Using MIS 6e Chapter 4

Report
Chapter 4
Hardware, Software,
and Mobile Systems
"... If We Don’t Have an iPad App, We
Don’t Have a Business."
• GearUp not competitive without iPad app
• Lack of knowledge could waste money and
time
• Outsourcing to India? Open source?
• What have others done?
• Conflict between low cost and technical
competitiveness
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Study Questions
Q1: What do business professionals need to know about
computer hardware?
Q2: What do business professionals need to know about
software?
Q3: Is open source software a viable alternative?
Q4: What are the differences between native and thin-client
applications?
Q5: Why are mobile systems increasingly important?
Q6: What characterizes quality mobile user experiences?
Q7: What are the challenges of personal mobile devices at
work?
Q8: 2023?
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Q1: What Do Business Professionals Need
to Know About Computer Hardware?
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Server farm
Large
collection of
coordinated
servers
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Computer Data
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Important Storage-Capacity Terminology
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Memory Swapping
• When RAM too small to hold all open
programs and data
• CPU loads program segments into free
memory
– If none available, O/S swaps out existing
segment, to a disk and copies requested
segment to freed space
• Swapping slows down computer
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Specifying Hardware with Computer
Data Sizes
• CPU speed expressed in hertz
• Slow = 1.5 GHz; Fast = 3+ GHz
– 32-bit or 64-bit
– 64-bit for 4+ GB memory
 Processing large spreadsheets, database
files, picture, sound, or movie files; using
many large applications at same time
• Cache and main memory are volatile
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Q2: What Do Business Professionals
Need to Know About Software?
Basic Categories of Computer Software
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What Are the Major Operating Systems?
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What Are the Major Operating Systems?
(cont'd)
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Windows 8 Metro Interface
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Virtualization
• Host operating system
– Runs one or more operating systems as applications
• PC virtualization
– Personal computer hosts several different operating
systems
• Server virtualization
– Server computer hosts other server computers
– Makes cloud computing feasible
• Virtual desktop
– Allows access from any computer a user has
authorization to use
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Virtualization: Windows Server
Computer Hosting Two Virtual Machines
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How Virtual Machine VM3 Appears to a
User
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Own Versus License
License
– Right to use specified number of copies
– Limits vendor’s liability
Site License
– Flat fee to install software product on all
company computers or all computers at a
specific site
Open source software
– Free usage license
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What Types of Applications Exist, and
How Do Organizations Obtain Them?
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What Is Firmware?
Computer software installed on read-only
memory
• Printers, print servers, communication
devices
• Coded like other software
• Can be changed and upgraded
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Using MIS InClass 4: Place Your Bets
Now!
• Three-way race for market share – Apple,
Google, Microsoft
• Merging software, hardware, personal
communication devices, movies, etc.
• All have deep technical staff, knowledge,
patents, and plenty of money
• Who will win?
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Three-way Comparison
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Q3: Is Open Source Software a Viable
Alternative?
GNL — General Public License
• Standard for open source software
• Successful open source projects
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Open Office
Firefox
MySQL
Apache
Ubuntu
Android
Cassandra
Hadoop
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Some Terms
• Open source – source available to public
• Source code – computer code written by humans
and understandable by humans
• Machine code
 11010010100101111110011101111001000111....
• Closed source code – highly protected and only
available to trusted employees and carefully vetted
contractors
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Why Do Programmers Volunteer Their
Services?
• It’s fun
• Freedom to choose projects
• Exercise creativity on interesting and
fulfilling projects
• Exhibit one’s skill to get a job
• Start a business selling services
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How Does Open Source Work?
• Collaboration of many programmers
• Examines source code and identifies a
need, creates new feature or redesigns
existing feature, or fixes a problem
• Code evaluated and extended by others
• Iteration, peer reviews and well-managed
project yield high-quality code
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Source Code Sample
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Is Open Source Viable?
