Cellular Evolution - Department of Systems and Computer

Report
SYSC 5608
Wireless Communication System Engineering
CELLULAR EVOLUTION
Halim Yanikomeroglu
Department of Systems & Computer Engineering
Carleton University
Ottawa, Canada
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 1 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Cellular Basics
Importance of standards
Tedious standardization process, amortization period  delay
Generations of technologies: 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G, 5G
Confusing terminology
Role of ITU (circular letters)
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 2 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Cellular: Earlier Generations
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 3 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Cellular Generations – A More Detailed Look
1G: AMPS, 1983
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
2G: GSM, 1991
Page 4 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Cellular Generations – A More Detailed Look
1G: AMPS, 1983
2G: GSM, 1991
3GPP Platform: “unites 6 telecom standard development organizations (ARIB,
ATIS, CCSA, ETSI, TTA, TTC), and provides their members with a stable
environment to produce the highly successful Reports and Specifications that
define 3GPP technologies”. (Other platforms and organizations: 3GPP2, IEEE, …)
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 5 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Cellular Generations – A More Detailed Look
1G: AMPS, 1983
R99
2000
R4
2001
R6
R5
2002
2G: GSM, 1991
2003
2004
2005
2006
R9
R8
R7
2007
2008
2009
R10
2010
2011
R11
2012
2013
3GPP Platform
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 6 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Cellular Generations – A More Detailed Look
UMTS
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2009
2008
R10
2010
2011
R11
2012
2013
LTE
Adv
2002
R9
R8
R7
HSPA+
2001
R6
R5
HSPA
DL
2000
R4
HSPA
UL
R99
2G: GSM, 1991
LTE
1G: AMPS, 1983
3GPP Platform
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 7 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Cellular Generations – A More Detailed Look
1G: AMPS, 1983
2G: GSM, 1991
UMTS
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2009
2008
LTE
2002
R9
R8
R7
HSPA+
2001
R6
R5
HSPA
DL
2000
R4
HSPA
UL
R99
ITU-R IMT-Advanced circular letter
R10
2010
2011
R11
2012
2013
LTE
Adv
ITU-R IMT-2000 circular letter
3GPP Platform
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 8 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Cellular Generations – A More Detailed Look
1G: AMPS, 1983
2G: GSM, 1991
ITU-R IMT-2000 circular letter
ITU-R IMT-Advanced circular letter
UMTS
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2009
2008
LTE
2002
R9
R8
R7
HSPA+
2001
R6
R5
HSPA
DL
2000
R4
HSPA
UL
R99
4G: IMT-Advanced compliant
R10
2010
2011
R11
2012
2013
LTE
Adv
3G: IMT-2000 compliant
3GPP Platform
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 9 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Cellular Generations – A More Detailed Look
1G: AMPS, 1983
2G: GSM, 1991
ITU-R IMT-2000 circular letter
ITU-R IMT-Advanced circular letter
UMTS
3GPP Platform
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2009
2008
LTE
2002
R9
R8
R7
HSPA+
2001
R6
R5
HSPA
DL
2000
R4
HSPA
UL
R99
4G: IMT-Advanced compliant
R10
2010
2011
R11
2012
2013
LTE
Adv
3G: IMT-2000 compliant
Release 12 Time Plan:
•Stage 1 freeze – Mar 2013
•Stage 2 freeze – Dec 2013
•Stage 3 freeze – Jun 2014
Page 10 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Cellular Generations – HSPA and LTE Users
4gamericas.org
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 11 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Cellular Connections – 2G, 3G, 4G
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 12 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Cellular Generations
DATA
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 13 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Cellular Generations
Mobile device
for everyone
4G
Gbps
3G
Mbps
data
2G
kbps
1G
bps
AMPS
data
data
Source: Huawei (circa 2010)
1980
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
1990
2000
2010
2020
Time
Page 14 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Cellular Generations
5G
4G
Gbps
3G
Mbps
data
2G
kbps
1G
bps
AMPS
data
?
Mobile device
for everyone
data
data
Source: Huawei (circa 2010)
1980
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
1990
2000
2010
2020
Time
Page 15 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Cellular Generations
5G
4G
Gbps
3G
Mbps
data
2G
kbps
1G
bps
AMPS
data
?
