Reading Foundations PM

Report
Common Core State Standards
Phonics and Word Recognition
Fluency
Grades K-2
SNRPDP
Foundational Skills
Pages 15 & 16 of the Common Core State Standards Binder
• They are not an end in and of themselves.
• They are necessary and important
components of an effective, comprehensive
reading program.
• They are necessary to develop proficient
readers with the capacity to comprehend texts
across a range of types and disciplines.
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Foundational Skills
Pages 15 & 16 of the Common Core State Standards Binder
• Good readers will need much less practice with
these concepts than struggling readers will.
• Teach students what they need to learn and not
what they already know.
• Each skill need not to be a separate focus of
instruction. Often several skills can be addressed
by a single rich task.
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Phonics and Word Recognition
ELA Kindergarten
page 15 &16 of the Common Core State Standards Binder
1. Move to knowing and applying grade-level phonics and word analysis
skills in decoding words.
• a. Demonstrate
basic
knowledge
of one-to-one
G NV
Standard
(translation document)
letter-sound correspondences by producing
Identifying high frequency words to
the primary or many of the most frequent
build fluency and comprehension;
sound for each consonant.
letter-sound
• b. Associateidentifying
the long and
short soundsrelationships;
with
decoding
words using
letter/sound
common spellings
(graphemes)
for the
five
relationships; and decoding words in
major vowels.
text through
short/long
vowels.
• c. Read common
high-frequency
words
by sight
(e.g., the, of, to, you, she, my, is, are, do, does).
• d. Distinguish between similarly spelled words by
identifying the sounds of the letters that differ.
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Phonics and Recognition
ELA First Grade
l.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
page 15 &16 of the Common Core State Standards Binder
Move to knowing and applying grade-level phonics and words analysis
skills in decoding words.
a. Know the spelling-sound correspondences for
G NV Standard (translation document)
common consonant digraphs.
Decoding
words
in text words.
through short
b. Decode regularly
spelled
one-syllable
long
vowels,
andteam
digraphs;
c. Know finaland
-e and
common
vowel
conventionsdecoding
for representing
long
vowel structural
words
through
sounds.
analysis using syllables, with
d. Use knowledge that every syllable must have
assistance.
a vowel sound to determine the number of
syllables in a printed word.
e. Decode two-syllable words following basic
patterns by breaking the words into syllables.
f. Read words with inflectional endings.
g. Recognize and read grade-appropriate
irregularly spelled words.
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Phonics and Word Recognition
ELA Second Grade
page 15 &16 of the Common Core State Standards Binder
1. Move to knowing and applying grade-level phonics and word
analysis skills in decoding words.
G NV
document)
• a. Distinguish
longStandard
and short(translation
vowels when
Decoding
words
in text through
reading regularly
spelled
one-syllable
words.
• b. Know spelling-sound
for
phonics (longcorrespondences
vowel spelling patterns)
additional and
common
vowelanalysis
teams. (prefixes and
structural
• c. Decode regularly
suffixes) spelled two-syllable words
with long vowels.
• d. Decode words with common prefixes and
suffixes.
• e. Identify words with inconsistent but common
spelling-sound correspondences.
• f. Recognize and read grade-appropriate
irregularly spelled words.
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Reading: The Big Picture
Comprehension
Fluency
Decoding
Phonological Awareness
Beginning Reading…
Thirty years of research suggests that the
most effective beginning reading
programs are those that provide
systematic, explicit phonics instruction
and also focus on comprehension.
(Adams, 1990; Chall, 1967, 1987; Pressley, 1998)
Reading =
Decoding
automatic
• accurate
• quick
• effortless
X
Comprehension
automatic
+
strategic
•knowledgeable
•flexible
•persistent
Expert Reader
Decoding
Comprehension
Novice Reader
Comprehension
Decoding
How important is word identification instruction?
•Critically important in that many
students have difficulty “breaking the
code” without explicit instruction.
•If lack of success continues through
primary grades, students continue in a
“negative spiral” (Stanovich 1986).
