ch 10

Report
World History:
The Earth and its Peoples
Chapter 10
Central and Eastern Asia,
400 - 1200 C.E.
Objectives
• Understand the role of Buddhism and its relationship to
the Tang state and the reasons for and results of the
backlash against Buddhism in the late Tang and Song
periods.
• Be able to discuss the history and the significance of the
relationships between China and its neighbors, including
Central Asia, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam.
• Be able to carry out a simple comparative analysis of the
different roles of Buddhism in China, Tibet, Korea, and
Japan.
• Understand the nature and significance of technological
innovation in the Song Empire.
Revisiting China
• disintegration of Han Dynasty in 220 C.E.
• political fragmentation
• warfare and epidemics
– social dislocation
• advances in metallurgy, pharmacology, and
mathematics
• reunification in 6th century
• spread of ideas
– trade, travel, education
Sui and Tang Empires, 581-907
Sui Empire - 581-618
– reuniting of China
– reestablishment of Confucianism
– Buddhism political influence
• Mahayana / Bodhisattvas
• encouraged leader to maintain
harmonious society
• monasteries / prince alliances
• Grand Canal
– links Yellow and Yangtze Rivers
– communication and trade
• Mahayana / trade network
• overextension = Tang
– mix goods and culture of Asia
– cosmopolitan
Tang Empire
Tang Empire- 618-907
– Li Shimin
• avoided overcentralization
•
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– Chang’an
• 1 million population
• hub of communication
• tributary system
– supremacy tributes
– seafaring skills
• compass and large ocean ships
• spread of bubonic plague
• warfare
– Chinese weapons
• crossbow / armor
– Turkish horsemanship
Tang Integration
Central Asian / Islamic
– pants in lieu of robes; polo
– cotton replaces hemp
– grape wine, sugar, spices
• Import Substitution
– cotton, tea, sugar
– loss of silk monopoly
• porcelain
– world’s leading supplier
Loss of Buddhist Influence
–
–
–
–
blame for political upheavals
tied to C. Asian barbarians
exempt from taxes
undermining of family
Fractured Power in Asia and China
Tang Failure
– dependence on local military
and tax collections
– underfunding of army / rebellion
• political disintegration
Central Asia
– Uigur and Tibet
• Tang Empire rivals
• Uigur
– N. Mongolia
– Turks in control of trade routes
• merchants and scribes
• linked Islamic lands to China
• Tibet
– linked China to India
– Buddhist commonality
Assessment
1.
What role did Buddhism play in the early Sui
and Tang Empires?
2.
Why did Buddhism fall out of favor in the late
Tang Empire?
3.
What was the relationship between Tang
China and The Uigurs and Tibetans?
East Asian Emergence
Replacement of Tang Dynasty
• Liao - N. China (Beijing)
• Tangguts - W. China
• Song - C. China
Liao - 916-1125 AD
– pastoral tradition; horsemanship
– rulers as bodhisattvas
• legitimacy for rule
– military competitor to Song
• siege machines
• 1005 tribute truce
– Jin (Jurchen)
• destroyed Liao in 1125
• drive Song south of Yellow
Song Empire
Technology / Industry
– use of Tang technology
• quasi-industrial revolution
–
–
–
–
1st to use fractions
Crab Nebula (1054)
small, seafaring compass
mechanical celestial clock
• time, date, moon-star
movements
– junks
• stern-mounted rudder
• Military
– high-quality steel
• weapons, bridges, armor
– gunpowder
• grapeshot cannons
Economy and Society
Civil Outranks Military
– neo-Confucianism
• moral and social responsibility
• reaction to Buddhism and
Daoism
– Chan / Zen Buddhism
» salvation thru mental
discipline (meditation)
» India / Tibet
• man is naturally good
• ideal human is the sage
• civil service
– recruited most talented men
• movable type
– techniques for land cultivation
– prevent disease (mosquitos)
– agricultural tool adaptation
Economy and Society
Population Growth
– over 100 million
• waste, water, firefighting
Credit
– “flying money”
• guarantee of exchange
– issuance of paper money
• inflation - taxes and sell-offs
– urban merchant fortunes
Women
– cultural subordination
• anti-Buddhism, neo-Confucianism
• manage but not own property
• footbinding
– elite status symbol
Korea, Japan, and Vietnam
Rice Farming (China)
– Confucian ideals
• hierarchy, obedience, discipline
• anti-Buddhism
Compatibility
– Confucian / Buddhism
• no examination system
• hierarchy and harmony
• Chinese writing system
– farming / landowning elites
• no urban challengers
Korea
– Koryo
– unification in 900s
• strong relations with Song
– movable type printing blocks
Korea, Japan, and Vietnam
Central Japan Unification
– Korean warriors in 4th-5th cen.
– Chinese Influence
• Confucian legal code & govt
• interest in Buddhism
• architectural style
– Deviations
• no walled cities
• no Mandate of Heaven
• emperor (tenno) as figurehead
– ruling families (Fujiwara)
• Confucian learning over warrior
• local govt control to warrior
– aesthetic way of life
• new elite based on military
values (samurai)
– Kamakura Shogunate
Tale of the Heike
Korea, Japan, and Vietnam
Vietnam
– rice-based like Southern China
• Champa rice
– Confucian / Buddhism influence
• tribute state of Song
• Women
– more power than China
– Trung sisters (Vietnam)
• resistance to Han invaders
– limited education
• The Tale of Genji (Japan)
– Murasaki Shikibu
– “general knowledge”

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