Verbal Responses - pbisclassroomsystems

Report
Classroom Systems
School-wide PBIS
Opportunities to Respond
Chris Borgmeier, PhD
Portland State University
[email protected]
www.pbisclassroomsystems.pbworks.com
Opportunities to Respond - OTR
• An instructional question, statement or gesture made by the
teacher seeking an academic response from students. Can be
provided individually or to whole class.
• Sprick, Knight, Reinke & McKale 2006
• The number of times the teacher provides academic requests that
require students to actively respond.
• Teacher behavior that prompts or solicits a student response
(verbal, written, gesture).
• Includes strategies for presenting materials, asking questions, and
correcting students’ answers to increase the likelihood of an active
response.
Active Participation - Why?
Increasing Opportunities to Respond is related
to:
• Increased academic achievement
• Increased on-task behavior
• Decreased behavioral challenges
Caveat
• Only successful responding brings these results
Initial Instruction - 80% accuracy
Practice/Review - 90% or higher accuracy
Anita Archer
Watch this video and note the different
response strategies being implemented
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_EBsPgyONew
• As you watch this video… make a tally each time you see a
student response
•
•
•
•
Group/Choral =
Action/Non-verbal =
Partner Responding =
Rnd Select/Individual =
ll
ll
l
ll
7 responses in 1:10
Could we insert
picture of Dean’s
actions that move as
words present?
By giving a chance
for multiple
responses,
students are
retrieving,
rehearsing and
practicing what
has been taught.
OTR Guidelines
• Teacher talk should be no more than 40-50% of
instructional time.
• New material: a minimum of 4-6 responses per minute
with 80% accuracy.
• Review of previously learned material: 9-12 responses
per minute with 90% accuracy.
• (CEC, 1987; Gunter, Hummel & Venn, 1998)
Activity: Personal Reflection
• Think about the amount of opportunities to
respond you gave your students during the most
recent day you taught.
• How would you compare to these response
guideline?
• New material–a minimum of 4-6 responses per minute
with 80% accuracy.
• Review of previously learned material–8-12 responses
per minute with 90% accuracy
Opportunities to Respond
Critical Features
• Strive for all students to participate
• reduce reliance on student volunteer responses & increase
random selection of responders to keep students actively
engaged
• Choose strategies that best fit your style and
instructional content, structure and activities
• Use wait time of 3-5 seconds before students respond to
increase participation
• Use clear, consistent prompts to elicit responses
effectively
Strategies to increase OTR
Verbal Responses
Written Responses
Action Responses
Verbal Responses
• Less desirable practices
#1. Calling on volunteers
Guidelines:
• Call on volunteers only when answer relates to personal experience
• Don’t call on volunteers when answer is product of instruction or
reading
Randomly call on students
#2. Calling on inattentive students
Guidelines:
• Don’t call on inattentive students
• Wait to call on student when he/she is attentive
• To regain attention of students:
• Use physical proximity
• Give directive to entire class
• Ask students to complete quick, physical behavior
Anita Archer
Verbal Responses
More desirable practices:
• Random Selection
• Choral Responding
• All students in class respond in unison to a teacher
question.
• WhipAround or Pass
• Have students quickly give answers, go up and down
rows, limiting comments
• Allow students to “Pass”
Verbal Responses- Individual Turns
Random Selection
• Individual Questioning – calling on students unpredictably
heightens student attention
• Procedures for Random Selection of students
Procedure #1 - Call on students in different parts of room
Procedure #2 - Write names on cards or sticks
Procedure #3 - Use ipad or iphone app (e.g., Teacher’s Pick, Stick Pick, or
Pick Me!)
Procedure #4 - Use two decks of playing cards. Tape cards from one deck
to desks. Pull a card from other deck and call on student.
 Use above random strategy, and call on a student to repeat or summarize
what the student just said.
Anita Archer
Verbal Responses- Individual Turns
WhipAround or Pass
• Use with Questions that have many possible answers
• Ask a question
• Give students thinking time
• Examples:
• “Tell me the months of the year in Spanish – think (pause 5 sec.) –
we’ll start with the front row”
• “What are the universities in the Pac-12 – think (pause 3 sec.) –
we’ll start in the back and work across”
• Start at any location in the room
- Have students quickly give answers
- Go up and down rows, limiting comments
- Allow student to pass
Anita Archer
Your Turn
• Complete Steps 1 & 2 on the Worksheet
Your Turn
• Complete Step 3 on the Worksheet
Choral Responding
All Students Respond: When possible use
response procedures that engage all students.
