Ethanol fuel Ethanol fuel

Report
Scania Ethanol vehicles
Climate change
External causes
 Solar activity
 Earth’s orbit
 Meteorites
Internal causes
Natural
 Feedback
 Volcanic eruption
Chance
Internal causes
Anthropogenic
 Emissions of
greenhouse gases
 Particles/clouds
 Land change
CO2 emissions still increasing globally …
 IPCC: If there
is no emission
decrease before
2015, global
climate will be
seriously affected
 By 2050, a CO2
decrease of 80%
will be necessary.
…who is left to carry the can?
Oil use
120
100
80
Other sectors
70%
60
40
Transport sector
20
0
1970
BAFF
1980
1990
2000
Peak oil
Trend of Transport energy consumption
x
3x
Ethanol policy in Thailand
15 Years Target
AD. 2008-2022
(B.E. 2551-2565)
Ethanol
Target 9.0 M.Liter/day
Existing 1.0 M.Liter/day
Biodiesel
Target 4.5 M.Liter/day
Existing 1.4 M.Liter/day
(ณ เดือน มกราคม 2552)
B.E.
A.D. 2003
2006
2011
Ethanol production
10.0
9.0
8.0
7.0
Cassava
Molasses
Cane juice
6.0
Available feedstock for
5.0
4.0
ethanol production in 2018
3.0
Cane juice
8.25 M liters/day
2.0
Molasses
0.31 M liters/day
1.0
Cassava
1.16 M liters/day
0.0
Total
9.72 M liters/day
20
07
20
08
20
09
20
10
20
11
20
12
20
13
20
14
20
15
20
16
20
17
20
18
Ethanol production (M liters/day)
11.0
Year
Source: Office of the Cane and Sugar Board (2008) and Office of Agricultural Economic (2008)
European emission legislation
NOx g/kWh
NOx
8 g/kWh
8
Nitrogen
Oxides (NOx)
6
6
4
4
Euro 2 1996
Euro 2 1996
Euro 1 1992
Euro 1 1992
Euro 3 2001
Euro 3 2001
CO2 =
Euro 4 2006
Euro 4 2006
2
2
Euro 5 2009
Euro 5 2009
0
0 0
0
/ EPA10 2012?
Euro 6 2013
Euro 6 / EPA10 2012?
0.10
0.20
0.10
0.20
= Fuel
consumed
0.30
0.40
0.30PM g/kWh
0.40
Particulate matter (PM)
PM g/kWh
Source: Lloyd Wright – Sourcebook sustainable transport
Sustainable Transport – Available Biofuels
Ethanol
from sugar cane
< 90%
Synthetic diesel
from biomass
< 80%
Biodiesel
FAME, RME, etc.
< 70%
Biogas
from waste, sewage < 90%
These fuels are available today
Fuels - Alternatives
Ethanol
FAME/
Biogas
Methanol
DME
Hydrogen
RME
Synthetic
diesel
Production
capacity
+
-
?
-
?
?
?
Local
Emissions
+
?
+
+
?
+
+
CO2/GHG
reduction
+
+
?
+
+
?
-
+
+
+
-
-
?
-
Handle &
store
+
+
+
-
-
?
-
Comm.
available
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
No
No
No
In vehicle
DC9 E02
Ethanol bus engine
Why?
 Insecure long-term
oil supply
 Global warming – cut
CO2 emissions
 Legal requirements
 Environmental ambitions
Transport system improvements
Efficient energy converters
Alternative fuels
Scania Ethanol Technology
1916
1979
1985
First ethanol engine
First vehicle tests
First buses tested in Sweden
Since 1989: 600 buses supplied mainly to Sweden
Scania Ethanol Engine
Passenger car
Scania Bus
Otto engine
Diesel engine
E10, E20, E85
ED95
Ethanol engine efficiency
Compression ignition
means high efficiency!
Engine load
Efficiency
25%
32-36%
50%
37-38%
75%
37-40%
100%
37-41%
Ethanol fuel
 Biggest Renewable Fuel Globally
 90 % of all renewable fuel is Ethanol
 50 % of research money in renewable fuels related to ethanol
 Cars, buses, trucks
 E5, E22, E85, ED95, E100
 Many possible sources
 Sugarcane, beets, wheat, corn, grapes…
 Good and bad ethanol (compare with electricity…)
 Sugar Cane, Cellulose, Energy Factories
3rd generation
 High Environmental Efficiency
 70-90 % CO2-reduction from Sugarcane
 Liquid Fuel
 Traditional infrastructure/distribution
 Long Experience
 Brazil
 Buses in regular service in Sweden since 1989
 Local energy security & Oil dependency
Ethanol fuel

Sekab Etamax-D fuel

ED95 denomination; not to be confused with E85 (for
gasoline engines)

It is an alcohol – no lubrication properties

Effects
– Corrosion of plastics on high temperatures
– Same tanks but with different ventilation
– It’s a fuel – No drinking or washing
Engine comparison











Power:
Torque:
Idle:
Emission level:
Cylinders:
Bore x stroke:
Compression:
Balance shafts:
Valves per cyl.:
Fuel:
Injection system:
DC9 E02
270 hp @ 1900rpm
1200 Nm@1100-1400rpm
600 rpm
Euro5, EEV
5
127x140 mm
28:1
Yes
4
ED95
Bosch PDE
DC9 12
270 hp @ 1800rpm
1250 Nm@1100-1400rpm
500 rpm
Euro3
5
127x140 mm
17:1
Yes
4
Diesel
Bosch PDE
Engine DC9 E02

Higher compression ratio 28:1 vs. 17:1
– Pistons, cylinder head valves and valve
seats
– New turbocharger with a waste-gate
– Monorail PDE injectors with different
injection volume
– EMS calibration is for Ethanol fuel
characteristics
– Stronger starter due to higher compression
Modifications on Scania Ethanol Engine
Larger fuel
injection system
Different engine
management
programming
Ethanol resistant
gaskets and sealings
Different pistons to
raise compression
ratio
Scania’s commitment to sustainability
Vehicles, fuels, infrastructure…
20 years experience of Ethanol Buses
Ethanol buses in Stockholm
Stockholm Public
Transport’s goals:
Buses on
Renewable Fuels:
2006
2012
2025
25 %
50 %
100 %
Up to 90% less fossil CO2 with existing technology
A complete Sustainable City package
Public transport
Distribution
Waste handling
Fuel & Infrastructure
…THANK YOU…
Q&A

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