Opportunities to Respond Classroom Module

Report
MO SW-PBS Classroom Module
• This module is designed to provide the slides and materials needed
to teach staff, students and families about a SW-PBS topic.
• Notes have been written to assist with the presentation.
• More information is available in the Classroom chapter of the 201213 MO SW-PBS Team Workbook about the topic.
• Slides 2 – 14 are an introduction and may be deleted if you have
presented in previous mini-modules.
• Call your Regional Consultant if you have questions.
• Good luck!
• Delete this slide before beginning your session.
Handouts
• There are 3 handouts needed for this
Classroom Module
– Opportunities to Respond Guided Notes
– Review of Opportunities to Respond
– Opportunities to Respond Fact Sheet
Effective Classroom Practices
Outcomes
At the end of the session, you will be able to…
• Explain to others the power of positive and proactive
strategies in establishing an effective classroom learning
environment.
• Incorporate high response opportunities into your classroom
teaching.
MO SW-PBS
“When teachers know and use positive and
preventative management strategies, many of
the commonly reported minor classroom
behaviors can be avoided.”
Scheuermann & Hall
“Effective classroom management is a key
component of effective instruction, regardless of
grade level, subject, pedagogy or curriculum.”
Sprick, et. al
MO SW-PBS
Typical School Day
17%
33%
20%
30%
Direct Instruction
Seatwork
Transitions
Discipline & Other
Non-Instructional
Activities
Cotton, 1995; Walberg, 1988
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Academic Learning Time
There is no doubt that academic learning
time–the amount of time that students are
actively, successfully, and productively
engaged in learning–is a strong
determinant of achievement.
MO SW-PBS
Academic Learning Time
Instructional Time–the amount of the allocated
time that actually results in teaching.
Engaged Time–the amount of instructional time
where students are actively engaged in
learning.
MO SW-PBS
Academic Learning Time
Instructional Time–diminished by unclear
procedures, disruptive student behavior,
disciplinary responses, lengthy transitions, etc.
– Classroom Expectations
– Classroom Procedures & Routines
– Encouraging Expected Behavior
– Discouraging Inappropriate Behavior
MO SW-PBS
Academic Learning Time
• Engaged Time–diminished by inactive
supervision, limited opportunities for students
to respond, poor task selection, etc.
– Active Supervision
– Opportunities to Respond
– Activity Sequencing & Choice
– Task Difficulty
MO SW-PBS
Three Levels of Implementation
A Continuum of Support for All
Academic Systems
Behavioral Systems
Tier Three
Tier Three
• Individual Students
• Assessment-based
• High Intensity
• Individual Students
• Assessment-based
• Intense, durable procedures
Tier Two
• Some students (at-risk)
• High efficiency
• Rapid response
Tier Two
• Some students (at-risk)
• High efficiency
• Rapid response
Tier One
Tier One
• All students
• Preventive, proactive
• All settings, all students
• Preventive, proactive
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Effective Classroom Practices
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Classroom Expectations
Classroom Procedures & Routines
Encouraging Expected Behavior
Discouraging Inappropriate Behavior
Active Supervision
Opportunities to Respond
Activity Sequencing & Choice
Task Difficulty
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Discussion: Academic Learning Time
Discuss with a partner:
• What do we currently do to ensure uninterrupted
learning time?
• What do we currently do to ensure engaged time
(e.g., practices to ensure that students are on task,
responding frequently, and producing quality work
matched to their ability)?
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325
Effective classroom managers are known, not by
what they do when misbehavior occurs, but by
what they do to set their classroom up for
academic success and prevent problems from
occurring.
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324
References
• Cotton, K. (1995) Effective schools research summary:
1995 update. Portland, OR: Northwest Regional
Educational Laboratory.
• Scheuermann, B. K. and Hall, J. A. (2008). Positive
behavioral supports for the classroom. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.
• Sprick, R., Knight, J., Reinke, W. & McKale, T. (2006).
