Slide 1

Infection Control
Healthcare workers are routinely exposed to
potentially infectious materials during routine
care of patients. They must understand the
mode of transmission of a variety of infectious
diseases and what type of precautions to take
to reduce their exposure to and risk for these.
• At the end of this lesson, the student will:
– Analyze principles of infection control
– Identify the Chain of Infection and its role in
preventing the spread of microorganisms
– Demonstrate proper use of Standard Precautions
• A microorganism (microbe) is a small living
plant or animal that can only be seen with a
• Microbes are everywhere.
• There are two classification
▫ Non-pathogens – do not usually cause
infections and help to maintain body processes
▫ Pathogens – cause infection and disease
Classes of Microorganisms
• Bacteria
– one celled microorganisms that are classified by
– Multiply rapidly and can cause disease in any body
– Diseases: staph infections, strep throat, food
poisoning, syphilis
• Protozoa
– One-celled animals that can infect
the brain, blood, intestines
– Diseases: malaria, dysentery
Classes of Microorganisms
• Fungi
– Plants that live on other plants or animals
– Include yeasts, molds, and mushrooms
– Diseases: Vaginal yeast infections, thrush, athlete’s
foot, ringworm
• Rickettsiae
– Found in fleas, ticks, lice, and other insects
– Spread by bites of the insect
– Diseases: Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
Classes of Microorganisms
• Viruses
– Are the smallest type of microorganism. They are
made up of only a few molecules.
– Viruses invade the cells of a living organism where
they reproduce more viruses
– Diseases: colds, herpes, chicken pox, measles,
Hepatitis B and C, HIV, and Aids
Requirements of Micro-organisms
• Microbes need a reservoir (host) to live and
• Water and nourishment.
• Most need oxygen to live.
• A warm and dark environment is needed.
• Most grow best at body temperature.
• Microbes are destroyed by heat and light.
Classification of
Infections and Diseases
• Endogenous – begins inside the body
• Exogenous – caused by something outside the
• Nosocomial or Hospital Acquired Infection –
(HAI) acquired by an individual within a health
care facility
• Opportunistic – occur when the body’s
defenses are weak
Classification of
Infections and Diseases
• Local infection - is in a body part.
• Systemic infection - involves the whole body
• Communicable - can be transmitted from one
person to another person.
• Multi-drug resistant organisms (MDRO)
– Organisms that can resist the effects of antibiotics
– MRSA –Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus
– VRE – Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus
Chain of Infection
If any part of the
chain is broken,
the spread of the
disease or
Portal of
Portal of
Method of
will stop.
Mode of Transmission
• Microbes may be transmitted by:
– Airborne Transmission
– Bloodborne Transmission
– Vectorborne Transmission
– Sexual Transmission
– Foodborne Transmission
– Casual Contact
Medical Asepsis
• Asepsis is being free of disease-producing
• Measures are needed to achieve asepsis.
– Medical asepsis (clean technique)
– Surgical asepsis (sterile technique)
• Sterilization is the process of destroying all
• Contamination is the process of becoming
Rules of Hand Hygiene
• Wash your hands with soap & water when
they are visibly dirty or soiled
• After using the restroom
• After contact with blood, body fluids,
secretions, or excretions
• After coughing, sneezing, or blowing your
• Before and after handling, preparing,
or eating food
Rules of Hand Hygiene
• Use an alcohol-based hand rub to
decontaminate your hands if they are not
visibly soiled
• Before direct contact with a person
• After contact with a person’s intact skin
• After removing gloves
Supplies and Equipment
Most equipment is disposable, however, non
disposable items must be cleaned and then
– Disinfection - process of destroying pathogens.
– Germicides - disinfectants applied to skin, tissues, and
non-living objects.
– Chemical disinfectants - used to clean surfaces and
reusable items.
– Sterilization destroys all non-pathogens and
pathogens, including spores.
Standard Precautions
Are part of the CDC’s Isolation Precautions
Reduce the risk of spreading pathogens
Are used when giving care for all residents
Prevent the spread for infection from:
– Blood
– All body fluids, secretions, and excretions
even if no blood is visible
– Skin with open breaks or wounds
– Mucous membranes
Isolation Precautions
– Blood, body fluids, secretions, and excretions can
transmit pathogens so barriers are created to
prevent the spread of communicable or
contagious diseases.
– Usually the person’s room is used.
– Are based on clean and dirty.
Isolation Precautions
• Wear Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
• Gowns
• Masks
• Eyewear
• Special measures are used for
– removing linens, trash, and equipment from the
– collecting and transporting specimens
– transporting persons
Gloves and Gowns
• Wear gloves whenever contact with blood, body
fluids, secretions, excretions, mucous
membranes, and non-intact skin is likely.
• Gowns protect your clothes and body from
contact with blood, body fluids, secretions, and
– Gowns must completely cover you from your neck
to your knees.
– A wet gown is contaminated.
– Disposable gowns are discarded after use.
Masks, Goggles, Eyewear
• Masks and respirators prevent the spread of microbes
from the respiratory tract.
– Masks are disposable & is contaminated if wet or moist
• Goggles and face shields protect your face from
splashing or spraying of blood and body fluids.
– The outside of masks, goggles or a face shield is
• Disposable eyewear is discarded after use.
• Reusable eyewear is cleaned and disinfected
before reuse
Isolation Precautions
• Contaminated items are bagged to remove them
from the person’s room.
– Leak-proof plastic bags are used.
– Bag and transport linens, trash, equipment, and supplies
following center policy.
– Double bagging is not needed unless the outside of the
bag is soiled.
• Use biohazard specimen bags to transport
specimens to the laboratory.
• Procedures for transporting persons vary among
Bloodborne Pathogen Standard
• A regulation of the Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA) to protect the health team
from exposure to blood and other potentially
infectious materials (OPIM)
• HIV and HBV are bloodborne pathogens.
• The center must have an exposure control plan.
– It identifies staff at risk
– Includes actions to take for an
exposure incident.
– Staff at risk receive free training.
Preventive Measures
• Measures used to reduce the risk of exposure
– Hepatitis B vaccinations
– Engineering and work practice controls
– Personal protective equipment (PPE)
– Proper cleaning and decontamination of
contaminated equipment
• Decontaminate work surfaces with a proper
• Use a brush and dustpan or tongs to clean up
broken glass
Regulated Waste
• Any soiled with liquid or semi-liquid blood or other
potentially infection material, including sharps, must
be discarded using special measures
• Containers used for discarding regulated waste are
closable, puncture-resistant, leak-proof, and
color-coded in red and have the
• The center must be kept clean and sanitary.
• Special measures must be used with
contaminated laundry
Exposure Incidents
• Any contact of the eye, mouth, other mucous
membrane, non-intact skin with blood or
OPIM, including parental contact (needles)
• Incidents must be reported at once.
• Confidentiality is important.

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