Mobile device
for everyone
data
data
Source: Huawei (circa 2010)
1980
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
1990
2000
2010
2020
Time
Page 16 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Direction 1: Highly Capable Terminals
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 17 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Direction 1: Highly Capable Terminals
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 18 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Direction 2: IoT – Integration of Physical and Digital Worlds
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 19 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Direction 2: IoT – Integration of Physical and Digital Worlds
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 20 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Access to Information
Books
Brick library
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 21 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Access to Information
Books
Brick library
Internet library
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 22 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Access to Information
Books
Brick library
Internet library
Data of all sorts
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 23 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Access to Information
Books
Brick library
Internet library
Data of all sorts
Easy access (I/F)
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 24 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Access to Information
Books
Brick library
Internet library
Data of all sorts
Easy access (I/F)
Available before you ask/think
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 25 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Diversification of Applications and Scenarios
Old Cellular:
unimodal  Optimized for one application in one scenario
 Voice, outdoor, high power, mobile
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 26 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Diversification of Applications and Scenarios
Old Cellular:
unimodal  Optimized for one application in one scenario
 Voice, outdoor, high power, mobile
New Wireless:
multimodal  Will have to be optimized for various applications in
various scenarios







Voice, video, haptics, 3D, …
Outdoors, indoors
Centralized, distributed/autonomous
Scheduled, contention-based
Human operated, MTC
Rate – delay – reliability – energy
…
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 27 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
5G Requirements
x10 – x20:
Peak rates
x100 – x1000: Area rates
x10 – x100:
Device density
x0.1:
Latency
x10 – x100:
Energy efficiency
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 28 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
5G Requirements
x10 – x20:
Peak rates
x100 – x1000: Area rates
x10 – x100:
Device density
x0.1:
Latency
x10 – x100:
Energy efficiency
LTE-A is already a very ambitious standard
Some of the above will have to wait for 6G!
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 29 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Latency in 3G & 4G Networks
3G
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
4G
Page 30 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Evolving Performance Metrics
Bits/sec/Hz
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 31 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Evolving Performance Metrics
Bits/sec/Hz
Bits/sec/Hz/km2
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 32 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Evolving Performance Metrics
Bits/sec/Hz
Bits/sec/Hz/km2
Bits/sec/Hz/km2/$
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 33 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Evolving Performance Metrics
Bits/sec/Hz
Bits/sec/Hz/km2
Bits/sec/Hz/km2/$
Bits/sec/Hz/km2/$/joule
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 34 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Time for 5G Research?
4G: 3GPP rel-8 (LTE), rel-9, rel-10 (LTE-A), rel-11, rel-12 (?), rel-13 (?)
5G: not defined at this point
(keep an eye on EU framework program 8 projects: 2014 – 2020)
Research
5G
?
10s-100s Gbps ?
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Standardization
4G
LTE, LTE-A, 802.16m
Deployment
3G
1X EV-DO, HSPA, HSPA+
2 - 56 Mbps
100 Mbps mobile
1 Gbps nomadic
(IMT-Advanced compliant)
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Where We Are Now and Where We Are Heading To
• R8, R9, R10 LTE/LTE-A
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 36 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Key Technologies for LTE/LTE-Advanced (R8, R9, R10)
OFDM
MIMO
Spectrum aggregation
HetNet, Relay [to be matured]
CoMP (coordinated multipoint) [moved to R11]
 A number of LTE/LTE-A technologies are ahead of their time
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 37 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Where We Are Now and Where We Are Heading To
• R8, R9, R10 LTE/LTE-A
• R11, R12 (Mar 2013, Dec 2013, Jun 2014), R13
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 38 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
3GPP Release 12 Workshop
Ljubljana, 11-12 June 2012
