Basis of Estimates & Preparation of the Proposal Summary

Report
Basis of Estimates
for Designers, Estimators, and Reviewers
Melissa Hollis
Engineering Systems Support
State Specifications and Estimates Office
May 2011
1
Basis of Estimates
Welcome to the Basis of
Estimates training. This
presentation is designed in three
parts:
Part 1: Introduction to the Basis of
Estimates
Part 1 introduces users to the
Basis of Estimates, including
how to navigate the online
manual.
Part 2: Selecting Pay Items
Part 2 helps Designers select
the appropriate item(s) for the
work required.
Part 3: Estimating and Review
Part 3 assists with reviews by
FDOT and Consultants,
highlighting recent changes,
common errors, and related
issues.
2
Basis of Estimates
If you need additional
information on a pay item or
project specific conditions,
please contact your District
Estimates Office, or the Basis of
Estimates Coordinator.
Contact information is available
on the Specifications and
Estimates Office web page at:
http://www.dot.state.fl.us/
specificationsoffice/
This training is under
development. Suggestions for
future enhancement are
welcome. Please contact
[email protected]
3
Part 1: Introduction to the Basis of
Estimates
Part 2: Selecting Pay Items
Part 3: Estimating and Review
Basis of Estimates
The general Information section
includes a brief overview of the
various estimating systems.
The BOE Online section shows
how to access and use the BOE
files.
The first 10 Chapters of the
BOE provide additional details
that are applicable to all items.
Note: Chapters 11-20 are pay
item specific. They are detailed
in Part 2 of the Basis of
Estimates training.
4
Part 1: Introduction to the Basis of
Estimates
General Information
BOE Online
Chapters
Chapter 1: Updates & Registration
Chapter 2: Units of Measure
Chapter 5: Contact Lists
Chapter 6: Pay Item Requests
Chapter 7: Plan Notes
Chapter 8: Forms
Chapter 9: Trnsport & Webgate
Chapter 10: Formatting Items
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Within the General Information
section, we will review
Terminology and Timelines that
are important throughout the
Design Process.
Within our Department, we tend
to use acronyms or
abbreviations for commonly
used terminology. Here are a
few of the terms used
throughout this presentation.
5
General Information
Terminology
DOT or FDOT: Florida Department of
Transportation
BOE: Basis of Estimates
Specs: Specifications, including the
Standard Specifications (bound book),
Supplemental Specifications (FHWA
approved), Special Provisions,
Developmental Specifications, and
Technical Special Provisions
Estimates: Pay Item, Quantity, Price
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
DOT or FDOT: The Florida
Department of Transportation.
General Information
Terminology
DOT or FDOT: Florida Department of
Transportation
BOE: Basis of Estimates
Specs: Specifications, including the
Standard Specifications (bound book),
Supplemental Specifications (FHWA
approved), Special Provisions,
Developmental Specifications, and
Technical Special Provisions
Estimates: Pay Item, Quantity, Price
6
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
BOE: Basis of Estimates
An online document which
provides guidance on the use of
pay items for use on
Construction and Maintenance
contracts.
Note that this manual is NOT a
contract document. All
measurement and payment
information must be included in
the contract package.
7
General Information
Terminology
DOT or FDOT: Florida Department of
Transportation
BOE: Basis of Estimates
Specs: Specifications, including the
Standard Specifications (bound book),
Supplemental Specifications (FHWA
approved), Special Provisions,
Developmental Specifications, and
Technical Special Provisions
Estimates: Pay Item, Quantity, Price
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Specs: Specifications, including
the Standard Specifications
(bound book), Supplemental
Specifications (FHWA
approved), Special Provisions,
Developmental Specifications,
and Technical Special
Provisions
Complete specifications
normally include:
description
material requirements
construction or installation
requirements
method of measurement
basis of payment
8
General Information
Terminology
DOT or FDOT: Florida Department of
Transportation
BOE: Basis of Estimates
Specs: Specifications, including the
Standard Specifications (bound
book), Supplemental Specifications
(FHWA approved), Special Provisions,
Developmental Specifications, and
Technical Special Provisions
Estimates: Pay Item, Quantity, Price
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
While the plan details often
include a visual “description” of
the work to be completed, the
specifications are normally used
to complete the materials,
construction, and compensation
details.
Note: Plan details should never
be used to repeat, modify, or
“override” specifications.
Conflicts between plans and
specifications should be
avoided. (More details in
Chapter 6.)
9
General Information
Terminology
DOT or FDOT: Florida Department of
Transportation
BOE: Basis of Estimates
Specs: Specifications, including the
Standard Specifications (bound
book), Supplemental Specifications
(FHWA approved), Special Provisions,
Developmental Specifications, and
Technical Special Provisions
Estimates: Pay Item, Quantity, Price
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
The Estimates part of the
contract package includes pay
items, quantities, and prices.
The pay items are selected to
correspond with the
specifications. Pay Item
selection information is available
in Part 2.
Quantities are estimated
according to the plans and
specifications.
10
General Information
Terminology
DOT or FDOT: Florida Department of
Transportation
BOE: Basis of Estimates
Specs: Specifications, including the
Standard Specifications (bound book),
Supplemental Specifications (FHWA
approved), Special Provisions,
Developmental Specifications, and
Technical Special Provisions
Estimates: Pay Item, Quantity, Price
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Quantities may be tabulated the
plans, or calculated in the
computation book (COMP
book). More on forms and
documentation in Chapter 8.
Note that most prices are based
on “furnish and install”
operations, as indicated in the
contract documents (plans
and/or specs).
11
General Information
Terminology
DOT or FDOT: Florida Department of
Transportation
BOE: Basis of Estimates
Specs: Specifications, including the
Standard Specifications (bound book),
Supplemental Specifications (FHWA
approved), Special Provisions,
Developmental Specifications, and
Technical Special Provisions
Estimates: Pay Item, Quantity, Price
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Together, the Plans,
Specifications, and Estimates
create the PSE package.
General Information
Terminology
PSE Package
Proposal
Bidder
Contract
Project
Category / Design Group
Roadway,
Structures, Signing &
Pavement Markings, Lighting, Signals,
Landscaping, Utilities, Architectural,
Mass Transit
12
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
The completed PSE package,
also known as the proposal, is
used by various bidders. The
successful bidder is awarded
the contract and becomes the
Contractor.
Proposals are identified by a 5
digit alpha/numeric value such
as T12345, where the T
indicates a Tallahassee let
proposal. Other letters would
indicate a District Let proposal.
The number following the letter
indicates the primary district.
13
General Information
Terminology
PSE Package
Proposal
Bidder
Contract / Contractor
Project
Category / Design Group
Roadway,
Structures, Signing &
Pavement Markings, Lighting, Signals,
Landscaping, Utilities, Architectural,
Mass Transit
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Within a proposal (or later, the
contract), one or more projects
are included.
Projects are identified by a 11
digit number, normally in the
following format:
123456-1-52-01
This may also be known as the
Financial Management (FM)
number.
General Information
Terminology
PSE Package
Proposal
Bidder
Contract
Project
Category / Design Group
Roadway,
Structures, Signing &
Pavement Markings, Lighting, Signals,
Landscaping, Utilities, Architectural,
Mass Transit
14
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Within a project, work is divided
into various categories or design
groups. Each category normally
has a corresponding component
set of plans.