• Depends on requirements and constraints
of situation
• “Free” open source software require support
and operational costs, could cost more than
licensing fee
• Future will involve blend of both proprietary
and open source software
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Q4: What Are the Differences Between
Native and Thin-client Applications?
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Developing Thin-client Applications
• Browser handles idiosyncrasies of operating
system and underlying hardware
• Applications written by professional
programmers, technically oriented web
developers, or business professionals
• Cheaper to develop
• Limited by capabilities of the browser
• Thin-client applications via Web go to
www.picozu.com/editor
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One Consequence of Browser
Differences for Thin-Client Applications
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Which Is Better?
• Depends:
– Strategy, goals, application requirements,
budget, schedule, tolerance for managing
technical projects, need for application
revenue, etc.
– Thin-client applications cheaper to
develop and maintain, but may lack wow
factor
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Ethics Guide: “Because It’s Where the
Money Is . . .”
• Hackers target where money is
• Windows targeted more than Mac
• Malware: Viruses, Trojan horses, Spyware,
Adware
• Apple better get ready for avalanche of
attacks.
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Q5: Why Are Mobile Systems
Increasingly Important?
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Elements of a Mobile Information
System
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Q6: What Characterizes Quality Mobile
User Experiences?
Primary characteristics of quality mobile applications
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Chrome-less Mobile Windows Store
Application
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Example of Application Scaling
• Example of IE10 Charm Scaling
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Example Use of Web Page Data
Declared as Shared
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Mobile Systems Cloud Use
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Kindle Fire Roaming Message
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Q7: What Are the Challenges of
Personal Mobile Devices at Work?
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Six Common BYOD Policies
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Advantages of Example BYOD Policies
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Q8: 2023?
• Can Microsoft take Office 365 to mobile market
via its Skype acquisition?
• PC mules rare
• Large-screen computing/connectivity devices
available everywhere
• Use public device to connect to cloud
• Won’t need desktop office applications
• Cost performance issues of desktop
virtualization will be gone
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Ethics Guide: Churn and Burn
Conspiracy among hardware and software
vendors?
• Hardware vendors create new, faster computers
• Software vendors create new products with more
features only needed by some users
• Time-consuming to learn
Churning
1. New software needs new hardware to run.
2. New hardware becomes obsolete fast.
3. Repeat steps 1 and 2.
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Ethics Guide: Churn and Burn (cont’d)
• Products have defects
– Vendors turn these into a sales advantage
• Should users accept these problems?
• Should they rise up in protest?
• What should vendors do?
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Guide: Keeping Up to Speed
• Relentless pace of technology change
• 21st century business professional cannot bury
head in sand
• Use knowledge of IT to gain competitive advantage
• Don’t ignore technology
– Read articles, technology ads, attend
seminars, workshops
• Get involved as user representative in technology
committees
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Guide: Questioning Your Questions
• Learn how to discern judgment quality and
evaluate answers.
• Most difficult and creative tasks are generating
questions and formulating strategy for getting
answers.
• Be able to ask good questions and obtain good
answers.
• Learn about new IS alternatives and how to
apply them.
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Guide: Questioning Your Questions
Questions can be bad in three ways:
1. Irrelevant: Answer won’t tell you why
2. Dead: Provide no insight into subject
3. Asked wrong source
 Don’t ask “What is it?” questions of
valuable or expensive sources.
 Ask: “How can I use it? Is it the best
choice for our company or situation?”
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Active Review
Q1: What do business professionals need to know about computer
hardware?
Q2: What do business professionals need to know about
software?
Q3: Is open source software a viable alternative?
Q4: What are the differences between native and thin-client
applications?
Q5: Why are mobile systems increasingly important?
Q6: What characterizes quality mobile user experiences?
Q7: What are the challenges of personal mobile devices at work?
Q8: 2023?
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Case Study 4: The Apple of Your i
• Tripled market share in three years
• Second largest public company in world
• Pioneered well-engineered home computers
and innovative interfaces for students and
knowledge workers
• Every sales success feeds other sales
successes
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Case Study 4: The Apple of Your i
(cont’d)
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