Section 1 - Deviance CHAPTER 8:DEVIANCE & SOCIAL CONTROL SOME IMPORTANT DEFINITIONS… The first part of this section explains the nature & function of deviance. Here are some important terms from earlier in the year that will help with the information in this section… NORMS – shared rules of conduct that tell us how to act in specific situations. MORES – norms with great moral significance attached to them. FOLKWAYS – norms without great moral significance (the common customs). WHAT IS DEVIANCE? What do these behaviors all have in common? Talking to yourself in public; Drag racing in a school zone; Regularly using illegal drugs; A man wearing women’s clothing; Attacking another person with a weapon. WHAT IS DEVIANCE? All the behaviors on the previous slide violate society’s norms in some way. Can you think of other examples of acts that violate norms? Not all norm violations are “deviant” acts; Criteria for deviance… The act must have serious negative consequences for society (murder, sexual assault, drug dealing) The deviant act must be detected; The individual committing the act must be stigmatized by society. SOCIAL STIGMA… Stigma is the mark of social disgrace that sets the deviant apart from the rest of society. Stigmas have been used as a form of social control throughout history. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PLif1Ams6V Q&feature=related Can you think of modern examples of how certain people or acts are stigmatized in our society? “OUTWARD SIGNS” OF STIGMA… The label of deviance is usually not an outward sign…rather it is the extreme negative social reaction to deviant behavior; This reaction can be so strong that it leaves the deviant with a “spoiled social identity.” Examples?? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RU3Q4nRW q7I SOCIAL FUNCTIONS OF DEVIANCE CLARIFYING NORMS: deviance defines the boundaries of acceptable behavior by reminding us of the norms that guide our lives. Also the punishments that accompany many deviant behaviors are deterrents. UNIFYING THE GROUP: members of society who conform are “in” and those who don’t – the deviants – are “out.” But sometimes deviant subcultures emerge – they view their behavior as normal and have their own norms. This bonds the deviant groups as well. SOCIAL FUNCTIONS (CONTINUED)… DIFFUSING TENSION: minor acts of deviance can diffuse social tension & keep the social order from unraveling. (Example: “Occupy”) PROMOTING SOCIAL CHANGE: when large numbers of people violate a social norm it indicates change is necessary in the society. PROVIDING JOBS: Judges;lawyers;police & prison officers; all are legit jobs that would not exist without deviant behavior. Criminologists are sociologists who specialize in criminal behavior. What other legit jobs can you think of that result from deviance? 3 SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES EXPLAIN DEVIANCE… IN A NUTSHELL… The FUNCTIONALIST PERSPECTIVE views deviance as a natural part of society; The CONFLICT PERSPECTIVE views deviance in terms of power and inequality; and The INTERACTIONIST PERSPECTIVE looks at how interaction among individuals influences deviance. THE FOLLOWING SLIDES WILL HIGHLIGHT THE KEY IDEAS ACCOCIATED WITH EACH PERSPECTIVE & DEVIANCE: FUNCTIONALIST PERPSECTIVE: developed by Robert Merton – called “Strain theory” – views deviance as a natural outgrowth of the values, norms & structure of society. There are certain values & goals that a society id’s as important, but not everyone can attain those. (EX: not everyone can attain the education level needed to qualify for high paying jobs). This strain between incompatible goals & means causes some to experience ANOMIE – the situation that arises when the norms of society are unclear or don’t apply to everyone. Anomie causes confusion both for individuals and society. FUNCTIONALIST PERSPECTIVE CONTINUED Merton says there are 5 ways that individuals respond to achieving culturally approved goals: CONFORMITY – “playing the game” using legitimate means; INNOVATION, RITUALISM, RETREATISM & REBELLION – all involve deviance. See table on page 180 of your text. Of the 5 responses above, only conformists & ritualists are not seen as a threat to society. MERTONS STRAIN THEORY & ADAPTATION Deviance is a natural outgrowth of the values, norms, structure of society; ANOMIE arises when the societal norms are unclear or no longer applicable. It leads to confusion and the following responses… People respond to the culturally approved goals & methods of achievement in 5 ways: Conformity; Innovation;(accept goals but not approved means) Ritualism; (abandon the goals but continue to follow rules of behavior) Retreatism; (reject goals & means of achievement) Rebellion; (work to create new goals) CONFLICT PERSPECTIVE These theorists believe that conflict & social inequality lead to deviance. Life in society is a struggle between those with power and those without. BOTH groups will commit deviant acts. People with power are deviant in an effort to maintain their position; people without power are deviant either to obtain economic reward or to battle feeling powerless. Often the people with power establish belief systems, rules & laws that are directed toward the lower class (whom they perceive as a threat to their power). As a result, the lower classes tend to have higher arrest & conviction rates. INTERACTIONIST PERSPECTIVE Interactionists have 3 major explanations for deviance: 1 – control theory 2 – cultural transmission theory 3 – labeling theory CONTROL THEORY –The focus here is on why some people conform while others don’t .Social ties among individuals determines this. The more integrated you are into the community, the more likely you are to conform. People who display strong attachment and commitment to the values & norms of society will conform; those who don’t are more likely to be deviant. CULTURAL TRANSMISSION THEORY This theory says deviant behavior is learned through interaction with others. If you primarily interact with those who are not deviant in childhood, then you will most likely conform. Of course, the opposite holds true as well. This idea is referred to as differential association – the bottom line is that if most of your interactions are with non-deviant people then you will be less likely to engage in deviant behavior. Sometimes this doesn’t hold true & people become deviant anyway (or vice versa)…that is called neutralization – people who were raised in a culture that encouraged conformity may suspend their beliefs & commit deviant acts anyway. LABELING THEORY This theory focuses on how people come to be labeled as deviant. Labeling theorists believe all people commit deviant acts during their lives, ranging from minor to serious. However not everyone is labeled as deviant. This is explained by the 2 types of deviance described in this theory: Primary deviance – which goes undetected by authorities; Secondary deviance -you are labeled in some kind of public setting (referred to as a degradation ceremony). Labeling people as deviant & treating them as such may encourage more deviant acts.