Classroom Systems School-wide PBIS Opportunities to Respond Chris Borgmeier, PhD Portland State University [email protected] www.pbisclassroomsystems.pbworks.com Opportunities to Respond - OTR • An instructional question, statement or gesture made by the teacher seeking an academic response from students. Can be provided individually or to whole class. • Sprick, Knight, Reinke & McKale 2006 • The number of times the teacher provides academic requests that require students to actively respond. • Teacher behavior that prompts or solicits a student response (verbal, written, gesture). • Includes strategies for presenting materials, asking questions, and correcting students’ answers to increase the likelihood of an active response. Active Participation - Why? Increasing Opportunities to Respond is related to: • Increased academic achievement • Increased on-task behavior • Decreased behavioral challenges Caveat • Only successful responding brings these results Initial Instruction - 80% accuracy Practice/Review - 90% or higher accuracy Anita Archer Watch this video and note the different response strategies being implemented • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_EBsPgyONew • As you watch this video… make a tally each time you see a student response • • • • Group/Choral = Action/Non-verbal = Partner Responding = Rnd Select/Individual = ll ll l ll 7 responses in 1:10 Could we insert picture of Dean’s actions that move as words present? By giving a chance for multiple responses, students are retrieving, rehearsing and practicing what has been taught. OTR Guidelines • Teacher talk should be no more than 40-50% of instructional time. • New material: a minimum of 4-6 responses per minute with 80% accuracy. • Review of previously learned material: 9-12 responses per minute with 90% accuracy. • (CEC, 1987; Gunter, Hummel & Venn, 1998) Activity: Personal Reflection • Think about the amount of opportunities to respond you gave your students during the most recent day you taught. • How would you compare to these response guideline? • New material–a minimum of 4-6 responses per minute with 80% accuracy. • Review of previously learned material–8-12 responses per minute with 90% accuracy Opportunities to Respond Critical Features • Strive for all students to participate • reduce reliance on student volunteer responses & increase random selection of responders to keep students actively engaged • Choose strategies that best fit your style and instructional content, structure and activities • Use wait time of 3-5 seconds before students respond to increase participation • Use clear, consistent prompts to elicit responses effectively Strategies to increase OTR Verbal Responses Written Responses Action Responses Verbal Responses • Less desirable practices #1. Calling on volunteers Guidelines: • Call on volunteers only when answer relates to personal experience • Don’t call on volunteers when answer is product of instruction or reading Randomly call on students #2. Calling on inattentive students Guidelines: • Don’t call on inattentive students • Wait to call on student when he/she is attentive • To regain attention of students: • Use physical proximity • Give directive to entire class • Ask students to complete quick, physical behavior Anita Archer Verbal Responses More desirable practices: • Random Selection • Choral Responding • All students in class respond in unison to a teacher question. • WhipAround or Pass • Have students quickly give answers, go up and down rows, limiting comments • Allow students to “Pass” Verbal Responses- Individual Turns Random Selection • Individual Questioning – calling on students unpredictably heightens student attention • Procedures for Random Selection of students Procedure #1 - Call on students in different parts of room Procedure #2 - Write names on cards or sticks Procedure #3 - Use ipad or iphone app (e.g., Teacher’s Pick, Stick Pick, or Pick Me!) Procedure #4 - Use two decks of playing cards. Tape cards from one deck to desks. Pull a card from other deck and call on student. Use above random strategy, and call on a student to repeat or summarize what the student just said. Anita Archer Verbal Responses- Individual Turns WhipAround or Pass • Use with Questions that have many possible answers • Ask a question • Give students thinking time • Examples: • “Tell me the months of the year in Spanish – think (pause 5 sec.) – we’ll start with the front row” • “What are the universities in the Pac-12 – think (pause 3 sec.) – we’ll start in the back and work across” • Start at any location in the room - Have students quickly give answers - Go up and down rows, limiting comments - Allow student to pass Anita Archer Your Turn • Complete Steps 1 & 2 on the Worksheet Your Turn • Complete Step 3 on the Worksheet Choral Responding All Students Respond: When possible use response procedures that engage all students. Verbal Responses • Choral Responding – all students in class respond in unison to a teacher question. • Suitable for review, to teach new skills, as a drill, or as a lesson summary. Verbal Responses – Choral Responses 1) Ask a question 2) Raise your hands to indicate silence 3) Give thinking time 4) Cue Response • Individual Student