Note: Each bridge is entered as
a separate category, but the
plans may be developed
together, especially for parallel
bridges. A separate category is
required for each bridge, to
capture the length and width, as
well as the corresponding items,
quantities, and costs for the
bridge.
15
General Information
Terminology
PSE Package
Proposal
Bidder
Contract
Project
Category / Design Group
Roadway,
Structures, Signing &
Pavement Markings, Lighting, Signals,
Landscaping, Utilities, Architectural,
Mass Transit
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Note: Exceptions exist for
incidental landscaping that may
be included on Roadway plans;
refer to the Plans Preparation
Manual (PPM) for details.
Items for each category should
correspond to the work shown in
the component plans. For
example, lighting items loaded
in the lighting category should
correspond with the work shown
in the lighting plans.
General Information
Terminology
PSE Package
Proposal
Bidder
Contract
Project
Category / Design Group
Roadway,
Structures, Signing &
Pavement Markings, Lighting, Signals,
Landscaping, Utilities, Architectural,
Mass Transit
16
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Continuing with System
terminology…
LRE is the Long Range
Estimates System. This system
produces a budget cost estimate
before plans/quantities are
available.
Expected items and quantities
are determined from the typical
section(s) and length. Items,
quantities, and prices are
updated as the scope is refined
and updated.
Prices are based on the
previous 12 months’ historical
bid prices, and/or updated
based on project conditions.
17
General Information
Terminology
LRE: Long Range Estimates
Trnsport
PES, CES, LAS, SiteManager, DSS
Webgate, Designer Interface
WebTrnsport
PPM: Plans Preparation Manual
CPAM: Construction Project
Administration Manual
Standards: Design Standards, Interim
Standards, Indexes
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Trnsport is a suite of programs
designed to meet the needs of
state transportation
departments.
Trnsport is an AASHTO product.
(pronounced “ash-toe”)
AASHTO = American
Association of State Highway
Transportation Officials.
General Information
Terminology
LRE: Long Range Estimates
Trnsport
PES, CES, LAS, SiteManager, DSS
Webgate, Designer Interface
WebTrnsport
PPM: Plans Preparation Manual
CPAM: Construction Project
Administration Manual
Standards: Design Standards, Interim
Standards, Indexes
18
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Within the Trnsport suite,
separate programs are used by
Designers, Estimators,
Contracts Administration, and
Construction. The modules
include:
PES: Proposal and Estimating
System
Items and quantities are loaded
into PES. (Consultant Designers
use the Designer Interface to
complete this task.)
General Information
Terminology
LRE: Long Range Estimates
Trnsport
PES, CES, LAS, SiteManager, DSS
Webgate, Designer Interface
WebTrnsport
PPM: Plans Preparation Manual
CPAM: Construction Project
Administration Manual
Standards: Design Standards, Interim
Standards, Indexes
19
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
CES: Cost Estimating System
FDOT Estimators use CES to
compare item history for similar
quantities and similar project
types.
Item prices normally include
materials, labor, and equipment
costs.
The unit price for small
quantities is generally higher
than the unit price for a large
quantity, due to equipment setup and related labor costs.
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General Information
Terminology
LRE: Long Range Estimates
Trnsport
PES, CES, LAS, SiteManager, DSS
Webgate, Designer Interface
WebTrnsport
PPM: Plans Preparation Manual
CPAM: Construction Project
Administration Manual
Standards: Design Standards, Interim
Standards, Indexes
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
LAS: Letting and Award System
The Contracts Administration
Office uses LAS to distribute bid
packages to potential bidders.
Once bids are received, the
successful bid is awarded.
(Details on the letting and award
process are included in the
Specifications, Section 3.)
General Information
Terminology
LRE: Long Range Estimates
Trnsport
PES, CES, LAS, SiteManager, DSS
Webgate, Designer Interface
WebTrnsport
PPM: Plans Preparation Manual
CPAM: Construction Project
Administration Manual
Standards: Design Standards, Interim
Standards, Indexes
21
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
After award, Proposal
information, including items,
quantities, and awarded bid
prices are transferred to
SiteManager.
SiteManager is the database
used to track daily construction
activities. Monthly payments are
made to the contractor, based
on the progress of the
construction activities.
Historical bid information is
stored in DSS: Decision Support
System
22
General Information
Terminology
LRE: Long Range Estimates
Trnsport
PES, CES, LAS, SiteManager, DSS
Webgate, Designer Interface
WebTrnsport
PPM: Plans Preparation Manual
CPAM: Construction Project
Administration Manual
Standards: Design Standards, Interim
Standards, Indexes
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Webgate and the Designer
Interface were designed by DOT
staff to simplify access to
various Trnsport modules and
databases.
Webgate includes various
reports:
Project Edit Report
Proposal Summary
General Information
Terminology
LRE: Long Range Estimates
Trnsport
PES, CES, LAS, SiteManager, DSS
Webgate, Designer Interface
WebTrnsport
Master Pay Item List
Item Average Unit Cost
PPM: Plans Preparation Manual
CPAM: Construction Project
We’ll demonstrate these reports
at the end of the presentation.
23
Administration Manual
Standards: Design Standards, Interim
Standards, Indexes
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
WebTrnsport is the next
generation Trnsport product.
We have recently received a
test version. An implementation
schedule will be determined as
more details are available.
General Information
Terminology
LRE: Long Range Estimates
Trnsport
PES, CES, LAS, SiteManager, DSS
Webgate, Designer Interface
WebTrnsport
PPM: Plans Preparation Manual
CPAM: Construction Project
Administration Manual
Standards: Design Standards, Interim
Standards, Indexes
24
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
The Plans Preparation Manual
is maintained by the State
Roadway Design Office. It
includes guidance on when
specific items of work should or
shouldn’t be included on a
project.
This manual is directed towards
designers working on FDOT
projects.
While the PPM is a part of the
Design firm’s contract with the
Department, it is not a contract
document between the
construction contractor and the
Department.
25
General Information
Terminology
LRE: Long Range Estimates
Trnsport
PES, CES, LAS, SiteManager, DSS
Webgate, Designer Interface
WebTrnsport
PPM: Plans Preparation Manual
CPAM: Construction Project
Administration Manual
Standards: Design Standards, Interim
Standards, Indexes
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
The Construction Project
Administration Manual is
maintained by the State
Construction Office.
This manual is directed towards
FDOT Engineers and other
representatives, acting on behalf
of the Department.
General Information
Terminology
LRE: Long Range Estimates
Trnsport
PES, CES, LAS, SiteManager, DSS
Webgate, Designer Interface
WebTrnsport
PPM: Plans Preparation Manual
CPAM: Construction Project
Administration Manual
Standards: Design Standards, Interim
Standards, Indexes
26
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
The Standards are also known
as the Design Standards,
Interim Standards, or Indexes.
The standards become a part of
the contract documents, by
reference in the plans or
specifications.
They are used by both
designers and contractors.
The standards, including any
interims or updates, are
available on the Roadway
Design web pages. Be sure to
use the Instructions for
Design Standards (IDS), when
available; they will provide pay
item guidance.
