PEOPLE OF NORTH AMERICA 6.3 Cultures of the Southwest Hohokam • Lived in present day Arizona. • Built irrigation canal s in order to farm in the desert. • Name means “vanished ones”. During the 1400s A.D. their settlement was abandoned. Anasazi Settled in the Four Corners region of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah. • Built cliff dwellings. The largest is at Mesa Verde in Colorado • Freestanding, apartment style housing called pueblos were also used. Located in New Mexico, Pueblo Bonito was the largest Anasazi pueblo. Anasazi • Built large underground chambers called kivas were dug to hold political meetings and religious ceremonies. • A long period of drought and invasions by neighboring tribes caused them to abandon their dwellings. Cultures of the East Adena and Hopewell • Both groups built piles of earth called earthworks as burial mounds, defensive walls, and the bases of buildings. • Items found in earthworks suggest that these cultures interacted with peoples from the Gulf Coast, Rocky Mountains, and the Great Lakes. Mississippians • Built mounds, large towns, and ceremonial centers. • Cahokia was the greatest city and housed 20,000 people and 100 mounds. • Left no written records and their cities disappeared when Europeans came to area. Natchez • Carried on traditions of the Mississippians., • The had an absolute ruler called the Great Sun which coincided with their worship of the sun god. • Society was divided into castes and the highest group were called the suns. Cultures of the Arctic, Northwest, & Eastern Woodlands Inuit( Eskimo) • Settled in Northern Canada around 2000 B.C. • Tribes were smaller than in other regions due to the scarce food supply. • Hunted sea mammals, used kayaks, and sled dogs. • Lived in igloos and sod dwellings. People of the Northwest Coast • Their environment was rich with natural resources. • Large permanent villages were made from wood. • A person of high social statues would trade surplus goods for items that were then given to other group members in a potlatch ceremony. Iroquois • The Northeast United States were home to many tribes that considered themselves Iroquois. They spoke the common language of Iroquois and shared similar traditions . • Villages were created on cleared land in forests. • The Iroquois League consisted of 5 Iroquois groups: the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca. These groups met to keep peace. Only men were on the council, but each group had a “clan mother” who added or deleted members from the council.