Verbal Responses
• Choral Responding – all
students in class respond
in unison to a teacher
question.
• Suitable for review, to teach
new skills, as a drill, or as a
lesson summary.
Verbal Responses – Choral Responses
1) Ask a question
2) Raise your hands to indicate silence
3) Give thinking time
4) Cue Response
•
Individual Student response, Chorale response,
Response card, whiteboard, thumbs up, etc.
Anita Archer
1. Ask a Question
• Develop questions with only one right answer that
can be answered with short, 1-3 word answers.
• Examples:
• What is the capital of California? (pause 4 sec.) Everyone (drop hands)
• What are the 3 branches of government, in alphabetical order (pause 5
sec.) – First…. Second…. Third
• What does CPR stand for? (pause 5 sec.) Everyone (drop hands)
2. Raise your hands to indicate
silence
• Students are looking at a common stimulus
• Point to stimulus
• Ask question
• Give thinking time
• Tap for response
• Students are looking at their own book/paper
• Ask question
• Use auditory signal (“Everyone”)
Anita Archer
3. Give thinking time
• Think Time –pause for 5 seconds after question before calling on
a student or cueing a group response.
•
•
•
•
•
Can have students put up thumbs, or look at you, to indicate enough
thinking time
Engages students in thinking.
Increases participation.
Increases quality of responses.
Results in fewer redirects of students and fewer discipline problems.
Rowe, 1987
4. Lower your hands as you say,
“Everyone”
• Use a clear signal or predictable phrase to cue students
to respond in unison.
• Drop hands & snap
• Provide immediate feedback on the group response.
• If students don’t respond or blurt out an answer, repeat
(Gentle Redo)
• Keep a brisk, lively pace.
Teach your Response Routines
• Teaching Active Participation Routines
• Response Routines & Choral Responding
• http://www.scoe.org/pub/htdocs/archervideos.html
• Click on link to :
• “Active Participation Instruction, 7th Grade”
• Teaching Expectations 0:15-2:55
• Notice how the teacher sets up Choral Responding
using the overhead
• Choral Response Routine 2:55 – 4:10
Additional Video Resources
• Choral Response Overview (4:22)
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eKkR0EpvrcM
Your Turn
• Complete Steps 4-5 on your Worksheet
Your Turn
Complete Steps 3-5
Partner Activity: Practice
• Get into Groups of 3
• Assign Roles
• Teacher
• Student/Observer
• Student/Observer
• Take turns (switching roles)
• Teacher: Practice Delivering your Choral Response Routine using
questions you identified
• Student/Observer: Respond to cue
• Student/Observer: Give feedback re: effectiveness & ways to
improve Routine (use the Checklist to guide
feedback)
Supports for
“Habit Building”
Active, Recurring Prompts & Supports to use
your use of OTR strategies
• ID a variety ways to support use of your identified
strategy
• Plan ways to actively support teachers to use the targeted
practice -- Prompting, monitoring & rewarding
• Not just tomorrow, but the next day & the next day & next week &
the following week… until the habit is built
• Provide Multiple Levels of Support for Classroom Improvement
Efforts
•
•
•
•
Personal plan
Peer Support
Team
School-wide
Personal & Peer Supports
• Personal Supports
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Phone alarm
Bright Note on clipboard
Note in textbook as prompt at
appropriate time
Daily self-check at end of day
Set weekly goal with self based
on daily implementation
Ask a student to remind me or
monitor implementation
Prompt written on board into
daily classroom schedule
Poster in classroom on location
• Peer Supports
•
•
•
•
Check-in or prompt w/ buddy
before school/ at lunch/ end of
day
Buddy sends me an email or text
reminder or follow-up to check
implementation w/ daily rating
Set weekly goal with buddy w/
reward contingent on meeting
reward
Assistant in room gives a
reminder just before time
Simple Daily Ratings
Rate your level of implementation of your PreCorrection Strategy
(today or this week)
Low
Medium
High
1
2
3
Rate the effectiveness of your implementation on student behavior
(today or this week)
Low
Medium
High
1
2
3
Your Turn
Step 6: Recurring Supports for Building Habits
• Take a few minutes to Complete Step 6 of the Worksheet
• 6) Monitor your Plan: Implementation & Impact
• Make sure to Identify meaningful& feasible supports
• Identify Personal Strategies for supporting implementation
• Develop Peer Strategies for support – you can discuss with a peer
Team & School-wide Supports
• Team Supports (e.g.
