
• Fertility drugs hormones to
stimulate ovulation
in women
Alternative Insemination •
partner's or donor’s sperm deposited into a
women’s vagina / doctor supervised
In vitro fertilization “test tube baby”
Gamete intrafallopian
Non-surgical Embryo
Embryo Transfer
Embryo Freezing
Surrogate Motherhood

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