Anonymity in Driving Behavior - American Psychological Association

Report
Anonymity in Driving
Behavior
Shawn Bray, Zehna Gilliam and Skye Simonelli
San Diego Mesa College
San Diego, CA.
Objective
 To test the effects of anonymity on driving behaviors
and to better understand which factors may
contribute to other unlawful behaviors.
HYPOTHESIS
 Drivers in automobiles with tinted windows are less
likely to make a complete stop at four way stop
intersections than drivers in automobiles without
tinted windows.
KEY TERMS
KEY TERMS
 Observational Study: Researchers observe behaviors under the
conditions in which they naturally occur
 Anonymity: The quality or state of being unknown
 Disinhibition: A lack of restraint caused by outside factor such as
drugs, alcohol, or rioting
 Anti-Social Behavior: A person has a long-term pattern of
manipulating, exploiting, or violating the rights of others
Literature Review
Literature Review
 Zimbardo’s (1969) famous electric shock study on the
relationship between anonymity and immoral
behavior.
 Ed Diener’s (1976) Halloween study on the effects of
being less identifiable by personal information.
 Andrew Silke’s (2003) analysis of attacks in Northern
Ireland, anonymous criminals committed more violent
attacks.
Literature Review
 Singer’s (1965) study on less identifiable people being
more likely to conform in the Asch (1951) situation.
 According to Zhong & others (2010), “Even dimmed
lighting or wearing sunglasses increases people’s
perceived anonymity, and thus their willingness to
cheat or behave selfishly.”
 Patricia Ellison’s (1995) test on anonymity’s effect
upon incivility amongst drivers.
Methods
Methods
 Observational Study
 inconspicuous and unobtrusive
 n = 400
 200 tinted cars
 200 un-tinted cars
 3 different data collection locations
 Random sample and representative
 Must make a complete 3 second stop
Methods
 Only cars approaching from the North and South directions
 Tally in corresponding section of “Stopped/No Stop” and “Tint/NoTint” section of observation chart
 One researcher at each separate location
 Selected data collection start time
 Every other car observed
 Car must have back tires behind limit line
Materials Used
Stopped
Tint
No
Tint
I
No Stop
III
IIII
II
Inclusion Criteria
 One researcher at each separate location
 Selected data collection start time
 Every other car observed
 Car must have back tires behind limit line
Observational Definitions and Chart
Observational Definitions:
Stopped
Tint/Stop: TS
Tint/No Stop: TNS
Tint
No Stop
I
III
IIII
II
No-Tint/Stop: NS
No-Tint/No Stop: NN
No Tint
Observational Location: one
Oceanside, CA – 2:30-3:30pm
Observational Location: two
Encanto, CA – 5:30-7:30pm
Observational location: three
University City, CA – 11:30-1:30pm
Exclusion Criteria
 Partially rolled down windows
 Completely rolled down windows
 Automobiles without doors
 Convertibles
 Cars yielding to pedestrians
Results
Tint
No
Tint
•Stop: 70
•No Stop: 130
Stop: 165
No Stop: 235
•Stop: 95
•No Stop: 105
Results
 Tinted Windows:
 35% did make complete stop
 65% did not make a complete stop
 Un-Tinted Windows:
 47.5% did make complete stop
 52.5% did not make a complete stop
Results
Tinted Windows
Un-Tinted Windows
Stop: 35%
Stop: 49%
NO Stop: 65%
NO Stop: 54%
All Cars
Stop: 41%
NO Stop: 59%
DISCUSSION
Discussion
 We supported our hypothesis that drivers of car with tinted windows
are less likely to make a complete stop at an intersection.
 We failed to reject our alternative hypothesis.
 We have acknowledged that the intent of reckless drivers may not be
malicious.
 Some confounding variables we found:
 Degree of window tint
 Contrast in obedience in different socioeconomic areas
Discussion
 Other future studies will include relationships between window
tint and:
 Medical conditions
 Safety concerns
 Style preference
 Overall, we realize that while Deindividuation may not be the
cause of getting window tint it is, however, the result.
References
 Anonymity. (2009). In The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth
Edition. Retrieved from http://www.thefreedictionary.com/anonymity
 Berkowitz, L. Some determinants of impulsive aggression: Role of mediated
associations with reinforcements for aggression. Psychological Review, 1974,
81, 165-176.
 Blais MA, Smallwood P, Groves JE, Rivas-Vazquez RA. Personality and personality
disorders. In: Stern TA, Rosenbaum JF, Fava M, Biederman J, Rauch SL,
eds. Massachusetts General Hospital Comprehensive Clinical Psychiatry. 1st
ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2008: chap 39.
References
 Disinhibition. (n.d.). In Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th
Edition. Retrieved from http://www.thefreedictionary.com/anonymity
 Festinger, L., Pepitone, A., & Newcomb, T. (1952). Some consequences of
deindividuation in a group. Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology, 47,
382-389.
 Johnson, R. D., & Downing, L. L. (1979). Deindividuation and valence of cues: Effects
on
prosocial and antisocial behavior. Journal Of Personality And Social
Psychology, 37(9), 1532-1538. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.37.9.1532.
 Li, Brian, "The Theories of Deindividuation" (2010). CMC Senior Theses. Paper 12.
http://scholarship.claremont.edu/cmc_theses/12
 Myers, D. G. (2013). Social Psychology (11th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
References
 Observational Study. (2014). In Stat Trek. Retrieved from
http://stattrek.com/statistics/dictionary.aspx?definition=observational_study
 Singer, J.E., Brush, C.A., and Lublin, S.C. (1965). Some aspects of Deindividuation:
Identification and Conformity. Journal of Experimental and Social
Psychology, 1, 356-378.
 Zimbardo, P. G. The human choice: Individuation, reason and order versus
deindividuation, impulse, and chaos. In W. J. Arnold, & D. Levinc (Eds.),
Nebraska Symposium on Motivation (Vol. 18). Lincoln: University of Nebraska
Press, 1970.
 All images are Microsoft clipart or Google Maps screenshots.

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