27
General Information
Terminology
LRE: Long Range Estimates
Trnsport
PES, CES, LAS, SiteManager, DSS
Webgate, Designer Interface
WebTrnsport
PPM: Plans Preparation Manual
CPAM: Construction Project
Administration Manual
Standards: Design Standards,
Interim Standards, Indexes,
Instructions for Design Standards
http://www.dot.state.fl.us/rddesign/
DesignStandards/Standards.shtm
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
With a typical project, there are
several common stages of
development.
In the Pre-Design stage, the
project scope is loosely defined.
Project limits and type of work
are identified.
Using LRE, a Scope Estimate is
produced. The project and
scope estimate are entered into
the 5 year work program- a
system to schedule proposed
work with expected funding.
28
General Information
Timeline
Pre-Design
Design
Letting & Bid Review
Award
Construction
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Following the selection of a
designer, the initial design and
creation of plans begins.
Reviews are conducted at
various phases, throughout the
development of the PSE
package.
During phase 1, basic plan and
profile information is created.
Complete requirements for each
phase are shown in the PPM.
29
General Information
Timeline
Pre-Design
Design
Letting & Bid Review
Award
Construction
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
During phase II, additional
details are defined- lighting,
landscape, etc. Pay Items are
identified at this time.
During phase III, most of the
design work is completed.
Quantities for all pay items are
loaded into the Trnsport system.
Specifications are under review,
as needed.
Note: The LRE continues to be
the primary source for project
costs, until items, quantities, and
prices are complete in Trnsport.
It is important to maintain the
LRE scope and details.
30
General Information
Timeline
Pre-Design
Design
Letting & Bid Review
Award
Construction
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Sometime between phases III
and IV, when the items and
quantities are finalized, the LRE
is archived, and the Trnsport
estimate is used.
Where LRE contains expected
values based on typical section
and length, Trnsport contains
known values based on
calculation of quantities shown
in the plans.
Hint: If the LRE is maintained
with scope changes, we are
able to give you an earlier
“heads up” when pay item
changes are expected.
31
General Information
Timeline
Pre-Design
Design
Letting & Bid Review
Award
Construction
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
During Phase IV, designers
should be resolving any
comments from the phase III
reviews, as well as updating the
traffic control plans.
Specifications and estimates are
completed.
With the phase IV submittal, the
PSE package should be
complete- ready for the letting
process.
32
General Information
Timeline
Pre-Design
Design
Letting & Bid Review
Award
Construction
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
During Phase IV, designers
should be resolving any
comments from the phase III
reviews, as well as updating the
traffic control plans.
Specifications and estimates are
completed.
With the phase IV submittal, the
PSE package should be
complete- ready for the letting
process.
ALL design work should be
COMPLETE before the PHASE
IV “Final Plans” submittal.
33
General Information
Timeline
Pre-Design
Design
Letting & Bid Review
Award
Construction
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Within the Letting and Bid
Review process, the project(s)
is/are attached to a proposal
number, authorized for funding,
and advertized to potential
bidders.
After the letting (when bids are
received), the bids are reviewed
and awarded.
Details of the letting and award
process are included in the
specifications.
Upon award, the proposal is
transferred to SiteManager, for
use by Construction.
34
General Information
Timeline
Pre-Design
Design
Letting & Bid Review
Award
Construction
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Timeline review:
Just as with plans, there are
early estimates (LRE), phase
estimates (including the annual
Work Program reviews),
authorization estimate, and the
final bid package or “official”
estimate.
The authorization estimate can
be considered a good “ball park”
estimate for authorization and
advertisement. The more refined
official estimate is used for
review and award purposes.
35
General Information
Timeline
Pre-Design
Design
Letting & Bid Review
Award
Construction
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Once the contract is awarded,
the construction activities begin.
Note that the terms “Monthly
Estimate” and “Final Estimate”
are used by the Construction
Office, for monthly and final
payment of the construction
operations.
36
General Information
Timeline
Pre-Design
Design
Letting & Bid Review
Award
Construction
Basis of Estimates
This completes the General
Information section of Part 1.
Continuing on with the online
BOE…
Part 1: Introduction to the Basis of
Estimates
General Information
BOE Online
Chapters
Chapter 1: Updates & Registration
Chapter 2: Units of Measure
Chapter 5: Contact Lists
Chapter 6: Pay Item Requests
Chapter 7: Plan Notes
Chapter 8: Forms
Chapter 9: Trnsport & Webgate
Chapter 10: Formatting Items
37
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
All BOE online files are provided
in .pdf format, searchable with
Acrobat Reader® or other
similar programs. The reader is
available from Adobe® at
www.adobe.com
The files are located on the
FDOT Specifications and
Estimates web page. Select the
BOE link from the top ribbon, or
use the Basis of Estimates link
within the blue bar on the left
side of the page.
BOE Online
searchable .pdf files
Reader is available from
http://www.adobe.com
Files are located on the
Specifications and Estimates web
page at http://www.dot.state.fl.us/
specificationsoffice/
Basis of Estimates
38
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Note that this manual is NOT a
contract document. All
measurement and payment
information must be included in
the contract package.
BOE Online
NOT a contract document
Refer to Chapter 10 for
coordinating BOE content with the
plans and specifications
39
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Do not print the entire BOE.
The BOE files add up to more
than 500 pages, and many
change on a monthly basis.
Print only the pages or groups
you need- signals, lighting, etc.
40
BOE Online
Complete file is large!
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Chapter 1 provides update and
registration information, as well
as critical dates for proposed
changes.
The Monthly Updates generally
involve minor detail changes or
clarifications. The list of valid
“open” Pay Items is also
updated monthly.
41
Chapter 1
Updated Monthly
Estimates Bulletins
Registration through Contact
Database http://www.dot.state.fl.us/
projectmanagementoffice/
contactdatabase.shtm
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Major changes, such as
new/replacement pay items, are
normally included in an
Estimates Bulletin.
Bulletins will detail history,
usage conditions, and
implementation dates.
When possible, major changes
are scheduled for January or
July letting implementation.
Applicable specifications and/or
standards are coordinated for
implementation with the same
letting date.
42
Chapter 1
Updated Monthly
Estimates Bulletins
Registration through Contact
Database http://www.dot.state.fl.us/
projectmanagementoffice/
contactdatabase.shtm
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
The Contact Database is
supported by the Production
Support Office, previously
known as the Project
Management Office. It is used to
contact customers of FDOT
Design and Construction
Offices, when major
announcements are needed.
BOE, PPM, CPAM, and other
design manual/handbook users
are encouraged to register for
these announcements.
BOE announcements are
normally sent 2-5 times
annually. (It is not used for
frequent “junk mail”.)
43
Chapter 1
Updated Monthly
Estimates Bulletins
Registration through Contact
Database http://www.dot.state.fl.us/
projectmanagementoffice/
contactdatabase.shtm
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Chapter 2 includes a list of
abbreviation used by FDOT,
within our estimating systems.
Common conversion factors are
provided for general reference.
44
Chapter 2: Units of Measure
Abbreviations
Conversion Factors
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Chapter 3 has been requested
by several users, although many
prefer to use the .pdf text
search.
Chapter 4 is currently blank.
45
Chapter 3: Alphabetical List
Chapter 4: Blank for future use
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Chapter 5 includes several
contact lists.
For most of your pay item
needs, the Project Manger,
District Estimates (or Final
Plans) Office should be your
primary contact.
If you are considering a new
product, method, or nonstandard design, the pay item
coordinators are available to
help with specs, standards, and
pay items.