response, Chorale response, Response card, whiteboard, thumbs up, etc. Anita Archer 1. Ask a Question • Develop questions with only one right answer that can be answered with short, 1-3 word answers. • Examples: • What is the capital of California? (pause 4 sec.) Everyone (drop hands) • What are the 3 branches of government, in alphabetical order (pause 5 sec.) – First…. Second…. Third • What does CPR stand for? (pause 5 sec.) Everyone (drop hands) 2. Raise your hands to indicate silence • Students are looking at a common stimulus • Point to stimulus • Ask question • Give thinking time • Tap for response • Students are looking at their own book/paper • Ask question • Use auditory signal (“Everyone”) Anita Archer 3. Give thinking time • Think Time –pause for 5 seconds after question before calling on a student or cueing a group response. • • • • • Can have students put up thumbs, or look at you, to indicate enough thinking time Engages students in thinking. Increases participation. Increases quality of responses. Results in fewer redirects of students and fewer discipline problems. Rowe, 1987 4. Lower your hands as you say, “Everyone” • Use a clear signal or predictable phrase to cue students to respond in unison. • Drop hands & snap • Provide immediate feedback on the group response. • If students don’t respond or blurt out an answer, repeat (Gentle Redo) • Keep a brisk, lively pace. Teach your Response Routines • Teaching Active Participation Routines • Response Routines & Choral Responding • http://www.scoe.org/pub/htdocs/archervideos.html • Click on link to : • “Active Participation Instruction, 7th Grade” • Teaching Expectations 0:15-2:55 • Notice how the teacher sets up Choral Responding using the overhead • Choral Response Routine 2:55 – 4:10 Additional Video Resources • Choral Response Overview (4:22) • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eKkR0EpvrcM Your Turn • Complete Steps 4-5 on your Worksheet Your Turn Complete Steps 3-5 Partner Activity: Practice • Get into Groups of 3 • Assign Roles • Teacher • Student/Observer • Student/Observer • Take turns (switching roles) • Teacher: Practice Delivering your Choral Response Routine using questions you identified • Student/Observer: Respond to cue • Student/Observer: Give feedback re: effectiveness & ways to improve Routine (use the Checklist to guide feedback) Supports for “Habit Building” Active, Recurring Prompts & Supports to use your use of OTR strategies • ID a variety ways to support use of your identified strategy • Plan ways to actively support teachers to use the targeted practice -- Prompting, monitoring & rewarding • Not just tomorrow, but the next day & the next day & next week & the following week… until the habit is built • Provide Multiple Levels of Support for Classroom Improvement Efforts • • • • Personal plan Peer Support Team School-wide Personal & Peer Supports • Personal Supports • • • • • • • • Phone alarm Bright Note on clipboard Note in textbook as prompt at appropriate time Daily self-check at end of day Set weekly goal with self based on daily implementation Ask a student to remind me or monitor implementation Prompt written on board into daily classroom schedule Poster in classroom on location • Peer Supports • • • • Check-in or prompt w/ buddy before school/ at lunch/ end of day Buddy sends me an email or text reminder or follow-up to check implementation w/ daily rating Set weekly goal with buddy w/ reward contingent on meeting reward Assistant in room gives a reminder just before time Simple Daily Ratings Rate your level of implementation of your PreCorrection Strategy (today or this week) Low Medium High 1 2 3 Rate the effectiveness of your implementation on student behavior (today or this week) Low Medium High 1 2 3 Your Turn Step 6: Recurring Supports for Building Habits • Take a few minutes to Complete Step 6 of the Worksheet • 6) Monitor your Plan: Implementation & Impact • Make sure to Identify meaningful& feasible supports • Identify Personal Strategies for supporting implementation • Develop Peer Strategies for support – you can discuss with a peer Team & School-wide Supports • Team Supports (e.g. Dept., Grade Level, PLC) • Make Classroom improvement a regular part of meetings and activities • Begin meeting w/ 2 minute check: • Check-in, share ideas & give feedback to: • Encourage implementation • Check-in, problem solve, enhance implementation • School-wide Supports • Reminder on Morning announcements • Regular review/check-in at staff meeting • Rewards for implementers • Recognize your Buddy • Recognize someone you observed engage in the practice • Daily or weekly implementation checks • via email link • Put sticker on staff board to rate implementation Follow-up Supports • Dots Competition – Track your Progress • Reminders in Weekly Check-in • Recognize a peer – place name in box for weekly drawing • Recurring Discussion & Review in: • Staff meetings • Dept. meetings Group Discussion • What school-wide strategies would be helpful for you in supporting your implementation? • Regular reminders over announcements? • Staff meeting review & sharing? • Collect implementation data? • Daily email, survey monkey? 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