Matthew Effects (Stanovich, 1986)
reads more
likes to read
is
p.a.
not p.a.
good
decoding
good
comprehension
poor
decoding
poor
comprehension
doesn’t like
to read
reads less
•spreading activation
When
a
word
comes
in
•automatic
•subconscious
•conscious process
R = D X C
Proficient
Rules/
Analogies
.
.
.
.
.
.
Word
recognition
Background
Knowledge
.
.
Mental
Dictionary
(words you
know in
your head)
My decoding is so automatic, I have time to work on
understanding.
Struggler
.
.
.
.
My decoding is so slow, that I have to rely
on what the word means, rather than what it
actually says.
Word Identification Goal:
Novice readers need to be able to:
• identify most words automatically, that
is, at sight.
• decode unfamiliar words by analogy
(using “chunks” and “chunks with
meaning” from words they know
automatically).
• Check to see if the word they
generated makes sense and adjust, if
necessary.
“Phonics instruction includes the teaching of
letter-sound correspondences, the
pronunciations of spelling patterns, and
decoding skills (i.e. how to apply this
phonics knowledge to the reading and
spelling of unknown words, including how
to blend the sounds together).”
Dr. Timothy Shanahan, 2006
IRA President 06-07
Phonics Instructional Approaches
•
•
•
•
•
Analogy Phonics
Analytic Phonics
Embedded Phonics
Phonics through Spelling
Synthetic Phonics
NRP, 2000
National Reading Panel
Phonics Instruction (pp. 8-11)
• Types
• Questions
• Findings
*
New
!
Interesting
?
Questions
Discussion
• What approach do you use to teach phonics?
• How often do you teach phonics?
• In relation to phonics, what are you doing to
meet the needs of your struggling readers?
English as it is Spelled
This year, I firmly made a vow,
I’m going to learn to spell.
I’ve studied phonics very hard.
Results will surely tell.
“A little bird sat on a bough,
And underneath stood a cough.”
That doesn’t look just right somehow.
I guess I should have spelled ‘cou’.
I thought I heard a distant cough
But when I listened, it shut ‘ough’.
Oh dear, I think my spelling’s ‘auf’.
I guess I meant I heard a ‘coff’.
To bake some pizza, take some dough
And let it rise, but very ‘slough’.
That doesn’t look just right, I know.
I guess on that I stubbed my ‘tow’.
My father says down in the ‘slough’
The very largest soybeans ‘grough’.
Perhaps he means the obvious ‘cloo’
To better crops, is soil that’s ‘nue’
Cheap meat is often very tough.
We seldom like to eat the ‘stough’.
I’m all confused; this spelling’s ‘ruff’.
I guess I’ve studied long ‘enuph’.
IRA Position Statement
Three basic principles regarding phonics and the
teaching of reading:
• The teaching of phonics is an important aspect of
beginning reading instruction.
• Classroom teachers in the primary grades do
value and do teach phonics as part of their
reading program.
• Phonics instruction, to be effective in promoting
independence in reading, must be embedded in
the context of a total reading/language arts
program.
Phonics Instruction: Beyond the Basics
Phonics instruction should aim to teach only the
most important and regular of letter-to-sound
relationships…once the basic relationships have
been taught, the best way to get children to
refine and extend their knowledge of lettersound correspondences is through repeated
opportunities to read.
—Anderson, Hiebert, Scott, and Wilkinson (1985)
Effective Teaching
• “…the most effective first-grade teachers…taught
decoding skills explicitly and provided their
students with many opportunities to engage in
authentic reading.”
• “…it is what teachers do to promote application
of phonics knowledge during the reading of
connected text that matters most.”
Wharton-McDonald, Pressley, and Hampston (1998)
Reading for Meaning
“Children in classrooms that taught
[phonics] skills in context did better than
children in classrooms where skills were
taught out of context on every measure of
reading achievement including word
analysis (phonics), fluency, comprehension,
and spelling.”
