Networks and Networking - INASP

Networks and
Management of networks and
networking in the library
Aims and Objectives
• During the workshop, the following
contents will be covered:
– What is a Network and how is it
– Basic components of a network
– Common networking errors
– Troubleshooting common
networking errors
• Define a network, and identify different types
• Name the basic features and its functionality
• Explain advantages and disadvantages of a
• Identify constraints under which errors in a
network can be identified and provide
• Be able to manage and troubleshoot network
problems and errors
Workshop Format
• Informal—questions please!
• Presentations
• Group discussion
What is a Network?
• A computer network is a collection of two
or more computers connected together.
• When computers are joined together they
form a network
How is it applied in a library
• Computers, networks and electronic information
systems are essential resources for
accomplishing library’s mission of information
access, research, and service outreach.
A networked library environment enables:
• Information Access Support Tools
• Enhancing Usability of resources
• Collaboration by Library Users and Librarians
What types of networks are
• LANs are networks usually confined to a
geographic area, such as a single building or
a college campus.
• Wide area networking combines multiple
LANs that are geographically separate. This
is accomplished by connecting the different
LANs using services such as dedicated
leased phone lines, dial-up phone lines (both
synchronous and asynchronous), satellite
links, and data packet carrier services.
Typical network setup in a
library environment?
• The term Client/server refers to the concept of
sharing, it involves processing data between the
client computer and the most powerful server
• The client/server network is the most efficient
topology for a library setup in that it provides:
Databases and management of applications such as
Spreadsheets, Accounting, Communications and
Document management.
Network management.
Centralized file storage.
Advantages of Computer
• 1. Easy Communication and Speed
• 2. Ability to Share Files, Data and
• 3. Sharing Hardware
• 4. Sharing Software
• 5. Security
• 6. Speed
Disadvantages of Networking
• 1. Breakdowns and Possible Loss of
• 2. Expensive to Build
• 3. Security Threats
• 4. Bandwidth Issues
What makes up a network
• At least two computers Server and or
Client workstation.
• NIC (Network Interface Card): Every device on
the network has to have a network interface of some design.
• Media (Cabling): A connection medium
• Switch: it is a hardware
part of a network; it is used
to connect multiple devices
on the same network within
a building or campus.
• Router: A valuable
component of a Network
they are used to tie multiple
networks together
• Firewalls: Firewalls are the
most important aspect of a
network with respect to
security. A firewalled system
does not need every
interaction or data transfer
monitored by a human
Managing and controlling
a network
 Basic network commands
 Common errors in a networked
 Troubleshooting a network
Basic network commands
• Ping: the most common network diagnostic tool
used to test basic network connectivity between
the local and a remote device.
• IPconfig: It shows the IP address of the
computer and also it shows the DNS, DHCP,
Gateway addresses of the network and subnet
Common errors in a networked environment
• 1. "A Network
Cable is
unplugged": This
message appears
as a Windows
desktop balloon
Common errors in a networked
• 2. IP Address Conflict (or Address Already in
Use): An IP address conflict occurs when two
computers on a LAN (local area network) or the
Internet have been assigned the same IP
Common errors in a networked
• 3. “404 error” a 404 error indicates that the
requested resource may be available again in
the future;
Common errors in a networked
• 4. “Server not found": Server not found" or
similar errors, in which a connection to the
destination server could not be made at all
Common errors in a networked
• 5. "Limited or no
When attempting to
access a Web page
or network
resource on a
Windows shared
drive, you may
receive a pop-up
dialog error
message that starts
with the words
"limited or no
Troubleshooting a network
• 1. Physical layer: The Media (Cable,
fiber or wireless)
Possible causes:
– Damaged or dirty cabling or
– Insufficient cable bandwidth
– Excessive signal attenuation
– Wireless interference
Troubleshooting a network
• 2. Network Layer: Ethernet and IP
Possible causes:
– Damaged networking devices
– Incorrect or sub-optimal device
– Authentication and association issues
– Insufficient network bandwidth
Troubleshooting a network
• 3. Switches and VLANs
Possible causes:
– Excessive utilization
– Too many errors
– Incorrectly assigned VLAN membership
– Traffic priority issues
Best practices for successful LAN
troubleshooting include these steps:
• 1. Identify the exact issue or problem: Have the
person who reported the problem explain how
normal operation appears, and then demonstrate
the perceived problem.
2. Recreate the problem if possible: Ask yourself
if you understand the symptoms, and verify the
reported problem yourself if possible.
3. Localize and isolate the cause: Attempt to
isolate the problem to a single device, connection,
or software application.
Best practices for successful LAN
• 4. Formulate a plan for solving the problem: Research
and/or consider the possible solutions to the problem.
Consider the possibility that some solutions to the problem
at hand may introduce other problems.
5. Implement the plan: Your actual solution to the
problem may be replacing hardware, implementing a
software patch, reinstalling the application or component or
cleaning a virus infected file. If the problem is the user
account, the user’s security settings or logon scripts may
need to be adjusted.
6. Test to verify that the problem has been
resolved: After you have implemented the solution, ensure
that the entire problem has been resolved by having the
user test for the problem again.
Best practices for successful LAN
• 7. Document the problem and
solution: Documentation can be used for future
reference to help you troubleshoot the same or similar
problem. You can also use the documentation to
prepare reports on common network problems for
management and/or users, or to train new network
users or members of the network support team.
8. Provide feedback to the user: This encourages
users to report similar situations in the future, which
will improve the performance of your network. If the
user could have done something to correct or avoid
the issue, providing feedback may reduce the number
of future network problems.
Some Common Problems and
their solutions
• Can’t connect to other computers or share
files and printers on the network –
• Can't connect to the network (Cabled or
wireless connection)
• There's a duplicate IP address on the
• Can't share the root of a drive
Thank you
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

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