Dept., Grade Level, PLC)
• Make Classroom
improvement a regular part
of meetings and activities
• Begin meeting w/ 2 minute
check:
• Check-in, share ideas & give
feedback to:
• Encourage implementation
• Check-in, problem solve,
enhance implementation
• School-wide Supports
• Reminder on Morning
announcements
• Regular review/check-in at
staff meeting
• Rewards for implementers
• Recognize your Buddy
• Recognize someone you
observed engage in the
practice
• Daily or weekly
implementation checks
• via email link
• Put sticker on staff board to
rate implementation
Follow-up Supports
• Dots Competition – Track your Progress
• Reminders in Weekly Check-in
• Recognize a peer – place name in box for weekly
drawing
• Recurring Discussion & Review in:
• Staff meetings
• Dept. meetings
Group Discussion
• What school-wide strategies would be helpful for you
in supporting your implementation?
• Regular reminders over announcements?
• Staff meeting review & sharing?
• Collect implementation data?
• Daily email, survey monkey?
References
• Barbetta, P. M., & Heward, W. L. (1993). Effects of active student response during error
correction on the acquisition and maintenance of geography facts by elementary
students with learning disabilities. Journal of Behavioral Education, 3, 217-233.
• Carnine, D. W. (1976). Effects of two teacher-presentation rates on off-task behavior,
answering correctly, and participation. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 9, 199206.
• Heward, W. L. (1994). Three low-tech strategies for increasing the frequency of active
student response during group instruction. In R. Garner, III, D. M. Sainato, J. O., Cooper,
T. E., Heron W. L., Heward, J., Eshleman, & T.A. Grossi (Eds.), Behavior analysis in
education: Focus on measurably superior instruction. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
• MacSuga, A. S., & Simonsen, B. (2011). Increasing teachers’ use of evidence-based
classroom management strategies through consultation: Overview and case studies.
Beyond Behavior, 20(11), 4-12.
• Miller, S.P. (2009). Validated practices for teaching students with diverse needs and
abilities. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
• Reiser, R. A., & Dempsey, J. (2007). Trends and issues in instructional design and
technology (2nd Ed., pp. 94-131). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
• Rowe, M. (1987) Wait time: Slowing down may be a way of speeding up. American
Educator, 11, 38-43.
• Scott, T. M. Anderson, C. M., & Alter, P. (2012). Managing classroom behavior using
positive behavior supports. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
References
• Simonsen, B., Myers, D., & DeLuca, C. (2010). Providing teachers with training and
performance feedback to increase use of three classroom management skills:
Prompts, opportunities to respond, and reinforcement. Teacher Education in
Special Education, 33, 300-318.
• Skinner, C.H., Belfior, P.J., Mace, H.W., Williams-Wilson, S., & Johns, G.A. (1997).
Altering response topography to increase response efficiency and learning rates.
School Psychology Quarterly, 12, 54-64.
• Skinner, C. H., Smith, E. S., & McLean, J. E. (1994). The effects on intertribal interval
duration on sight-word learning rates of children with behavioral disorders.
Behavioral Disorders, 19, 98-107.
• Sprick, R., Knight, J., Reinke, W. & McKale, T. (2006). Coaching classroom
management: Strategies and tools for administrators and coaches. Eugene, OR:
Pacific Northwest Publishing.
• Sutherland, K. S., Adler, N., & Gunter P. L. (2003). The effect of varying rates of
opportunities to respond on academic request on the classroom behavior of
students with EBD. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders (11), 239-248.
• Sutherland, K. S., & Wehby, J. H. (2001). Exploring the relationship between
increased opportunities to respond to academic requests and the academic and
behavioral outcomes of student with EBD: A review. Remedial and Special
Education, (22), 113-121.
• West, R. P., & Sloane, H. N. (1986). Teacher presentation rate and point delivery
rate: Effect on classroom disruption, performance, accuracy, and response rate.
Behavior Modification, 10, 267-286.

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