Cantrell (1999)
The Alphabetic Principle
--The sounds within spoken words
are represented in writing by
letters, and that those letters
represent the sounds rather
consistently.
Why do we teach the sounds of
letters?
So they can be
blended together to
make words
Letter-Sound Sequence
a
b
c
d
Letter Sound Types
•
•
•
•
Continuous Sounds
Stop Sounds
Voiced Sounds
Unvoiced Sounds
Continuous Sounds
• “Stretch-able” sounds--/m/
• Can be held out or elongated without
distortion
• Easiest sounds for children to produce and
blend
• Use first
Stop Sounds
• “Quick” sounds--/b/
• Cannot be held out or elongated without
distortion
• Voiced stop sounds are impossible to produce
in isolation
• Avoid adding “uh” or “schwa” sound after
Voiced Sounds
• “Voice” occurs when the vocal folds (aka vocal
cords) vibrate.
• This vibration makes the sound more audible.
• The vibration may also contribute to sound
distortion, especially in voiced stop
consonants--/b/
Unvoiced Sounds
• Produced without vocal fold vibration
• Air moves past still vocal folds during an
unvoiced sound
• Unvoiced stop consonants are easier to
blend--/p/
Unvoiced
Voiced
Continuous
l
m n r
y
z
Stop
v
w
b
d
g
j
a e i o u
•Find and highlight the Common
h match
p t
f Core
s State Standard(s)c that
these teaching points
•Write Letter-Sound Sequence next
to the standard
q
x
Letter Sounds
• Teaching approximations of sounds
• Systematic: logical sequence
– Start with the easiest and move to more
difficult:
Consonant—Voiced
Continuous—Unvoiced
Stop—Unvoiced
Stop—Voiced
Decoding
“…the purpose of teaching phonics… is to
be able to decode words. Given this
purpose, it follows that very early in the
instructional sequence children should
experience decoding some words.”
Confusions:
Visual Similarities
b and d
b and p
q and p
n and m
n, h and m
v and w
n and r
Confusions:
Auditory Similarities
f and v
t and d
b and d
b and t
k and g
m and n
i and e
o and u
ch and sh
“We can list the phonemes
but the way they actually
work in words is not quite as
straight forward.”
—Louisa Moats
BREAK
Blending
Teaching Children How Words Work
“Phonics instruction
will be of limited value
until a child can blend
the component sounds
in words.”
Blevins, 1998
Blending Methods
• Final Blending (sound-by-sound)
• Successive Blending (whole word)
This instruction is critical to enabling children to
generalize sound-spelling relationships to new
words.
Final Blending
Sound-by Sound Blending
• The sound of each spelling is stated and
stored. The whole word isn’t blended until
all the sounds in the word have been
identified and pronounced.
sat
/s/  /a/  /sa/  /t/  /sat/
Final Blending
• Allows the teacher to determine where a
student is having difficulty as he or she
attempts to blend unfamiliar words.
• Helps the teacher determine which students
lack the ability to orally string together
sounds.
Successive Blending
Whole-Word or Continuous Blending
• Students stretch out, or hold, each sound
in a word without pausing between the
sounds.
sat
ssssaaaat  ssaat  sat
“The goal of teaching phonics is
to develop students’ ability to
read connected text
independently.”
Adams, 1990
Variety of Text
• Decodable (controlled) text
• Predictable/patterned text
• Trade books
Criteria for
controlled/decodable text
• Comprehensible
– Natural sounding—Words must be derived from
children’s speaking/listening vocabularies
• Instructive
– Strong connection between instruction and text
• Interesting
– Engaging—revisited often to develop fluency and
increase reading rate.
Word Building
• Supports decoding and word recognition
by giving students opportunities
consistently to experience and discriminate
the effects on a word of changing one
letter.
• An opportunity to play with sounds and
spelling
Word Building Practice
a d h i s t
•Find and highlight the Common
Core State Standard(s) that match
these teaching points
•Write Word Building Practice next
to the standard
A syllable is a unit of
pronunciation containing a
single vowel sound.