When technical expertise is
needed, the responsible offices
are contacted.
46
Chapter 5: Contact Lists
Directory of Coordinators
Central Office Pay Item coordinators
Responsible Offices
Listing, by pay item range, of the
responsible office and contact person(s)
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
While the District Coordinators
and technical experts are quite
helpful, Designers are asked to
please follow district processes
by working through Project
Managers and/or District
coordinators, before contacting
the responsible office
representatives, especially for
project specific issues.
Chapter 5: Contact Lists
Project Specific Issues
Designer coordinates with Project
Manager.
Project Manger works with District or
Responsible Office, as needed
E-mail, with Designer and Project
Manager’s contact information, works
well to expedite responses. Carefully
select the “cc: group”
Project Number, Letting & Production
Dates
47
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
E-mail works well when the
appropriate persons are
included. Forward the e-mail
history when requesting
assistance from the responsible
office; the technical expert may
need to request additional
details from the designer.
Chapter 5: Contact Lists
Project Specific Issues
Designer coordinates with Project
Manager.
Project Manger works with District or
Responsible Office, as needed
E-mail, with Designer and Project
Manager’s contact information, works
well to expedite responses. Carefully
select the “cc: group”
Project Number, Letting & Production
Dates
48
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Ensure that all correspondence
includes a project number. A
letting and/or production date is
helpful.
For best service, submit
questions and requests in a
timely manner, in accordance
with the PPM submittal
schedule. Allow others sufficient
response time, before submittal
dates.
More on requesting pay items in
a few moments…
49
Chapter 5: Contact Lists
Project Specific Issues
Designer coordinates with Project
Manager.
Project Manger works with District or
Responsible Office, as needed
E-mail, with Designer and Project
Manager’s contact information, works
well to expedite responses. Carefully
select the “cc: group”
Project Number, Letting &
Production Dates
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Chapter 6 details processes for
Requesting Pay Items. Please
refer to the online file for
complete information.
Over the past year, we have
simplified the process for
requesting pay items; please
review the text or ask for
assistance when considering a
new pay item.
Looking at Opening Pay Items
and Creating New Pay Items…
Chapter 6: Requesting Pay Items
Opening pay items
Creating new pay items
Pay Item request instructions
Inactive Items
Pay Item reviews
Coordination Team
Management Team
Developmental, Trial, and/or
Special Pay Items
Generic Pay Items
50
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Items shown in the Basis of
Estimates may be opened,
subject to implementation dates
or other notes shown.
Most of the valid combinations
are currently open.
When existing pay items do not
meet the needs for a project,
several options are available.
New items may included
additional sizes, shapes, or
other material properties.
The project may call for “adjust”,
rather than “Furnish & Install”.
Items may be furnished by a
local agency, to be installed by
the contractor.
51
Chapter 6: Requesting Pay Items
Opening pay items
Creating new pay items
Additional Size, shape, etc.
Other operations?
General use, new specs?
Project Specific/Limited use?
Developmental/Experimental?
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
New items are also created
when new specifications are
developed. These new items
may be an expansion of an
existing pay item structure, or
they may completely replace
pay item groups.
Old Specs: old pay items;
New specs: new pay items.
Finally, “special” pay items are
created when project specific
needs are unique,
developmental, or experimental.
Talk with your District Estimates
Office if you have “special”
considerations.
More info in a few moments…
52
Chapter 6: Requesting Pay Items
Opening pay items
Creating new pay items
Additional Size, shape, etc.
Other operations?
General use, new specs?
Project Specific/Limited use?
Developmental/Experimental?
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Frequent questions: “Is it close
enough?” or “Should I use an
existing pay item, with a plan
note?”
NO, don’t abuse a pay item
because it…
•Skews Cost History
• Avoids development of a new
item/ product/ specification
• Introduces potential claims due
to non-standard use (or
incomplete specs/details)
Do not use a plan note to
change the intent of an existing
item or spec.
53
Chapter 6: Requesting Pay Items
Opening pay items
Creating new pay items
Additional Size, shape, etc.
Other operations?
General use, new specs?
Project Specific/Limited use?
Developmental/Experimental?
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
The Pay Item Request Form is
not required.
When requesting a new item,
either by form or e-mail, please
include the proposed pay item
description, unit of measure,
and pay item structure (size,
shape, or other needed
variables).
For new items, it is also helpful
to include BOE details, specs, or
plan details, as needed to
complete the BOE information.
(Don’t copy the online BOE; I
have a copy…)
54
Chapter 6: Requesting Pay Items
Opening pay items
Creating new pay items
Pay Item request instructions
Inactive Items
Pay Item reviews
Coordination Team
Management Team
Developmental, Trial, and/or
Special Pay Items
Generic Pay Items
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Remember to Include your
contact information- name,
phone, and e-mail address.
Chapter 6: Requesting Pay Items
Opening pay items
Hint: Furnish only and Install
only are questioned. Please
explain when these items are
requested.
Creating new pay items
District Estimators will forward
your request. A response will be
sent “reply to all” as soon as the
item is available.
Pay Item reviews
Most requests are completed
within 30 minutes. (If I am at my
desk, items can be opened in
+/- 3 minutes. Afternoon
requests are normally
processed the following
morning.)
55
Pay Item request instructions
Inactive Items
Coordination Team
Management Team
Developmental, Trial, and/or
Special Pay Items
Generic Pay Items
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Notes concerning pay item
structure (variables):
Variables should be used when
needed to distinguish operation,
size, shape, or any other
characteristic that significantly
affects the installed cost.
Characteristics that do not affect
cost may be detailed in the
plans or specs, or left as an
option to the Contractor.
More details on the pay item
structure are available in
Chapter 10.
Chapter 6: Requesting Pay Items
Opening pay items
Creating new pay items
Pay Item request instructions
Inactive Items
Pay Item reviews
Coordination Team
Management Team
Developmental, Trial, and/or
Special Pay Items
Generic Pay Items
56
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
As specifications and/or
standards are updated, the
Responsible Office(s) are asked
to review the list of valid pay
items.
Chapter 6: Requesting Pay Items
Opening pay items
Creating new pay items
Pay Item request instructions
Items are considered to be
inactive when they are not used
for a 2 year period. If no future
use is proposed, the
Responsible Office may
recommend removing the
item(s) from the BOE.
Inactive Items
Pay Item reviews
Coordination Team
Management Team
Developmental, Trial, and/or
If items are deemed obsolete,
due to specification or design
standard changes, they are
blocked, as needed.
57
Special Pay Items
Generic Pay Items
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Continuing on with the
Coordination Team “C-Team”
and Management Team “MTeam”…
Chapter 6: Requesting Pay Items
Opening pay items
Creating new pay items
Pay Item request instructions
Inactive Items
Pay Item reviews
Coordination Team
Management Team
Developmental, Trial, and/or
Special Pay Items
Generic Pay Items
58
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Both Teams are composed of
members from Design,
Construction, Traffic Ops, and
Maintenance.
The C-Team works to coordinate
the implementation of Pay
Items, Specifications,
Standards, and other issues.
The M-Team works to resolve
issues between offices, whether
resulting from project,
specification, policy, legislation,
or other administrative issues.
