Deposition methods

Report
Deposition (PVD and
CVD)
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Plan of presentation
• Deposition methods
CVD( Chemical Vapor Deposition)
PVD ( Physical Vapor Deposition )
• Principles, processes on the surface
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Deposition methods classification
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Deposition methods
PVD ( Physical Vapour Deposition - Füüsikaline aurufaasist sadestamine)
CVD ( Chemical Vapour Deposition – Keemikaline aurufaasist sadestamine )
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PVD and CVD methods
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Metalorganic CVD
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Plasma Enhanced CVD (PECVD)
PECVD – plasma-enhanced CVD:
– glow-discharge plasmas (usually RF field: 100 kHz – 40 MHz), or MW – 2.54 GHz
plazma at reduced gas pressure between 50 mtorr and 5 torr) are sustained
within chambers where simultaneous vapor-phase chemical reactions and film
depositions occur
– plasma activation of reactions (average electron energies range from 1 to 10
eV) ! chemical reactions occur at much lower temperatures than in thermal
CVD
Main applications of PECVD:
- microelectronics (DRAM cells)
- plasma modification of metal surfaces (nitriding, carburizing):
the atoms of nitrogen and carbon that deposit on metal surfaces
modify them by diffusing into the underlying matrix
- diamond films
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Plasma Enhanced CVD (PECVD)
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PECVD (MW) Plasma Enhanced CVD
Microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition system for high quality
poly-, mono- and nanocrystalline diamond films.
MW frequency – 2.54 GHz.
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Diamond films
Polycrystalline diamond films
Nanocrystalline diamond films
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Application of diamond films
- Semiconductor Devices, RF MEMS,
- Creation of novel surface materials, i.e.
super‐hydrophobic surfaces,
super‐hydrophilic surfaces (biocompatible surfaces)
- Fabrication of 3‐D diamond probes and structures
for field emission
- High selectivity and high voltage range electrochemical
sensors and electrodes
- Defects in diamond (famous NV centers) for single photon sources,
quantum computers (qubit), quantum cryptography,…
- Sensors (quantum sensing in biology and medicine)
- Tribology
Current research projects in our Department include:
-Growth of the diamond tips for Atomic Force Microscopy
-Investigation of the diamond films growth (fractal approach)
- Investigation of tribological properties of the diamond films (nanowaves on the wear scars)
- …………………….
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Announce
Diamond films prepared by Chemical Vapor Deposition
Dr. V. Ralchenko , Natural Sciences Center of Prokhorov General Physics Insitute RAS,
Diamond Materials Laboratory, Moscow, Russia
Lecture agenda:
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1. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) of diamond films: Principles and methods
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2. Growth processes for nano/micro/mono-crystalline films in microwave plasma
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3. The properties of diamond films
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4. Diamond films processing
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5. Applications of diamond films
Lecture venue - Tallinn University of Technology, Department of Materials Engineering
Lecture will be held on 20 November 2013.
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Atomic Layer deposition (CVD like)
Atomic scale deposition. ALD is similar in chemistry to CVD, except that the ALD
reaction breaks the CVD reaction into two half- reactions, keeping the precursor
materials separate during the reaction.
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PVD – Physical Vapor Deposition
Evaporation
Evaporation: controllably transfer atoms from a heated source to a substrate
located a distance away, where film formation and growth proceed
atomistically.
Thermal energy is imparted to atoms in a liquid or solid source such that their
temperature is raised to the point where they either efficiently evaporate or
sublime.
• Electrically heated evaporation sources (Thermal evaporation)
• Pulsed laser deposition
• Electron-beam evaporation
• Molecular beam epitaxy
• Ion beam assisted evaporation
• Discharge based deposition methods (sputtering, arc evaporation )
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Thermal evaporation (PVD)
Termilise aurustuse põhimõtteline skeem
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Molecular beam epitaxy
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Discharge based deposition
methods
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1. SPUTTERING
(katood-ioonpommitus)
Magnetron Sputtering
DC
RF
2. Cathode ARC ion
Plating
(kaarleek sadestamist)
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Voltage-current characteristics
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Sputtering (DC and RF)
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Katood-ioonpommitussadestus
Magnetron
sputtering
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Platit π70 and π -80
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Coating structure
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What you need to remember
1. Difference between PVD and CVD.
- PVD – evaporation or collision impact of the solid target
- CVD – chemical processes in gaseous phase and the surface
2. The versatility of deposition methods is due to particular purposes
including quality of the films (coating), size of sample, deposition price,
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3. The quality of the film is a leading factor in the development of new
deposition methods. Nowadays, those are:
a. Layer by layer deposition :examples – MBE (PVD), ALD (CVD)
b. PECVD
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Mechanism of Growth
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Vaba energia
F = U-TS
U-sisseenergia
T-temperatuur
S-entroopia
γΔσ = ΔF
Island growth
VolmerWeber
Layer-by-layer
Frank-van der
Merwe
Layer-bylayer+island
StranskiKrastanov
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