The Future of Sociology - American Sociological Association

Report
Points to Remember
The majority of undergraduate majors do not go on to
graduate school in sociology. We must do a better job of
counseling them, because they are the bread and butter of
the discipline.
The market is improving for new PhDs, but sociology would
have a lower unemployment rate if they were trained nonacademic jobs.
It looks as if cultural studies is the intellectual future of the
discipline replacing family and theory, although criminal
justice is where jobs are.
There are small increases in minorities in the sociology
pipeline, but they appear to get stuck on the way to the top.
MFP helps.
Slide 2
The Future of Sociology: Minorities, Programs, and Jobs
Individual and
Institutional
Aspects
Slide 3
The Future of Sociology: Minorities, Programs, and Jobs
Sociology Degrees Awarded by Degree Level,
1966 – 2010*
(number of degrees)
40,000
35,915
35,000
31,858
30,848
30,000
29,000
28,556
27,992
25,296
24,158
25,000
23,073
22,062
19,644
19,181
20,000
15,993
15,203
14,347
15,000
13,085
12,165
Bachelors
Masters
10,000
Doctorates*
5,000
981
0
244
1,816
534
2,236
586
1,451
738
592
1,157
986
1,213
527
510
446
1,774
1,675
549
531
535
2,031
598
1,453
573
638
66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 06 08 10
Source: National Center for Education Statistics. 2012. The Higher Education General Information Survey (HEGIS) and the
Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS). Washington, DC: Department of Education. Retrieved: February
15, 2012 (https://webcaspar.nsf.gov).
Slide 4
* Data for PhDs earned between 2008 and 2010 are taken from the National Science Foundation's Survey of Doctoral
Recipients (htts://webcaspar.nsf.gov).
4
Top Five Reasons For Majoring in Sociology,
by Type of School (2005)
(Percent Responding “Very Important;” Weighted)
Source: Bachelors and Beyond Survey, 2005
Slide 5
5
Relationship Between Type of Program and
Master’s Program’s Likelihood of Closing, 2011
Slide 7
Source: ASA Survey of Graduate Program Directors, 2011
6
Recommendation for Improving Graduate
School Curricula by Non-Academic Sociologists
(Percentage of Respondents)
Slide 9
7
Source: Beyond the Ivory Tower: Survey for the Ford Foundation of Non-Academic PhDs in Sociology, 2005
Race and Ethnicity
Slide 10
The Future of Sociology: Minorities, Programs, and Jobs
Significant Differences in the Reasons For
Majoring in Sociology by Race and Ethnicity (2005)
(Percent Responding “Very Important;” Weighted)
Source: Bachelors and Beyond Survey, 2005
Slide 6
9
Sociology Degrees Awarded by
Race/Ethnicity, 1995 - 2009
Percentage of Bachelor’s Degrees Awarded
0.8
0.7
70.4%
67.3%
64.5%
0.6
62.5%
61.7%
59.4%
57.0%
0.5
Asian or Pacific Islander
0.4
Black, Non-Hispanic
Hispanic
White, Non-Hispanic
0.3
0.2
15.6%
16.0%
7.7%
9.0%
16.5%
15.6%
16.2%
14.0%
0.1
0
6.8%
4.3%
5.0%
5.2%
9.0%
5.2%
9.8%
5.9%
16.5%
10.1%
11.8%
6.7%
6.8%
1995 1996 1997 1998 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Slide 11
Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), Integrated Postsecondary Education
Data System (IPEDS) Completions,1966-2009 (Washington, DC: NCES, 2010). Retrieved from https://webcaspar.nsf.gov
10
(November 4, 2010).
Sociology Degrees Awarded by
Race/Ethnicity, 1995 - 2009
Percentage of Master’s Degrees Awarded
0.7
0.6
65.1%
64.5%
61.6%
60.4%
59.2%
57.5%
58.2%
55.9%
12.7%
12.6%
0.5
Asian or Pacific Islander
0.4
Black, Non-Hispanic
Hispanic
White, Non-Hispanic
0.3
0.2
16.9%
14.1%
12.8%
0.1
0
4.7%
3.9%
4.1%
3.9%
1995
Slide 12
1996
1997
5.4%
3.2%
1998
2000
2001
14.6%
14.8%
7.2%
6.8%
4.4%
5.2%
2002
2003
2004
6.7%
8.0%
4.5%
2005
2006
4.3%
2007
2008
8.8%
4.2%
2009
Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), Integrated Postsecondary Education
11
Data System (IPEDS) Completions,1966-2009 (Washington, DC: NCES, 2010). Retrieved from https://webcaspar.nsf.gov
(November 4, 2010).