http://www.3gpp.org/Future-Radio-in-3GPP-300-attend
Priority Areas
Higher data rates
More capacity
Incredible resource
State-of-the-art in 3GPP
Complimentary Areas
Energy saving
Cost efficiency
Support for diverse application and traffic types
Backhaul enhancements
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 39 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
3GPP Timelines
Panasonic
Samsung
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 40 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Some Key Technologies for beyond LTE-A
Spectrum aggregation
MIMO (multi-layer, adaptive beamforming)
Multihop relaying
Terminal relaying (cellular-assisted ad hoc)
Advanced CoMP (cloud-RAN)
HetNet (heterogeneous networks)
SON (self-organizing, self-configuring, self-healing networks)
FeICIC (further enhanced intercell interference coordination)
Interference cancellation
MUD (multiuser detection)
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 41 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
HetNet (Heterogeneous Network) Architecture
WT
WT
BS
WT
WT
Legend
RoF
Base
Station
RoF
Wireless
WT Terminal
WT
WT
Fixed Relay
Station
Distributed
Antenna Port
Across network routing
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 42 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Where We Are Now and Where We Are Heading To
• R8, R9, R10 LTE/LTE-A
• R11, R12 (Mar 2013, Dec 2013, Jun 2014), R13
• EU Framework Program 8, Horizon 2020 (2014 – 2020)
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 43 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Where We Are Now and Where We Are Heading To
• R8, R9, R10 LTE/LTE-A
• R11, R12 (Mar 2013, Dec 2013, Jun 2014), R13
• EU Framework Program 8, Horizon 2020 (2014 – 2020)
• 5G PPP – The 5G Infrastructure Public Private Partnership (2014)
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 44 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Where We Are Now and Where We Are Heading To
• R8, R9, R10 LTE/LTE-A
• R11, R12 (Mar 2013, Dec 2013, Jun 2014), R13
• EU Framework Program 8, Horizon 2020 (2014 – 2020)
• 5G PPP – The 5G Infrastructure Public Private Partnership (2014)
• ITU WRC 2015
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 45 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Where We Are Now and Where We Are Heading To
• R8, R9, R10 LTE/LTE-A
• R11, R12 (Mar 2013, Dec 2013, Jun 2014), R13
• EU Framework Program 8, Horizon 2020 (2014 – 2020)
• 5G PPP – The 5G Infrastructure Public Private Partnership (2014)
• ITU WRC 2015
• ITU circular letter: IMT-2020
• 5G
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 46 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Where We Are Now and Where We Are Heading To
• R8, R9, R10 LTE/LTE-A
• R11, R12 (Mar 2013, Dec 2013, Jun 2014), R13
• EU Framework Program 8, Horizon 2020 (2014 – 2020)
• 5G PPP – The 5G Infrastructure Public Private Partnership (2014)
• ITU WRC 2015
• ITU circular letter: IMT-2020
• 5G
• Beyond…
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 47 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Time Scales
Near-term:
Towards 2020 (4G evolution)
Middle-term: Around 2020
(5G)
Long-term:
(5G evolution)
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Beyond 2020
Page 48 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Time Scales
Near-term:
Towards 2020 (4G evolution)
 around the corner
Middle-term: Around 2020
(5G)
Long-term:
(5G evolution)
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Beyond 2020
Page 49 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Time Scales
1980
1G
1985
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2G
2.5G
3G
3.5G
4G
voice
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 50 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Time Scales
1980
1G
1985
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2015
2020
2G
2.5G
3G
3.5G
4G
4.5G
5G
voice
data (video)
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 51 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Time Scales
1980
1G
1985
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2015
2020
2G
2.5G
3G
3.5G
4G
4.5G
5G
voice
data (video)
IoE
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 52 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Time Scales
1980
1G
1985
IoE concepts
are ahead
of technology
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2015
2020
2G
2.5G
3G
3.5G
4G
4.5G
5G
voice
data (video)
IoE
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 53 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Time Scales
1980
1G
1985
IoE concepts
are ahead
of technology
no time!
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2015
2020
2G
2.5G
3G
3.5G
4G
4.5G
5G
voice
data (video)
IoE
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 54 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Time Scales
1980
1G
1985
IoE concepts
are ahead
of technology
no time!
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2015
2020
2025
2030
2G
2.5G
3G
3.5G
4G
4.5G
5G
5.5G
6G
2035
voice
data (video)
IoE
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 55 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Time Scales
1980
1985
1G
IoE concepts
are ahead
of technology
no time!