Coaching classroom management: Strategies and tools
for administrators and coaches. Eugene, OR: Pacific
Northwest Publishing.
• Walberg, H. (1988). Synthesis of research on time and
learning. Educational Leadership 45(6), 76-85.
Opportunities to Respond
MO SW-PBS
Effective Classroom Practices
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Classroom Expectations
Classroom Procedures & Routines
Encouraging Expected Behavior
Discouraging Inappropriate Behavior
Active Supervision
Opportunities to Respond
Activity Sequencing & Choice
Task Difficulty
Shortly after science class started, the teacher
announced, “We have a small block of ice and the same
sized block of butter. Tell your neighbor which one would
melt first.” A few seconds later the teacher said, “Please
write down in one sentence an explanation for your
answer.” A few minutes later, the teacher told students to
share with their neighbor what they had written. Shortly
thereafter, the teach called on one student to tell the
class her answer. The teacher then asked to the class to
raise their hand if they agreed with the answer. Then the
teacher asked students to give a thumb down if anyone
disagreed.
Colvin, 2009
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336
Opportunities to Respond (OTR)
• Addresses the number of times the teacher
provides academic requests that require students
to actively respond.
• Teacher behavior that prompts or solicits a
student response (verbal, written, gesture).
• Includes strategies for presenting materials,
asking questions, and correcting students’
answers to increase the likelihood of an active
response.
MO SW-PBS
The Value of Providing OTR
• More time students are involved, more learned.
• Increased rates of responding and subsequent
improved learning tend to increase the amount that
can be covered.
• On-task behavior and correct response increase while
disruptions decrease.
• Shown to improve reading and math performance.
• Provides continual feedback for the teach on student
learning and the effectiveness of teaching strategies.
MO SW-PBS
Guidelines for Response Rates
• Teacher talk should be no
more than 40-50% of
instructional time.
• New material–a minimum of
4-6 responses per minute with
80% accuracy.
• Review of previously learned
material–8-12 responses per
minute with 90% accuracy.
MO SW-PBS
Activity: Personal Reflection
• Think about the amount of opportunities to
respond you gave your students during the
most recent day you taught.
• How would you compare to these response
guideline?
– New material–a minimum of 4-6 responses per
minute with 80% accuracy.
– Review of previously learned material–8-12
responses per minute with 90% accuracy
Response Strategies
• Varied and creative strategies exist.
• Verbal strategies–students respond orally to teacher
prompts or questions.
• Non-verbal strategies–student use a signal, card,
writing or movement to respond.
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Verbal Response Strategies
• Individual Questioning–calling on students
unpredictably heightens student attention.
– Ask the question first, then pause before calling on
the student to respond.
– Use seating chart, tallying to monitor rate of questions
presented to each.
– Student names on strips of paper, drawn as questions
asked.
– Use above random strategy, and call on a student to
repeat or summarize what the student just said.
MO SW-PBS
Verbal Responses–Continued
• Choral Responding–all
students in class respond
in unison to a teacher
question.
– Suitable for review, to teach
new skills, as a drill, or as a
lesson summary.
MO SW-PBS
Ms. Finch’s first graders have just finished reading a story about a
young boy named Howard.
Ms. Finch puts her storybook on her lap and holds up her hand and
says, “Class, get ready to tell me the main character in today’s story.”
She says, “Think big,” drops her hand as a signal, and the students
chime in, “Howard!” “Howard is right,” exclaims Ms. Finch. “Way to
go!” She asks ten more quick questions–some about the setting and
main idea. “Last one. Here we go. The problem Howard faced today
was finding his lost dog. Is that true or false? Think about it.” She
signals and the student eagerly respond, “False!” The students laugh
and so does Ms. Finch. “I couldn’t trick you, could I?” she asks. “Tell
me why that’s false.” She calls on James who is frantically waving his
hand to answer.
Wood and Heward, 2004
MO SW-PBS
Using Choral Responding
1. Develop questions with only one right answer that
can be answered with short, 1-3 word answers.