59
Chapter 6: Requesting Pay Items
Coordination Team
Representatives from Design,
Construction, Maintenance, and other
offices
Coordinate the implementation of Pay
Items, Specifications, Standards, and
other issues
Management Team
Managers from same offices
Work to resolve issues between offices,
policy issues, etc.
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Depending on the issue, either
the responsible office, C-Team,
or M-Team will coordinate with
the District Office(s) prior to
implementing major changes.
Following direction from the MTeam, the specifications,
standards, pay items, manuals,
and/or handbooks are updated.
The C-Team coordinates the
implementation, preparing
Bulletin(s) as necessary.
60
Chapter 6: Requesting Pay Items
Coordination Team
Representatives from Design,
Construction, Maintenance, and other
offices
Coordinate the implementation of Pay
Items, Specifications, Standards, and
other issues
Management Team
Managers from same offices
Work to resolve issues between offices,
policy issues, etc.
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Developmental, Trial, and/or
“Special” pay items are
considered for various limited
use situations:
Specifications are subject to
change, often due to new or
experimental conditions
Unique or uncommon project
conditions
New product evaluation
All of these situations should be
monitored by the Responsible
Office, so that results can be
carefully recorded and
evaluated.
61
Chapter 6: Requesting Pay Items
Opening pay items
Creating new pay items
Pay Item request instructions
Inactive Items
Pay Item reviews
Coordination Team
Management Team
Developmental, Trial, and/or
Special Pay Items
Generic Pay Items
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Generic Pay Items are new.
“They are intended to support
one-time usage pay items or
specialty situations where a
standard pay item is not
available, and for which it is not
practical to create a new pay
item.”
While they are a wonderful new
tool, there are rules that apply,
to avoid abuse.
Chapter 6: Requesting Pay Items
Opening pay items
Creating new pay items
Pay Item request instructions
Inactive Items
Pay Item reviews
Coordination Team
Management Team
Developmental, Trial, and/or
Special Pay Items
Generic Pay Items
62
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
The following rules apply in the
usage of all generic pay items,
including duplicate Lump sum
projects.
Chapter 6: Requesting Pay Items
Generic Pay Items- Rules
do not use if there is an existing item
do not use to avoid an item
do not use to circumvent a review or
approval process
do not use as a “work around” for
something that has been rejected or
denied.
do not use to “sole source” a product
do not use to avoid requesting an item
Must be supported by Tech spec and/or
plan detail
Must be loaded in the appropriate
category
63
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Chapter 7 addresses Plan
Notes.
Chapter 7: Plan Notes
General Information
While this chapter previously
contained a list of commonly
used plan notes, these notes
are no longer duplicated from
the PPM.
This chapter is now used to
address when some plan notes
are needed, and how to ensure
that the note compliments the
standards, specs, and or pay
items.
64
Coordination between plans,
specs, and pay items
“T” Flag for Tech Specs and/or
Plan Details
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Plan Notes should NOT be used
to change, duplicate, or override
the specifications or standards.
When changes to the
specifications or standards are
needed, coordinate with the
responsible office for
instructions on how to complete
the change. Approvals may be
needed for “non-standard”
design or construction
requirements.
65
Chapter 7: Plan Notes
General Information
Coordination between plans,
specs, and pay items
“T” Flag for Tech Specs and/or
Plan Details
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Specifications generally include:
Description
Materials
Construction or Installation
requirements
Method of Measurement
Basis of Payment
When all or part of a
specification is not available, a
plan note or detail may be used
to complete the information.
66
Chapter 7: Plan Notes
General Information
Coordination between plans,
specs, and pay items
“T” Flag for Tech Specs and/or
Plan Details
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
It is the Designer’s responsibility
to ensure that the plans,
specifications, and pay items
are complete for each item of
work included in the plans.
Chapter 7: Plan Notes
General Information
Coordination between plans,
specs, and pay items
“T” Flag for Tech Specs and/or
Plan Details
67
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
When specifications are known
to be incomplete for a given pay
item, a “T” flag is included on
some reports to remind the
designer that additional
information (specs and/or
details) is needed in the contract
documents.
Remember: to be complete, the
description, material
requirements, construction or
installation instructions, method
of measurement, and basis of
payment is needed.
68
Chapter 7: Plan Notes
General Information
Coordination between plans,
specs, and pay items
“T” Flag for Tech Specs and/or
Plan Details
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Plan notes or detail drawings
are often helpful to “describe”
the work to be completed.
Chapter 7: Plan Notes
General Information
Does the plan note include
material requirements?
Coordination between plans,
Does the plan note include
installation methods or
performance requirements?
specs, and pay items
“T” Flag for Tech Specs and/or
Plan Details
Does the plan note include
measurement instructions? Is it
field measured or plan quantity?
Does the plan note require a
complete installation?
If not complete, a Tech Spec
may be required.
69
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
In other terms, a plan note is
used with the Tech Spec to
provide complete information for
an item of work.
Other flags include
D Plan Details required
P Permit required
M Monitored item
G Generic Item
A Approvals needed
70
Chapter 7: Plan Notes
General Information
Coordination between plans,
specs, and pay items
“T” Flag for Tech Specs and/or
Plan Details
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
There are two types of forms
used to calculate and document
pay items and quantities.
Chapter 8: Forms
CADD (Tabulation forms included
in the plans)
COMP (Computation Book forms)
71
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
The CADD forms are included in
the plans. Most items are
tabulated by location, with
quantity totals by pay item for
the entire category of work.
The CADD forms are
maintained by the State CADD
Office.
72
Chapter 8: Forms
CADD (Tabulation forms
included in the plans)
COMP (Computation Book forms)
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
The COMP forms are included
in the Computation Book. Most
items are calculated by location,
with quantity totals by pay item
for the entire category of work.
Chapter 8: Forms
CADD (Tabulation forms included
in the plans)
COMP forms are maintained by
the State Construction Office.
COMP (Computation Book
forms)
73
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Chapter 9 provides an overview
of the Webgate and Designer
Interface. These FDOT
programs were designed to
work with the AASHTO Trnsport
software.
Chapter 9: Webgate and Designer
Interface
RACF Password required
Designer Interface
Trnsport Reports
Internet Reports
74
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
The Webgate and Designer
Interface web application require
a RACF or “FDOT mainframe”
userID and password. These
accounts are only available to
consultants whose firms have
current contracts with the
Department.
UserIDs and passwords should
be requested through your
FDOT Project Manager.
75
Chapter 9: Webgate and Designer
Interface
RACF Password required
Designer Interface
Trnsport Reports
Internet Reports
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
The Designer Interface is a
FDOT web interface to the
Trnsport PES module. This
interface allows the Designer to
enter pay items and quantities,
by category, for projects
assigned to their consulting firm.
Chapter 9: Webgate and Designer
Interface
RACF Password required
Designer Interface
Trnsport Reports
Internet Reports
76
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Several reports are available for
Designers. The two most
commonly used reports are the
Project Edit Report and
Proposal Summary of
Quantities.
The Project Edit Report should
be used after any changes are
made to the pay items or
quantities, or after any “idle” or
“shelved” period.
The Project Edit Report will help
to identify missing structures
category information, obsolete
items, and possible “T” flag
items.
77
Chapter 9: Webgate and Designer
Interface
RACF Password required
Designer Interface
Trnsport Reports
Internet Reports
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
The Proposal Summary of
Quantities report is used to
include the items and quantities
in the plans. Note that the
proposal is normally created
during the later project phases.