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2015
2020
2025
2030
2G
2.5G
3G
3.5G
4G
4.5G
5G
5.5G
6G
2035
voice
L1
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 56 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Time Scales
1980
1985
1G
IoE concepts
are ahead
of technology
no time!
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2015
2020
2025
2030
2G
2.5G
3G
3.5G
4G
4.5G
5G
5.5G
6G
2035
voice
data (video)
L1
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
L2
Page 57 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Time Scales
1980
1985
1G
IoE concepts
are ahead
of technology
no time!
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2015
2020
2025
2030
2G
2.5G
3G
3.5G
4G
4.5G
5G
5.5G
6G
2035
voice
data (video)
L1
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
L2
L3
Page 58 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Time Scales
1980
1985
1G
IoE concepts
are ahead
of technology
no time!
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2015
2020
2025
2030
2G
2.5G
3G
3.5G
4G
4.5G
5G
5.5G
6G
2035
voice
data (video)
IoE
L1
L2
L3
VN
cloud
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 59 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Time Scales
1980
1985
1G
IoE concepts
are ahead
of technology
no time!
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2015
2020
2025
2030
2G
2.5G
3G
3.5G
4G
4.5G
5G
5.5G
6G
2035
voice
data (video)
IoE
L1
L2
L3
VN
cloud
computing
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 60 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Time Scales
1980
1985
1G
IoE concepts
are ahead
of technology
no time!
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2015
2020
2025
2030
2G
2.5G
3G
3.5G
4G
4.5G
5G
5.5G
6G
2035
voice
data (video)
IoE
L1
L2
optimization
L3
VN
cloud
math
computing
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 61 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Time Scales
1980
1985
1G
IoE concepts
are ahead
of technology
no time!
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2015
2020
2025
2030
2G
2.5G
3G
3.5G
4G
4.5G
5G
5.5G
6G
2035
voice
data (video)
IoE
L1
differential
topology
L2
L3
number theory
VN
cloud
math
machine learning
AI
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
computing
Page 62 of 89
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Time Scales
1980
1985
1G
IoE concepts
are ahead
of technology
no time!
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2015
2020
2025
2030
2G
2.5G
3G
3.5G
4G
4.5G
5G
5.5G
6G
2035
voice
data (video)
IoE
L1
differential
topology
L2
L3
number theory
VN
cloud
math
machine learning
AI
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
more people
more resources
more interdisciplinary
more collaborations
computing
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
ICT: Mother of All Sectors…
Energy
Health
Entertainment
Transportation
Automotive
Agriculture
5GICT
Defence
Education
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Public Safety
Hospitality
Municipalities
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Resource Block (RB)
RE:Resource Element
Frequency domain: 15 kHz (one subcarrier)
Time domain: one OFDM symbol (1/14 ms)
frequency
REG:RE group, REG = 4 RE
One
subcarrier
time
One
OFDM
symbol
CCE:Control Channel Element, CCE = 9 REG
RB:Resource Block
RB = 84 RE
This figure shows one RB:
7 OFDM symbols in time domain (0.5 ms, one slot)
12 subcarriers in frequency domain (180 KHz)
Courtesy of Jing Dang
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
LTE-TDD Frame Structure
One radio frame, Tf = 307200Ts = 10 ms
One half-frame, 153600Ts = 5 ms
One slot,
Tslot=15360Ts
30720Ts
Subframe #0
Subframe #2
Subframe #3
Subframe #4
Subframe #5
Subframe #7
Subframe #8
Subframe #9
One subframe,
30720Ts
DwPTS
GP
DwPTS
UpPTS
LTE-TDD DL/UL configuration
DL-UL
Configuration
Switch-point
periodicity
UpPTS
One Frame
Subframe number
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
5 ms
D
S
U
U
U
D
S
U
U
U
1
5 ms
D
S
U
U
D
D
S
U
U
D
2
5 ms
D
S
U
D
D
D
S
U
D
D
3
10 ms
D
S
U
U
U
D
D
D
D
D
4
10 ms
D
S
U
U
D
D
D
D
D
D
5
10 ms
D
S
U
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
6
5 ms
D
S
U
U
U
D
S
