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Report
Infection Control
WHAT IS INFECTION
CONTROL?
• Infection Control is the practice of
preventing infection
• Take steps to ensure that patients don’t acquire an
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infection while they are here in the hospital
TERM: Nosocomial (Hospital-Acquired) Infection
FOR MORE INFORMATION,
LOOK IN THE INFECTION CONTROL MANUAL
LOCATED IN YOUR DEPARTMENT
Breaking the Chain of Infection
THE MOST EFFECTIVE INFECTION
CONTROL MEASURE TO PREVENT THE
TRANSMISSION OF INFECTION IS:
** HAND HYGIENE
~ You can isolate a patient and wear your PPE,
but if you DON’T CLEAN YOUR HANDS you will
carry the infection to all the patients you touch
What’s on your hands?
Remember!
Hand hygiene prevents the spread of infection
Good hand hygiene is the most important
activity you can do to keep your patients
infection free
Hand Hygiene at MRCH
• Hand washing with soap and water:
– Antimicrobial soap
– Non antimicrobial soap
• Hand hygiene with alcohol gel
– Exceptions for use:
• Physical debris on hands
• Protein matter on hands
• Spores
Give Healthcare a HAND
by washing yours!
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Before you start work
Before patient care
After patient care
While providing care when moving
from not clean to clean areas
Before invasive procedures
Before sterile procedures
After you remove gloves
The opportunities are endless!!!
Personal Protective Equipment
(PPE)
• Wear a barrier to protect against blood
and bodily fluids:
– Gloves
– Gown
– Mask
– Eye Protection
STANDARD PRECAUTIONS
• Based on the principle that all
body fluids and excretions may
contain transmissible
infectious agents
• Practiced for all patients, all
the time
• When you find yourself in a
situation that might result in
exposure to bodily fluids,
utilize a barrier
Make a Partnership with Safety
• Use the appropriate personal protective
equipment every time you need it.
IF YOU WAIT UNTIL YOU GET SPLASHED, SPRAYED
OR EXPOSED TO PUT YOUR PPE ON, IT IS TOO LATE!
• Utilize safety engineered devices the
way they are intended to be used.
THEY ARE INTENDED TO KEEP YOU SAFE!
TRANSMISSION BASED
PRECAUTIONS
• Used in addition to Standard
Precautions
• Used when patient has organism that we
don’t want to spread to other patients
or acquire ourselves
• Prevent spread by wearing a barrier
(Personal Protective Equipment: PPE)
specific to that mode of transmission
Contact Precautions
Signage
• On the patient room door, you should
see these signs:
Contact Precautions
The Details
• Used for organisms that are spread by
“contact” – by body surface to body
surface: physical transfer
• Contact transmission is the most
important and most frequent mode of
transmission of nosocomial infections
Contact Precautions
What Should I Wear?
• Wear GLOVES for all patient care – this
includes hand contact with the
environment!
• Wear GLOVES and GOWN for patient
contact that could result in your
uniform coming into contact with
patient or patient’s environment
Contact Precautions
Used for What Diseases?
• Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus
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aureus (MRSA)
Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus
(VRE)
Lice
Scabies
Clostridium difficile
E. coli 0157:H7
Droplet Precautions
Signage
• On the patient room door, you should
see these signs:
Droplet Precautions
The Details
• Used for organisms that are spread by
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respiratory droplets
Respiratory droplets are generated by cough,
sneeze, talk, laugh, suction, bronchoscopy, etc
Respiratory droplets spread 3 to 5 feet from
the source
Droplets do not remain suspended in the air
Droplet Precautions
What Should I Wear?
• Wear a MASK and GLOVES for all patient
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contact – this includes hand contact with the
environment!
If you are providing care that will likely result
in your uniform coming into contact with the
patient or the patient’s environment, wear a
GOWN
If you are suctioning, intubating, patient has
tracheostomy, etc – wear EYE PROTECTION
Droplet Precautions
Used for What Diseases?
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MRSA in sputum
Influenza
Meningitis
Measles (Rubella)
Airborne Precautions
Signage
• On the patient room door, you should
see these signs:
Airborne Precautions
Used for What Diseases?
• Mycobacterium tuberculosis
• Varicella
• Chicken Pox
Airborne Precautions
The Details
• How Airborne Precautions differ from
Droplet Precautions:
– Used for diseases spread by airborne
droplet nuclei (small particles) or
evaporated droplets containing the
microorganism
– The particles can remain suspended in the
air for long periods of time
– The particles can be inhaled by others
Airborne Precautions
What Should I Wear?
• Wear a N-95 MASK and GLOVES for all
patient contact
• Wear the MASK, GLOVES and GOWN
when providing care that may result in
exposure to bodily fluids or your
uniform may come into contact with the
environment
Airborne Precautions
Anything Else I Should Know?
• These particles are small and can remain
suspended on air currents for great
distances
• Patients in Airborne Isolation need to
be placed in a room with specific
ventilation:
– Negative Pressure
HAI Prevention: Clean Equipment
- All equipment should be wiped down with
a germicidal wipe (Sani Cloths)
• Between patient use
• When equipment leaves a patient room
(wheelchair, walkers, gurneys)
Disposal of Waste
“Clear Bags”
• Diapers or incontinence pads soiled with
urine or feces can be disposed of in the
“regular” garbage
• Dry, non-confidential waste may be
disposed of in the clear bags
Disposal of Waste
“Biohazard”
• Waste material saturated with blood or
bodily fluids must be discarded in the
biohazard waste container
• Liquid waste material must be solidified
before disposal (Isosorb)
• Be sure to securely tie all biohazard
bags
Disposal of Waste
Sharps
• Sharps containers are for all things
sharp
• Sharp things include needles, scalpels,
lancets, syringes, ampules
• Sharp things are considered sharp even
if the needle has been removed
(syringe)
• Sharp containers are not for tape,
cotton balls or random garbage
What is wrong with this picture?
Disposal of Waste
Pharmaceutical Waste
• Pharmaceutical waste containers are for
pharmaceutical waste
– Pharmaceutical waste includes all
medications and additives that have any
ingredient other than sugar, salt or water
– Do not dispose of pharmaceutical waste
down the sink

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