The Project Edit Report should
always be run & verified, for
each project within the proposal,
prior to running the Proposal
Summary of Quantities. This
will help to avoid many pay item
and Trnsport errors.
78
Chapter 9: Webgate and Designer
Interface
RACF Password required
Designer Interface
Trnsport Reports
Internet Reports
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
The Project Edit Report is also
used to verify structures header
information for each structure.
Critical information includes:
•Bridge Number
Chapter 9: Webgate and Designer
Interface
RACF Password required
•Length
Designer Interface
•Width
Trnsport Reports
•Superstructure Type
•Substructure Type
Internet Reports
This information is used for
FHWA reporting. Refer to
Chapter 9 for additional
information.
79
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
For users who do not have a
RACF password, several
common reports are available
on the Specifications and
Estimates web page.
http://www.dot.state.fl.us/
specificationsoffice/Estimates/
HistoricalCostInformation/
HistoricalCost.shtm
If additional pay item information
is needed, please contact the
District Estimates staff, or the
State Specifications and
Estimates Office- Estimates
System Support section.
80
Chapter 9: Webgate and Designer
Interface
RACF Password required
Designer Interface
Trnsport Reports
Internet Reports
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Chapter 10 details the how the
BOE information is organized for
each pay item group.
There are 10 digits available for
a pay item number, including the
leading zero for most items:
0123-456-789
Chapter 10: Formatting Pay Items
Pay Item Description
Unit, Accuracy, Plan Quantity
Important Dates
Detail
Related Items
The first group of digits
corresponds to the applicable
specification section.
Documentation
References, Specs, Standards
Plan Detail and/or Tech Spec
Pay Item Structure
Where to Find It
81
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
The remaining digits are used to
describe the operation and other
variables needed to distinguish
the pay item.
Maintenance Items, valid only
on maintenance contracts, are
shown in some editions of the
BOE. They are easily identified
with a leading “E” in the first
group of digits. The remaining
pay item structure and
formatting guidelines are the
same for all pay items.
Chapter 10: Formatting Pay Items
Pay Item Description
Unit, Accuracy, Plan Quantity
Important Dates
Detail
Related Items
Documentation
References, Specs, Standards
Plan Detail and/or Tech Spec
Pay Item Structure
Where to Find It
82
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
The Pay Item Description should
be clear and concise.
Chapter 10: Formatting Pay Items
Pay Item Description
When entered into the Trnsport
system, the pay item
description, along with all
variable characteristics, will be
entered. Some text may be
abbreviated to fit within the
available fields.
Unit, Accuracy, Plan Quantity
Important Dates
Detail
Related Items
Documentation
References, Specs, Standards
Plan Detail and/or Tech Spec
Pay Item Structure
Where to Find It
83
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
A sample pay item is shown.
Note that the top area has the
pay item details, while the
bottom area has the pay item
structure.
84
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
A sample pay item is shown.
Note that the top area has the
pay item details, while the
bottom area has the pay item
structure.
Details
Structure
85
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
The pay item description shown
at the top of each item group.
Chapter 10: Formatting Pay Items
Pay Item Description
While some pay item groups will
list the primary word first, as in
“Pipe, Optional”, more
descriptions are now shown as
we commonly speak them, as in
“Optional Pipe”.
Either description may be used
in the specs and plans.
Variables, as shown in the pay
item structure, should be
included with the pay item
description whenever necessary
to clearly identify a specific pay
item: PIPE CULVERT,
OPTIONAL MATERIAL,
ROUND, 12” SD
86
Unit, Accuracy, Plan Quantity
Important Dates
Detail
Related Items
Documentation
References, Specs, Standards
Plan Detail and/or Tech Spec
Pay Item Structure
Where to Find It
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
The unit, accuracy, and plan
quantity information must agree
with the available specifications
and/or standards.
When creating a new item, the
unit of measure should consider
the application or installation
methods, as well as possible
quantity adjustments in the field.
Chapter 10: Formatting Pay Items
Pay Item Description
Unit, Accuracy, Plan Quantity
Important Dates
Detail
Related Items
Documentation
Accuracy requirements should
consider both the product and
field conditions.
References, Specs, Standards
Plan Detail and/or Tech Spec
Pay Item Structure
Where to Find It
87
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
The response to “Plan
Quantity?” is either a “yes” or
“no”.
The available specifications or
standards must indicate a “Plan
Quantity” measurement for this
field to be “yes”.
Chapter 10: Formatting Pay Items
Pay Item Description
Unit, Accuracy, Plan Quantity
Important Dates
Detail
Related Items
For new items, the responsible
office will consider field
measurement and possible
adjustments before
recommending whether to use
Plan Quantity.
Documentation
References, Specs, Standards
Plan Detail and/or Tech Spec
Pay Item Structure
Where to Find It
88
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
For Designers, ensure that the
plan quantity is accurately
shown in the plans.
Subject to 9-3 of the
specifications, adjustments to
plan quantity will be made if the
difference between actual and
plan quantity exceeds 5% or an
amount of $5000.
Chapter 10: Formatting Pay Items
Pay Item Description
Unit, Accuracy, Plan Quantity
Important Dates
Detail
Related Items
Documentation
References, Specs, Standards
Plan Detail and/or Tech Spec
Pay Item Structure
Where to Find It
89
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
The Important Dates field is
used to inform users of
implementation (or obsolete)
dates.
When available, replacement
items will be referenced in this
field.
Chapter 10: Formatting Pay Items
Pay Item Description
Unit, Accuracy, Plan Quantity
Important Dates
Detail
Related Items
Notes for obsolete items will
normally remain in the BOE for
1 year after implementation, to
assist designers with
replacement items.
Documentation
References, Specs, Standards
Plan Detail and/or Tech Spec
Pay Item Structure
Where to Find It
90
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
The Detail section of each pay
item is intended to provide a
brief summary of the correct
usage, as well as measurement
details. As necessary, a “do not
use when…” statement will be
included to clarify correct usage.
Chapter 10: Formatting Pay Items
Pay Item Description
Unit, Accuracy, Plan Quantity
Important Dates
Detail
The details are obtained from
the responsible office, valid
specifications, and helpful
designers. Comments and
suggestions are welcome
through e-mail or online BOE
web page.
Related Items
Documentation
References, Specs, Standards
Plan Detail and/or Tech Spec
Pay Item Structure
Where to Find It
91
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
When related pay items are
recommended or required, they
are shown in this field. Carefully
consider each pay item and the
product or work included for
payment.
Chapter 10: Formatting Pay Items
Pay Item Description
Unit, Accuracy, Plan Quantity
Important Dates
Detail
Related Items
Documentation
References, Specs, Standards
Plan Detail and/or Tech Spec
Pay Item Structure
Where to Find It
92
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Items are documented in either
the plans: CADD tabulation
sheets; or computation book:
COMP forms.
In general, pay items with
complex geometries are
calculated and documented in
the computation book, and
identified by location. Pay items
with easily defined geometries
or locations are shown in the
plans on a tabulation sheet.
Chapter 10: Formatting Pay Items
Pay Item Description
Unit, Accuracy, Plan Quantity
Important Dates
Detail
Related Items
Documentation
References, Specs, Standards
Plan Detail and/or Tech Spec
When a CADD form is available,
tabulation in the plans is
generally preferred. See the
PPM and Design Standards
Instructions for more
information.