Multisyllabic words are strings
of syllables, made up of onsets
and rimes.
Skillful readers’ ability to read
long words depends on their
ability to break the words into
syllables. This is true for
familiar and unfamiliar words.
Adams
• amphibolite
• chlorofluorocarbons
• poikilothermic
SNRPDP
Syllabication is the process of
analyzing the patterns of
vowels and consonants in a
word to determine where the
word breaks into syllables.
Types of Syllables
Closed
Open
r-controlled
vowel team
vowel-silent e
consonant-le
Types of Syllables
closed
A syllable in which a single vowel is followed by
a consonant. The vowel sound is usually short.
(cat, rabbit, picnic)
Types of Syllables
closed
A syllable in which a single vowel is followed by
a consonant. The vowel sound is usually short.
(cat, rabbit, picnic)
open
A syllable ending with a single vowel. The
vowel sound is usually long. (me, veto)
Types of Syllables
closed
A syllable in which a single vowel is followed by
a consonant. The vowel sound is usually short.
(cat, rabbit, picnic)
open
A syllable ending with a single vowel. The
vowel sound is usually long. (me, veto)
r-controlled
A syllable in which the vowel(s) is followed by
the single letter r. The vowel sound is neither
long nor short. (chart, pour, target, whisper)
Types of Syllables
closed
A syllable in which a single vowel is followed by
a consonant. The vowel sound is usually short.
(cat, rabbit, picnic)
open
A syllable ending with a single vowel. The
vowel sound is usually long. (me, veto)
r-controlled
A syllable in which the vowel(s) is followed by
the single letter r. The vowel sound is neither
long nor short. (chart, pour, target, whisper)
vowel team
A syllable containing two letters that together
make one vowel sound. The vowel sound can be
long, short, or a diphthong. (plain, heavy, boy)
Types of Syllables
closed
A syllable in which a single vowel is followed by
a consonant. The vowel sound is usually short.
(cat, rabbit, picnic)
open
A syllable ending with a single vowel. The
vowel sound is usually long. (me, veto)
r-controlled
A syllable in which the vowel(s) is followed by
the single letter r. The vowel sound is neither
long nor short. (chart, pour, target, whisper)
vowel team
A syllable containing two letters that together
make one vowel sound. The vowel sound can be
long, short, or a diphthong. (plain, heavy, boy)
vowel-silent e A syllable with a long vowel-consonant-silent e
pattern. (shape, cube, slide, behave)
Types of Syllables
closed
A syllable in which a single vowel is followed by
a consonant. The vowel sound is usually short.
(cat, rabbit, picnic)
open
A syllable ending with a single vowel. The
vowel sound is usually long. (me, veto)
r-controlled
A syllable in which the vowel(s) is followed by
the single letter r. The vowel sound is neither
long nor short. (chart, pour, target, whisper)
vowel team
A syllable containing two letters that together
make one vowel sound. The vowel sound can be
long, short, or a diphthong. (plain, heavy, boy)
vowel-silent e A syllable with a long vowel-consonant-silent e
pattern. (shape, cube, slide, behave)
consonant-le
An unaccented final syllable containing a
consonant plus –le. (apple, table)
What is the syllable type?
scratch
closed
sharp
r-controlled
tree
vowel team
beside
open/silent
e
•Find and highlight
the Common
Core State Standard(s)
that match
harvest
r-controlled/closed
these teaching
pointsteam/r-controlled
seeker
vowel
•Write Syllable Types next to the
candle
closed/consonant-le
standard
napkin
closed/closed
Syllable Patterns
VCCV
VCV
VCCCV
VV
Pattern Division
Type
VCCV
Closed If a word has two consonants in the
middle, divide between them.
rab – bit
VC/CV
Definition/Example
Pattern Division
Type
VCCV
VC/CV
VCV
V/CV
VC/V
Closed If a word has two consonants in the
middle, divide between them.