2. Provide a thinking pause or wait time of at least three
seconds between asking the question and prompting
students to respond.
3. Use a clear signal or predictable phrase to cue
students to respond in unison.
4. Use a brisk, lively pace.
5. Provide immediate feedback on the group response.
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Using Choral Responding–Continued
• Prepare questions in advance.
• Can be visually presented on PowerPoint®
• Best used with individual questions
interspersed to assess individual learning.
• Use thorough pre-correction regarding
listening, the response signal, appropriate
voice tone, etc.
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Verbal Responses–Continued
• Wait Time or Think Time–the time lapse when
delivering a question before calling on a
student or cueing a group response.
– Engages students in thinking.
– Increases participation.
– Increases quality of responses.
– Results in fewer redirects of students and fewer
discipline problems.
Rowe, 1987
MO SW-PBS
Using Wait Time or Think Time
• Simply pause after
asking a question for
five seconds.
– Count inaudibly, use a
stopwatch or follow
second hand on a
clock.
– Peer coaching or
video-taping can help
to develop awareness.
MO SW-PBS
Activity: Shoulder Partner
• Think about the how long your typical wait
time is.
• Do you pause a full 5 seconds to give students
time to think?
• Discuss with your shoulder partner how you
might increase your wait time.
Non-Verbal Responding
• Every student actively answering or
responding to each question or problem
posed by the teacher.
• Same benefits as verbal response strategies.
• Most common approaches: white boards,
written response cards, “clickers,” signaling or
movement responses.
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Non-Verbal Strategies
• White Boards–students have personal white
board to write answers to teacher’s questions
with an erasable pen.
– Letters, words, numbers, draw symbols, or solve
problems.
– When cued, hold up board to display answers.
– Students use an eraser, sponge, or cloth to erase
their answer and await next question.
MO SW-PBS
Non-Verbal Strategies–Continued
• Response Cards–preprinted cards that have
choice words on each
side.
– Yes/No, True/False,
Odd/Even
– Set of few choices (e.g.,
noun, pronoun, verb,
adverb)
MO SW-PBS
Using White Boards or Response Cards
Teachers should:
• Teach the expected behaviors, including when to select
their card or write their response, when to share, and when
to clean boards or reposition cards for next question.
• Prepare questions to carefully match your response option.
• Assess student responses and provide clear, specific
feedback.
• Provide the correct answer and a brief explanation if a
significant number of students did not respond accurately,
then re-present the question.
MO SW-PBS
Non-Verbal Strategies–Continued
• Student Response Systems–
commonly called “clickers.”
1. During class discussion, the
teacher displays or asks a
question.
2. All students key in their
answer using a hand-held
keypad or other web-based
device.
3. Responses are received and
displayed on the teacher’s
computer monitor and on an
overhead projector screen.
MO SW-PBS
Using “Clickers”
• Teachers see immediately how students answer.
• Helps to guide teacher instruction.
• Devices are numbered so that individual
responses can be downloaded for recordkeeping
or further analysis once the session has ended.
• Student engagement and motivation or student
satisfaction seems to be enhanced.
• All can respond anonymously using a familiar
game approach.
Raiser & Dempsey, 2007
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Non-Verbal Strategies–Continued
• Signaling or Movement Activities
– Thumbs up/thumbs down, stand up/sit
down, move to four corners, etc.
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Non-Verbal Strategies–Continued
• Guided Notes–teacher prepared handouts leading
students through a presentation or lecture with
visual cues or prepared blank spaces to fill in key
facts or concepts.
–
–
–
–
Increases attention and engagement.
Provides a standard set of notes.
Helps with outlining skills.
Lessons must follow the guided
notes.
MO SW-PBS
Developing Guided Notes
• Identify key facts, concepts, or relationships
that could be left blank for students to fill in.
• Consider inserting concept maps or a chart,
diagram, or graph to help with understanding.
• Provide students with formatting clues such as
blank lines, numbers, bullets, etc.