U
U
D
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
GP
• Time duration: 10 ms
• Two half frame (5 ms each)
• 10 subframes (1ms each)
• Two slots per subframe (0.5 ms each)
Courtesy of Jing Dang
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Reuse and Interference
• Channel reuse
• Co-channel interference, multiple access interference
• Radio access network (RAN)
C3
C4
Denser frequency reuse
Increased capacity
Increased interference
Decreased quality
C2
C1
C5
C7
C3
C6
C4
C1
C2
C1
C5
C7
C6
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Resource Reuse Schemes
S3
S1
S3
S3
P ow e r
S3
S2
S1
S2
P ower
S2
S2
S1
S1
S2
b) Reuse 3
S3
S2
S3
S3
Po w e r
S3
S1
F re q u e n cy
F re q u e n c y
S1
S2
P ower
a ) Reuse 1
S2
S1
S1
F re q u e n cy
c) SFR
Soft frequency resue
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
d ) PFR
F re q u e n cy
Partial frequency reuse
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Wireless Communication System Engineering
Intercell Interference Coordination (ICIC)
Reuse factor: 1 / cluster size
1G, 2G: 1/7, 1/4
3G: 1/3
4G:  1
Ultimate reuse factor: 1 per cell (sector)
Conventional static (a priori) resource allocation (scheduling):
For the entire leased spectrum, or a big portion of it
One reuse factor
ICIC: Dynamic (aware) resource allocation for each RB, taking the
channel and traffic into account
Different reuse factor for each RB
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 69 of 89
SYSC 5608
Wireless Communication System Engineering
Dynamic Design
• Static design: Can not cope up with channel and traffic variations
• Static and a priori resource allocation  Dynamic resource allocation
C3
C4
C2
C1
C5
C7
C3
C6
C4
C1
C2
C1
C5
C7
C6
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 70 of 89
SYSC 5608
Wireless Communication System Engineering
Dynamic Design
• Static design: Can not cope up with channel and traffic variations
• Static and a priori resource allocation  Dynamic resource allocation
C3
C4
C2
C1
C5
C7
C3
C6
C4
C1
C2
C1
C5
C7
C6
• ICIC:
eICIC:
FeICIC:
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Intercell interference coordination (R8 – LTE)
enhanced ICIC (R10 – LTE-A)
Further enhanced ICIC (R11, R12)
Page 71 of 89
SYSC 5608
Wireless Communication System Engineering
2G
C3
C4
C2
C1
C5
C7
C3
C6
C4
C2
C1
C5
C7
C6
• Limited cooperation between APs (for handoff)
• No cooperation between UEs
• Interference: handle with fixed assignments  not a great concern
• RRM: easy; circuit-switched CBR applications  power control
• Perfect each AP-UE link  PHY
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 72 of 89
SYSC 5608
Wireless Communication System Engineering
3G/3G+/4G• Limited cooperation between APs
• No cooperation between UEs
• Smaller cells
• Denser reuse (every cell, every sector)
• Interference: concern
Fractional Frequency Reuse (FFR)
Soft Frequency Reuse (SFR)
• Scheduling: important
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 73 of 89
SYSC 5608
Wireless Communication System Engineering
4G
• HetNets (femto-/pico-APs, relay)
• Cooperation between APs (ICIC, eICIC)
• No cooperation between UEs
• Scheduling: very important
• Interference: may become unpredictable, becoming a concern
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 74 of 89
SYSC 5608
Wireless Communication System Engineering
4G+/5G
• Hi-HetNet (C-RAN, femto-/pico-APs, DAS, various types of relays
including terminal relays)
• Intense cooperation between select APs (feICIC, CoMP)
• Cooperation between UEs
• Interference: highly unpredictable (due to autonomous RRM
decisions); major concern
 sophisticated, robust, good (not necessarily optimal) decisions
 partially centralized, partially distributed (opportunistically)
 learning (artificial intelligence)
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 75 of 89
SYSC 5608
Wireless Communication System Engineering
5G+
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Indoors: # of APs >> # of UEs
Short distance, dedicated links
Optimized air interface
60-90 GHz carrier, FSO
Highly directional antennas
Super ultra rates
Atto-cell + FTTDesk
• Outdoor hot-spots: # of APs << # of UEs
• Mesh connectivity