rab – bit
Open If a word has one consonant between
Closed two vowels, divide the word before or
after the consonant.
mu – sic, clos – et
Definition/Example
Pattern Division
Type
VCCV
VC/CV
VCV
V/CV
VC/V
Closed If a word has two consonants in the
middle, divide between them.
rab – bit
Open If a word has one consonant between
Closed two vowels, divide the word before or
after the consonant.
mu – sic, clos – et
Definition/Example
VCCCV VC/CCV Closed Words with three or more consonants
in the medial position almost always
contain a blend, and almost always
have a closed first syllable.
hun – dred, in – struct
Pattern Division
Type
VCCV
VC/CV
VCV
V/CV
VC/V
Closed If a word has two consonants in the
middle, divide between them.
rab – bit
Open If a word has one consonant between
Closed two vowels, divide the word before or
after the consonant.
mu – sic, clos – et
Definition/Example
VCCCV VC/CCV Closed Words with three or more consonants
in the medial position almost always
contain a blend, and almost always
have a closed first syllable.
hun – dred, in – struct
VV
V/V
Open
If a word has two vowels together
that make different sounds, divide
between the two vowels.
ne – on
How do syllable patterns & types affect
vowel sounds?
monster
basic
human
silky
coma
muscle
deny
moment
basket
humble
silent
compound
music
dentist
Reading: The Big Picture
Comprehension
Fluency
Decoding
Phonological Awareness
Fluency
ELA Kindergarten
page 15 &16 of the Common Core State Standards Binder
1. Move to reading emergent-reader
texts with
purpose
and
G NV Standard
(translation document)
Not addressed in Nevada State
understanding.
Standards
SNRPDP
Fluency
ELA First Grade
page 15 &16 of the Common Core State Standards Binder
l. Move to reading with sufficient accuracy
and fluency to support comprehension.
NV Standard
(translation
• a. ReadGon-level
text
withdocument)
purpose and
Reading aloud with a focus on
understanding.
prosody, accuracy, automaticity, and
rate, with
• b. Readreading
on-level
textassistance.
orally with accuracy,
appropriate rate, and expression.
• c. Use context to confirm or self-correct
word recognition and understanding,
rereading as necessary.
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Fluency
ELA Second Grade
page 15 &16 of the Common Core State Standards Binder
1. Move to reading with sufficient accuracy
G NV Standard
(translation document)
and fluency
to support
comprehension.
Reading Aloud with a focus on
• a. Readprosody,
grade-level
text
with purpose
and
accuracy,
automaticity,
and
reading rate.
understanding.
• b. Read grade-level text orally with accuracy,
appropriate rate, and expression.
• c. Use context to confirm or self-correct
word recognition and understanding.
SNRPDP
Reading Fluency
• What is reading fluency?
• Why is fluency important?
• What instruction helps students develop fluency?
• How can we adapt instruction for students with
special needs?
• How can we monitor students’ progress in fluency?
SNRPDP
Fluency Anticipation Guide
• 1. Fluency in reading is most relevant at the beginning
stages of reading.
• 2. Fluency is independent of comprehension.
• 3. Research has identified several methods to increase
reading fluency.
• 4. Oral reading fluency is developed best through
independent reading.
• 5. One aspect of fluency can be judged by determining
the student’s rate of reading in words per minute
(WPM).
• 6. It is appropriate to consider fluency in silent reading.
Fluency Anticipation Guide
• 7. Fluency is actually speed of reading.
• 8. Fluency strategies are primarily for students
experiencing difficulty in reading.
• 9. Students should adjust reading rate according to their
purposes for reading.
• 10. Round-robin oral reading is an effective fluency
activity.
Reading Fluency
The Bridge from Phonics to
Comprehension
SNRPDP
Four Components of Fluency
1.
2.
3.
4.
comprehension
accuracy
speed
expression
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Rally Coach
• 1. Partner A reads the first component and explains
it to Partner B.
• 2. Partner B watches and listens, asks questions if
necessary, and praises.