Sociology Degrees Awarded by
Race/Ethnicity, 1995 - 2009
Percentage of Doctoral Degrees Awarded
62.4%
0.57
62.3%
61.7%
62.2%
58.7%
56.9%
54.4%
52.0%
0.47
53.8%
Asian or Pacific Islander
0.37
Black, Non-Hispanic
Hispanic
0.27
White, Non-Hispanic
0.17
6.1%
0.07
8.5%
8.1%
8.4% 7.9%
6.2%
4.8%
4.7%
7.4%
4.0%
4.6%
6.1%
6.9% 7.6%
4.6%
2.3%
-0.03
1995 1996 1997 1998 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Slide 13
Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), Integrated Postsecondary Education
12
Data System (IPEDS) Completions,1966-2009 (Washington, DC: NCES, 2010). Retrieved from https://webcaspar.nsf.gov
(November 4, 2010).
What Do We Do?
Sociologists in the Work Force
Slide 14
The Future of Sociology: Minorities, Programs, and Jobs
Assistant and Open Rank Faculty Positions
Advertised Through the American
Sociological Association, 2008 – 2011*
2008
2009
503
499
427
324
2010
405
378
2011
338
258
Total Positions Advertised
Total Advertising Departments
Source: ASA Job Bank Survey, 2008 - 2011
Slide 8
* Excludes foreign positions and departments.
14
More Sociology Bachelor’s Recipients
are in the Labor Market:
Future Plans as Reported in 2005 versus 2007
Slide 15
Source: ASA Research and Development Department, What Can I Do With a Bachelor’s in Sociology?
15
A National Survey of Seniors Majoring in Sociology Wave II, 2007
Types of Occupations of Sociology
Bachelor’s Degree Recipients (2007)
Occupation
Slide 16
Example
%
Social Services, Counselors, Psychologists
Oversee AIDS outreach team
26.5
Administrative Support
Scheduler for a state representative
15.8
Management
Handle employment and labor relations
14.4
Marketing
Planning and developing marketing strategies
10.1
Services
Crime scene technician
8.3
Teachers, librarians
Provide reference, research, and database
searching
8.1
Social Science, Researchers
Research climate change policies
5.7
Other professionals
Website design
6.8
Other
N/A
4.4
Source: ASA Research and Development Department, What Can I Do With a Bachelor’s in Sociology?
16
A National Survey of Seniors Majoring in Sociology Wave II, 2007
What Do They Study in Graduate School?
(in percents)
Professional Degree Fields
Slide 17
34.8
Social work/human services
18.3
Law, pre-law, or legal studies
8.4
Health professional and related sciences
8.1
Sociology
13.0
Other Degree Fields
24.6
Education
6.4
Psychology
5.0
Business
3.1
Criminology
2.7
Library Science
1.9
Political Science
1.6
Visual and performing arts
1.6
Languages, linguistics, literature, and letters
1.5
Area and Ethnic Studies
0.4
Urban and religious services
0.4
Other/Joint Programs
27.6
TOTAL
100.0
Source: ASA Research and Development Department, What Can I Do With a Bachelor’s Degree in
Sociology? Wave III
17
Types of Job Activities Differ Between
Terminal Master’s Graduates and Current
Students
(in percents)
Primary work activities
Terminal
Master’s
Graduate
Current
Terminal
Master’s
Student
Total
Accounting and finance
3.5
2.7
3.2
Applied or basic research
30.4
12.8
20.2
Computer programming
4.1
7.2
5.3
Employee relations
4.7
0.0
2.8
Managing or supervising
3.5
12.6
7.1
Professional services
6.4
12.6
8.9
Sales and marketing
10.5
9.0
9.9
Teaching
15.8
14.4
15.2
Working with diverse groups
9.4
5.4
7.8
Other
11.7
16.2
13.5
100.0
100.0
100.0
171
111
282
TOTAL
(N)
Slide 18
18
Source: ASA Research and Development Department, What Can I Do With a Master’s in Sociology? Wave III.