• Be careful not to require too much writing.
MO SW-PBS
Other Practices to Increase OTR
• Computer-assisted instruction
• Class-wide peer tutoring
• Direct Instruction
MO SW-PBS
Activity: Opportunities to Respond
Work with a partner.
Review the practices for ensuring numerous
opportunities to respond.
Summarize what you have learned in the chart on
handout Review of Opportunities to Respond by listing
the strategies and then noting any key points about
using the strategies effectively.
Be prepared to share your summary with the large
group.
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Activity: Opportunities to Respond
• Use handout entitled Personal Reflection and
Commitment.
• List the subjects or content areas that you teach in
the left column below.
• Identify the verbal and non-verbal opportunity to
respond strategies that could be used to improve
your student learning outcomes in those subjects or
content in the right column.
• Put a star by the one you will make a commitment to
develop first.
• Share with a partner.
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Questions
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References
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Barbetta, P. M., & Heward, W. L. (1993). Effects of active student response during error correction on the
acquisition and maintenance of geography facts by elementary students with learning disabilities. Journal
of Behavioral Education, 3, 217-233.
Carnine, D. W. (1976). Effects of two teacher-presentation rates on off-task behavior, answering correctly,
and participation. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 9, 199-206.
Heward, W. L. (1994). Three low-tech strategies for increasing the frequency of active student response
during group instruction. In R. Garner, III, D. M. Sainato, J. O., Cooper, T. E., Heron W. L., Heward, J.,
Eshleman, & T.A. Grossi (Eds.), Behavior analysis in education: Focus on measurably superior instruction.
Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
MacSuga, A. S., & Simonsen, B. (2011). Increasing teachers’ use of evidence-based classroom management
strategies through consultation: Overview and case studies. Beyond Behavior, 20(11), 4-12.
Miller, S.P. (2009). Validated practices for teaching students with diverse needs and abilities. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Education.
Reiser, R. A., & Dempsey, J. (2007). Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (2nd Ed., pp.
94-131). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
Rowe, M. (1987) Wait time: Slowing down may be a way of speeding up. American Educator, 11, 38-43.
Scott, T. M. Anderson, C. M., & Alter, P. (2012). Managing classroom behavior using positive behavior
supports. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
Simonsen, B., Myers, D., & DeLuca, C. (2010). Providing teachers with training and performance feedback
to increase use of three classroom management skills: Prompts, opportunities to respond, and
reinforcement. Teacher Education in Special Education, 33, 300-318.
MO SW-PBS
References Continued
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Skinner, C.H., Belfior, P.J., Mace, H.W., Williams-Wilson, S., & Johns, G.A. (1997). Altering response
topography to increase response efficiency and learning rates. School Psychology Quarterly, 12, 54-64.
Skinner, C. H., Smith, E. S., & McLean, J. E. (1994). The effects on intertribal interval duration on sight-word
learning rates of children with behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders, 19, 98-107.
Sprick, R., Knight, J., Reinke, W. & McKale, T. (2006). Coaching classroom management: Strategies and
tools for administrators and coaches. Eugene, OR: Pacific Northwest Publishing.
Sutherland, K. S., Adler, N., & Gunter P. L. (2003). The effect of varying rates of opportunities to respond on
academic request on the classroom behavior of students with EBD. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral
Disorders (11), 239-248.
Sutherland, K. S., & Wehby, J. H. (2001). Exploring the relationship between increased opportunities to
respond to academic requests and the academic and behavioral outcomes of student with EBD: A review.
Remedial and Special Education, (22), 113-121.
West, R. P., & Sloane, H. N. (1986). Teacher presentation rate and point delivery rate: Effect on classroom
disruption, performance, accuracy, and response rate. Behavior Modification, 10, 267-286.
MO SW-PBS
For More Information
• Missouri Schoolwide Positive Behavior
Support
websitehttp://pbismissouri.org/educators/eff
ective-class-practice

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