Classification and Identification of Alcohols and Phenols

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Classification and
Identification of
Alcohols and
Phenols
Alcohols may be classified as either primary, secondary or tertiary
depending on the number of carbon-containing groups attached to the
carbon- bearing hydroxyl group.
Types of Alcohols
Examples of Alcohols
A phenol has a hydroxyl group bonded directly to a carbon that
is part of an aromatic ring.
Phenols
• Alcohols and phenols are polar because of
the hydroxyl group
• The polar side and hydrogen bonding
allows them to dissolve in water
• The non-polar side allows them to
dissolve in certain organic solvents
• Alcohols are not acidic
• Phenols are acidic
Properties of Alcohols and
Phenols
A series of tests can be used to distinguish between alcohol
types and phenols:
• Solubility
• pH
• Lucas Test
• Chromic Acid Test
• Iodoform Test
• Iron(III)chloride Test
Chemical Properties
Used to distinguish between a primary, secondary and tertiary
alcohol.
Lucas Test
Used to distinguish primary and secondary alcohols from tertiary
alcohols.
Phenols produce a
brown tarry mass
when combined with
chromic acid.
Chromic Acid Test
This test is used to distinguish alcohols with the partial structure
R-CH3CH(OH) from other alcohols. Phenols also react.
Iodoform Test
Phenols are acidic and dissolve in a basic solution. Alcohols are
not acidic and will not dissolve in a basic solution.
Acidity of Phenol
This test distinguishes between alcohols and phenols.
The resulting color change can vary from green
to purple.
Alcohols produce no color change.
Iron(III) Chloride Test
• Chromic acid is very corrosive.
• Phenols are toxic, avoid skin contact.
• Your instructor will dispense all of the chromic acid as well as
police the hazardous waste.
DO NOT THROW ANY CHEMICALS DOWN THE DRAIN!!!
EACH HAS AN APPROPRIATE WASTE CONTAINER IN
THE HOOD!!
Caution!
• Inhalation: difficulty breathing, sore throat, coughing, dizziness, dullness,
headache, drowsiness, sneezing, wheezing, central nervous system
depression, narcosis, unconsciousness, choking, inflammation of the upper
respiratory system, pulmonary edema, circulatory failure, coma, increased
sweating, pulmonary edema, reduced body temperature, euphoria, cyanosis,
tissue necrosis, convulsion, chemical pneumonitis and death
• Ingestion: sore throat, narcosis, abdominal pain, nausea, headache,
dizziness, diarrhea, kidney damage, liver damage, hearing damage, burns
and inflammation of the mouth, throat, esophagus and stomach, brown
stains around the mouth, low blood pressure, tachycardia, vomiting ,
muscular weakness, increased sweating and death
• Skin contact: sensitization, irritant, redness, pain, drying, cracking, defatting
of the skin ulcers, rash and can be absorbed through the skin
• Eye contact: stinging, tearing, redness, pain of the eyes, blurred vision,
corneal damage and blindness
• Tumorigens, mutagens, carcinogens and reproductive effectors
Potential Health Effects

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