• Issues similar to previous slide
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 76 of 89
SYSC 5608
Wireless Communication System Engineering
Evolution of Networks
interference is a concern
1G
2G
N=7 N=3
N: Cluster size ↓
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 77 of 89
SYSC 5608
Wireless Communication System Engineering
Evolution of Networks
interference is a concern
1G
2G
3G
N=7 N=3 FFR
N: Cluster size ↓
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 78 of 89
SYSC 5608
Wireless Communication System Engineering
Evolution of Networks
interference is a concern
1G
2G
3G
N=7 N=3 FFR
N: Cluster size ↓
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
4G
ICIC, eICIC
HetNet
Page 79 of 89
SYSC 5608
Wireless Communication System Engineering
Evolution of Networks
interference is a concern
1G
2G
3G
N=7 N=3 FFR
N: Cluster size ↓
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
centralized – CRAN, VRAN
4G
5G
ICIC, eICIC
HetNet
HiHetNet
Page 80 of 89
SYSC 5608
Wireless Communication System Engineering
Evolution of Networks
interference is a concern
1G
2G
3G
N=7 N=3 FFR
N: Cluster size ↓
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
4G
5G
ICIC, eICIC
HetNet
HiHetNet
centralized – CRAN, VRAN
distributed/autonomous
random access
Page 81 of 89
SYSC 5608
Wireless Communication System Engineering
Evolution of Networks
centralized – CRAN, VRAN
1G
2G
3G
N=7 N=3 FFR
N: Cluster size ↓
4G
5G
ICIC, eICIC
HetNet
HiHetNet
distributed/autonomous
random access
Atto-cell
interference is not a concern
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 82 of 89
SYSC 5608
Wireless Communication System Engineering
Small Cell Deployment
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 83 of 89
SYSC 5608
Wireless Communication System Engineering
Small Cell Deployment
Interference
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
↑
Page 84 of 89
SYSC 5608
Wireless Communication System Engineering
Stochastic Geometry
Source: U of Texas, Austin
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 85 of 89
SYSC 5608
Wireless Communication System Engineering
Traffic Generation
Maximum homogeneity: Lattice
Sub-Poisson: perturbation
Complete-randomness: Poisson
Sub-Poisson
Poisson
Super-Poisson
Super-Poisson:
•
Time domain: MMPP, HMM, HHMM (NHMM)
•
Space domain:
Clustering Perturbation
Courtesy of Meisam Mirahsan
and Dr. Rainer Schoenen
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 86 of 89
SYSC 5608
Wireless Communication System Engineering
Advanced RAN with Advanced RRM
Any fixed assignment is inefficient
 cannot adapt to or exploit channel and traffic conditions
All decisions are dynamic and opportunistic
 No a-priori partitioning of radio resources
 No WT-BS assignment (dynamic routing in the mesh)
Reuse may be > 1
Wired elements (BS, DA) and fixed relays:
Cooperative RRM for interference management and avoidance
Nomadic, moving, and terminal relays:
Robust, distributed, plug-and-play, low-overhead, sub-optimum RRM
algorithms
 cognitive radio (spectrum, OSA), dynamic feedback control, machine
learning, artificial intelligence  inter-disciplinary
Very different from conventional cellular networks
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 87 of 89
SYSC 5608
Wireless Communication System Engineering
Shift in Emphasis
A-RAN: Advanced radio access network  HetNet, Cloud-RAN
A-RRM: Advanced radio resource management (layer-2 & -3)
 cooperation, coordination, collaboration
A-PHY: Advanced physical layer
Well-integrated advanced RRM and advanced PHY in the presence of a
powerful RAN, for
• handling interference
• handling non-uniform traffic
• maximization of the utilities
 Cross-layer and across-network cooperation/coordination/collaboration
link  cell  network (not cellular in the classical sense)
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 88 of 89
SYSC 5608
Wireless Communication System Engineering
Emerging Tools
Optimization, Stochastic Optimization
↓
Stochastic Geometry
Game Theory
↓
Machine Learning, Control Theory
↓
Artificial Intelligence
Ex: Cognitive radio: sense, decide, learn
H. Yanıkömeroğlu
Page 89 of 89

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