93
Pay Item Structure
Where to Find It
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
References may include PPM
guidelines, standards, or
specifications. When available,
these references should be
considered before choosing the
pay item(s).
If the specification or standard
does not apply, do not use the
pay item without further
guidance. Depending on project
conditions, either a modified
spec or standard is needed, or a
“special” pay item may be
recommended. Contact the
District Estimates staff for
assistance.
94
Chapter 10: Formatting Pay Items
Pay Item Description
Unit, Accuracy, Plan Quantity
Important Dates
Detail
Related Items
Documentation
References, Specs, Stand.
Plan Detail and/or Tech Spec
Pay Item Structure
Where to Find It
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Plan Detail and/or Tech Spec
Required: Refer to Chapter 7 for
additional information.
When is a Plan Note/Detail
sufficient? Only when the
remaining specification
information is complete:
description, materials,
construction, measurement, and
payment.
Then is a Tech Spec required?
Whenever the above information
is incomplete in the contract
documents.
Chapter 10: Formatting Pay Items
Pay Item Description
Unit, Accuracy, Plan Quantity
Important Dates
Detail
Related Items
Documentation
References, Specs, Standards
Plan Detail and/or Tech Spec
Pay Item Structure
Where to Find It
95
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Most specifications are written
for “furnish and install”
operations. When other
operations are called for, ensure
that the appropriate instructions
are available.
Furnish only: Due to FHWA
funding rules, the Department
does not normally require
additional items to be furnished
without installation. Exceptions
might include special items, to
be funded by a local maintaining
agency. Contact the District
Estimates staff prior to using this
operation.
96
Chapter 10: Formatting Pay Items
Pay Item Description
Unit, Accuracy, Plan Quantity
Important Dates
Detail
Related Items
Documentation
References, Specs, Standards
Plan Detail and/or Tech Spec
Pay Item Structure
Where to Find It
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Install only: Some “specialty
items” are available on a state
contract, purchased by the
Department, and then installed
by the Contractor. In this case,
an Install only item may be
used. When this occurs, the
plans or specs must detail the
item, pick-up/delivery
instructions, as well as any
incidentals that may need to be
furnished by the Contractor.
Chapter 10: Formatting Pay Items
Pay Item Description
Unit, Accuracy, Plan Quantity
Important Dates
Detail
Related Items
Documentation
References, Specs, Standards
Another example: For some
signals or utility items, a local
agency may furnish the product
to be installed by the contractor.
This ensures that installed
products remain compatible with
existing systems.
97
Plan Detail and/or Tech Spec
Pay Item Structure
Where to Find It
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Relocate: Ensure that the
existing item is in good
condition. Evaluate whether it is
cost effective to relocated an old
or obsolete item. Plans or specs
should clearly identify the initial
and final locations, as well as
any incidental items that may
need to be furnished by the
Contractor for a complete
installation.
Chapter 10: Formatting Pay Items
Pay Item Description
Unit, Accuracy, Plan Quantity
Important Dates
Detail
Related Items
Documentation
References, Specs, Standards
Plan Detail and/or Tech Spec
Pay Item Structure
Where to Find It
98
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Adjust / Modify: Detail minor
work to be completed by the
Contractor.
Remove: Plans or specs should
identify whether the contractor is
to take ownership, stockpile, or
deliver the item(s) to a FDOT
maintenance yard.
Chapter 10: Formatting Pay Items
Pay Item Description
Unit, Accuracy, Plan Quantity
Important Dates
Detail
Related Items
Documentation
References, Specs, Standards
Plan Detail and/or Tech Spec
Pay Item Structure
Where to Find It
99
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Special or Custom Items: When
available, the special or custom
description should only be used
when there is a significant
deviation from the specifications
or standards. Complete specs,
details, or design calculations
may be required.
Minor changes to the spec or
standard requirements may
often be noted in the plans,
using the standard pay item(s).
Chapter 10: Formatting Pay Items
Pay Item Description
Unit, Accuracy, Plan Quantity
Important Dates
Detail
Related Items
Documentation
References, Specs, Standards
Plan Detail and/or Tech Spec
Pay Item Structure
Where to Find It
100
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Is an item standard or special?
If the proposed change does not
significantly affect the design
calculations, cost, or lifespan of
the item, it is likely a minor
change; use the standard pay
item.
If the proposed change
significantly affects the design
calculations, cost or lifespan, it
is likely that a special or custom
pay item should be used.
Chapter 10: Formatting Pay Items
Pay Item Description
Unit, Accuracy, Plan Quantity
Important Dates
Detail
Related Items
Documentation
References, Specs, Standards
Plan Detail and/or Tech Spec
Pay Item Structure
Where to Find It
101
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Mast Arm Example
Slightly shorter arm required:
load calculations are not
negatively impacted, may be
field cut; use standard pay item.
Additional sign or signal
required: wind loads need to be
evaluated by designer; extra
length or diameter arms may
increase material requirements,
additional cost. Use the custom
pay item.
Chapter 10: Formatting Pay Items
Pay Item Description
Unit, Accuracy, Plan Quantity
Important Dates
Detail
Related Items
Documentation
References, Specs, Standards
Plan Detail and/or Tech Spec
Pay Item Structure
Where to Find It
102
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
The Pay Item Structure shows
the available pay item
combinations, including
operation, size, shape, etc.
Variables are only used when
they significantly affect the
installed cost of an item.
Chapter 10: Formatting Pay Items
Pay Item Description
Unit, Accuracy, Plan Quantity
Important Dates
Detail
Related Items
Ranges are used to group items
with a similar installed cost.
Documentation
References, Specs, Standards
Plan Detail and/or Tech Spec
Pay Item Structure
Where to Find It
103
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Too few items: Specs or plan
details are used to distinguish
between many items; this
provides a mixed cost history on
each item.
Too Many items: detailed pay
items, but limited cost history on
each item. Details are needed in
the specs or standards.
Too
Few
Items
104
Too
Many
items
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Grouped by similar cost
history (ranges): common
features are shown in the
standards; specific sizes or
special details are shown in the
specs or plans.
Grouping by similar cost
provides a balance between too
many items (limited history on
each item) and too few items
(mixed history for varied
characteristics).
105
Too
Few
Items
Grouped by
similar cost
history
Too
Many
items
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
Items to remember:
Price vs. Quantity
Installed cost=
Materials
+ Equipment
+ Labor
Unit price on small quantities is
normally higher, due to
equipment set-up or labor costs.
Additional pricing information is
available in Part 3 of the CBT.
$
District X
District Y
District Z
Quantity
106
Basis of Estimates- Part 1
A “Where to find it” table is
included at the end of Chapter
10. Remember that the first
group of pay item digits
corresponds to the applicable
specification section.
100s General, Earthwork
Chapter 10: Formatting Pay Items
Pay Item Description
Unit, Accuracy, Plan Quantity
Important Dates
200s Base Courses
Detail
300s Pavement
Related Items
400s Structures
Documentation
500s Incidental Construction
600s Traffic Control Devices
700s Signing, Lighting, and
Pavement Markings
900s Special Items
References, Specs, Standards
Plan Detail and/or Tech Spec
Pay Item Structure
Where to Find It
107
Basis of Estimates
This concludes this part.