Master’s Degrees Improve Job Conditions
(percentage of terminal master’s graduates)
Slide 19
Source: ASA Research and Development Department, What Can I Do With a Master’s in Sociology? Wave III.
19
Comparison of Specializations Listed in All
Assistant and Open Rank Job Bank
Advertisements in 2010 to Areas of Interest
Selected by PhD Candidates on ASA Membership
Forms in 2010
Specialization
Advertised
Specialties
(N=427)
Areas of Student
Interest in 2010
(N=4,511)
%
Rank
%
Rank
%
Sociology of Culture
8.4
14
24.3
3
- 15.8
Inequalities and
Stratification
19.7
6
34.7
1
- 15.0
Social Control, Law,
Crime, and Deviance
30.9
1
17.9
7
+ 13.0
Politics and Social Change
23.0
2
33.9
2
- 10.9
Place and Environment
23.0
3
13.7
10
+ 9.3
Gender and Sexuality
10.3
13
19.6
5
- 9.3
Sources: ASA Job Bank and Membership databases.
Slide 21
Difference in %
of Specialties
Compared to
Interest *
20
* A minus sign indicates an oversupply of graduate students. A plus sign indicates an undersupply.
Job Satisfaction
Slide 22
The Future of Sociology: Minorities, Programs, and Jobs
Sociology Bachelor’s Degree Recipients’
Pathways to Job Satisfaction
Skills
Resume
Educated
Parents
Race
Type of
School
Interview
On-the-Job
Activities
Closeness
to
Sociology
Slide 23
Job
Satisfaction
Source: ASA Research and Development Department, What Can I Do With a Bachelor’s in Sociology?
22
A National Survey of Seniors Majoring in Sociology Wave II, 2007
Factors Related to Job Satisfaction for
Master’s Graduates*
Source: ASA Research and Development Department, What Can I Do With a Master’s in Sociology? Wave III.
Slide 24
* Based on a regression model. Black text indicates variables in the model that are not significant at the 0.05 level.
23
PhD Job and Family Satisfaction, 2006
(in percents)
Slide 25
Source: ASA Research and Development Department, PhD+10: A Follow-Up Survey on Career
24
and Family Transitions Out of the Academic Sector, 2007.
Intellectual
Activities
Slide 26
The Future of Sociology: Minorities, Programs, and Jobs
Total ASA Membership by
Race/Ethnicity in 2001 and 2010*
(in percents)
Racial and Ethnic Categories
2001
2010
African American
4.9
6.0
Asian or Pacific Islander
5.1
5.4
Hispanic
3.4
4.3
White
68.3
64.0
Did Not Report Race/Ethnicity
15.1
17.2
100.0
100.0
12,365
13,708
TOTAL
(N)
Source: ASA Membership Database
Slide 28
*Excludes Native American and Other categories.
26
Top 10 Sections in 2010, by
Membership Status
(rank and percent of group)
Slide 29
27
Source: ASA Membership Database
African Americans in
the Sociology Pipeline
Slide 30
The Future of Sociology: Minorities, Programs, and Jobs
The Survival of African Americans in the
Sociology “Career Pipeline”
(estimated number of students/faculty)
Become full professors
Awarded sociology PhDs
Awarded Sociology M.A.’s
Enrolled in graduate sociology programs
Enrolled in graduate school
In the sociology baccalaureate pool
Slide 31
20
30
40
Become assistant professors
270
1,150
2,480
3,900
29
Source: ASA Department of Research and Development, Race and Ethnicity in the Sociology Pipeline, 2007
Points to Remember
The majority of undergraduate majors do not go on to
graduate school in sociology. We must do a better job of
counseling them, because they are the bread and butter of
the discipline.
The market is improving for new PhDs, but sociology would
have a lower unemployment rate if they were trained nonacademic jobs.
It looks as if cultural studies is the intellectual future of the
discipline replacing family and theory, although criminal
justice is where jobs are.
There are small increases in minorities in the sociology
pipeline, but they appear to get stuck on the way to the top.
MFP helps.
Slide 33
The Future of Sociology: Minorities, Programs, and Jobs
Visit the ASA Research Department on the web.
http://www.asanet.org/research/index.cfm
Slide 34
The Future of Sociology: Minorities, Programs, and Jobs

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