• 3. Partner B reads the next component and explains
it to Partner A.
• 4. Partner A watches and listens, asks questions if
necessary, and praises.
• 5. Repeat starting at Step #1. Continue until the 4
components have been discussed.
Rally Robin
Partner A
Comprehension
Partner B
Accuracy
Partner A
Speed (Automaticity)
Partner B
Expression
SNRPDP
Fluency
• Fluency: reading quickly, accurately, and with
expression
• Combines rate and accuracy
• Requires automaticity
• Includes reading with prosody
Rate + Accuracy = Fluency
Comprehension
SNRPDP
Fluent Reading
• What does fluent reading sound like?
• Fluent reading flows. It sounds smooth,
with natural pauses.
SNRPDP
Why Is Reading Fluency Important
• “Fluency provides a bridge between word recognition and
comprehension.”
—National Institute for Literacy (NIFL), 2001, p. 22
• Fluent readers are able to focus their attention on
understanding text.
• Because non-fluent readers focus much of their attention
on figuring out words, they have less attention to devote
to comprehension.
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What Students Need To Learn
• How to decode words (in isolation and in
connected text)
• How to automatically recognize words
(accurately and quickly with little attention
or effort)
• How to increase speed (or rate) of reading
while maintaining accuracy
SNRPDP
Steps to Providing Fluency Instruction
• Measure students’ fluency
• Set fluency goals for individual students
• Select appropriate texts for fluency-building instruction
• Model fluent reading
• Provide repeated reading opportunities with corrected
feedback
• Monitor student progress
SNRPDP
Fluency-Building Practices
• Teacher Read Alouds
– Models the proper phrasing and speed of fluent reading
• Readers Theatre
– Involves small groups of students rehearsing and reading a
play
• Repeated Reading
– Helps monitor the student’s growth in fluency
SNRPDP
More Fluency-Building Practices
• Choral reading
– Actively involves students as they read in unison
• Chunking•Find and highlight the Common
Core
Statephrases,
Standard(s)
thatand
match
– Involves
reading
clauses,
sentences by
teaching
points
parsing,these
or dividing
text
into chunks
•Write activity names next to the
standard
SNRPDP
Consider Diversity:
English Language Learners
• Fluency practice for English language learners
involves:
– Listening to models
– Repeated readings
– Choral reading
– Partner reading
SNRPDP
Students with Special Needs
• Students with disabilities usually benefit
from:
– Repeated reading practice, especially in
expository or informational texts
– More time on task
– Paired reading and rereading
– Additional feedback and progress monitoring
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Monitoring Fluency Progress
• Students:
– Independently read unpracticed text to the teacher
and graph their wpm
– Practice rereading the same text several times
– Independently read the text again to the teacher
– Graph score in a different color
SNRPDP
Fluency Anticipation Guide
• 1. Fluency in reading is most relevant at the beginning
stages of reading. False
• 2. Fluency is independent of comprehension. False
• 3. Research has identified several methods to increase
reading fluency. True
• 4. Oral reading fluency is developed best through
independent reading. False
• 5. One aspect of fluency can be judged by determining
the student’s rate of reading in words per minute
(WPM). True
• 6. It is appropriate to consider fluency in silent reading.
True
Fluency Anticipation Guide
• 7. Fluency is actually speed of reading. False
• 8. Fluency strategies are primarily for students
experiencing difficulty in reading. False
• 9. Students should adjust reading rate according to their
purposes for reading. True
• 10. Round-robin oral reading is an effective fluency
activity. False
Remember . . .
• Fluency is increased when students:
– Develop instant, efficient word recognition
(automaticity)
– Practice repeated reading of texts
– Receive feedback and guidance from others
SNRPDP
•What “squared” (agreed) with
something you already knew about the
CCSS?
•What about the CCSS did you see from a
new “angle?”
•What was new or created a new “circle” of
knowledge for you when looking at the
Translation Guide?
•In what “new direction” might you go when
school starts? What action will you take when
implementing the CCSS?
SNRPDP

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