Part 2 is designed to help
Designers select the appropriate
item(s) for the work required.
Part 1: Introduction to the Basis of
Estimates
Part 2: Selecting Pay Items
Part 3: Estimating and Review
108
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Each section will review BOE
details about specific items, to
assist with item selection:
Spec highlights
Standards
Selecting Pay Items
100s
200s
References
300s
Additional guidance
400s
This guidance highlights
commonly used items.
500s
600s
700s
For complete details, refer to the
Basis of Estimates,
Specifications, and/or other
references for each item.
800s
900s
Utilities
Generic Items
109
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The 100s deal with General
Construction Operations,
Clearing the Construction site,
and Earthwork.
As you can see, from the
section titles, they begin with
set-up of the construction site…
110
Selecting Pay Items
100s
101 Mobilization
102 Maintenance of Traffic
103 Temporary Work Struct.
104 Erosion/Sediment Control
109 Engineer’s Field Office
110 Clearing and Grubbing
120 Excavation and Embankment
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
…continues with basic ground
preparation,…
Selecting Pay Items
100s
121 Flowable Fill
125 Excavation for Structures and Pipe
141 Settlement Plate Assembly
144 Geotechnical
145 Geotechnical Fabrics
111
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
and includes some related
operations.
We’ll now take a look at each
section, along with selected pay
items. Remember that the first 3
digits of a pay item correspond
to the associated specification
section number.
112
Selecting Pay Items
100s
160 Stabilizing
161 Predesigned Subbase
162 Prepared Soil Layer
173 Pressure Grouting
175 Cracking and Reseating Existing
Concrete Pavement
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The Mobilization pay item is
used on each project, loaded in
the Roadway category. When no
roadway plans are present, the
item is loaded in the primary
category, i.e. Signals category
for a “signals only” project, or
Landscape category for a
“landscape only” project.
This Lump Sum item is intended
to cover the contractor’s
expenses for “movement of
personnel, equipment, supplies,
and incidentals to the project
site…”
113
Selecting Pay Items
100s
101 Mobilization
102 Maintenance of Traffic
103 Temporary Work Struct.
104 Erosion/Sediment Control
109 Engineer’s Field Office
110 Clearing and Grubbing
120 Excavation and Embankment
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The Maintenance of Traffic
items are only intended for use
while the contract is under
construction. Most MOT items
(cones, barricades, signs, etc.)
should be removed at the end of
the construction period.
Designers should carefully
consider the item, unit of
measure, MOT phase, and
contract duration when selecting
and estimating MOT items.
If the contract duration is
changed MOT quantities (per
day) may need to be
recalculated.
114
Selecting Pay Items
100s
101 Mobilization
102 Maintenance of Traffic
103 Temporary Work Struct.
104 Erosion/Sediment Control
109 Engineer’s Field Office
110 Clearing and Grubbing
120 Excavation and Embankment
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Separate payment for
Temporary Work Structures is
only permitted when the
structure is required to support
construction equipment, or to
comply with permits. (Falsework
and scaffording are not
included.)
Think of this item as “building a
work bridge before building the
bridge”
Coordinate with the State
Structures Design Office, prior
to using this item.
115
Selecting Pay Items
100s
101 Mobilization
102 Maintenance of Traffic
103 Temporary Work Struct.
104 Erosion/Sediment Control
109 Engineer’s Field Office
110 Clearing and Grubbing
120 Excavation and Embankment
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Erosion and Sediment Control
specifications are transitioning
from prescribed materials and
methods to contractor selected
operations. Refer to the latest
specifications for guidance on
the correct pay item(s).
Note that the Contractor will be
required to install erosion control
devices in accordance with the
State of Florida Erosion and
Sediment Control manual. It is
located online at
http://www.dot.state.fl.us/Specifi
cationsoffice/Implemented/urlins
pecs/files/flerosionsedimentman
ual.pdf
116
Selecting Pay Items
100s
101 Mobilization
102 Maintenance of Traffic
103 Temporary Work Struct.
104 Erosion/Sediment Control
109 Engineer’s Field Office
110 Clearing and Grubbing
120 Excavation and Embankment
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
We’ll now take a look at a few of
the items within Section 104.
104-10-3 Sediment Barriers, LF
This item includes synthetic
bales, staked silt fence, and
other similar materials.
Use caution when updating old
plans that calculated the number
of synthetic bales. The linear
feet of barriers will need to be
recalculated, as necessary.
Keep in mind that 104-18 Inlet
Protection, per each, may
replace some of the bales or
barriers.
117
Selecting Pay Items
100s
101 Mobilization
102 Maintenance of Traffic
103 Temporary Work Struct.
104 Erosion/Sediment Control
109 Engineer’s Field Office
110 Clearing and Grubbing
120 Excavation and Embankment
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
104-11 Floating Turbidity Barrier,
LF
104-12 Staked Turbidity Barrier,
LF
Note that the staked turbidity
barrier differs from the staked
silt fence. While the silt fence is
an open weave fabric, allowing
water to flow through, the
turbidity barrier is made of nylon
reinforced PVC
118
Selecting Pay Items
100s
101 Mobilization
102 Maintenance of Traffic
103 Temporary Work Struct.
104 Erosion/Sediment Control
109 Engineer’s Field Office
110 Clearing and Grubbing
120 Excavation and Embankment
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The field office is included on a
project only when required by
the Construction Office. Note
that this is a field office,
provided by the Contractor, but
used by the FDOT Engineer and
staff. Refer to the CPAM for
additional guidelines.
The size of the office should be
shown in the plans and pay item
number. The specifications
detail the office requirements, as
well as calculation of days.
119
Selecting Pay Items
100s
101 Mobilization
102 Maintenance of Traffic
103 Temporary Work Struct.
104 Erosion/Sediment Control
109 Engineer’s Field Office
110 Clearing and Grubbing
120 Excavation and Embankment
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Most projects will include the
lump sum Clearing and
Grubbing pay item. The
secondary units, per acre, are
used for estimating purposes.
Additional minor pavement
removal, debris removal, and
incidental work may be included
under this item, according to the
specifications.
While the limits and scope of
work are shown in the plans, do
not tabulate the number of acres
in the plans.
Removal of Existing Structure,
item 110-3-, is used when
widening or replacing bridges.
This is also a lump sum item,
with secondary area units.
120
Selecting Pay Items
100s
101 Mobilization
102 Maintenance of Traffic
103 Temporary Work Struct.
104 Erosion/Sediment Control
109 Engineer’s Field Office
110 Clearing and Grubbing
120 Excavation and Embankment
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Chapter 3 of the PPM
addresses earthwork:
•when to use excavation and
embankment items
•when to use each item
•how to calculate the volume
(ground measure or truck
measure)
•and when no additional
payment is provided.
Note that payment for some
items is based on the volume of
the material added or removed,
while other items use a truck
measurement, with adjustments
based on the fill material. Refer
to the specifications for detailed
calculations.
121
Selecting Pay Items
100s
101 Mobilization
102 Maintenance of Traffic
103 Temporary Work Struct.
104 Erosion/Sediment Control
109 Engineer’s Field Office
110 Clearing and Grubbing
120 Excavation and Embankment
121 Flowable Fill
125 Excavation for Structures and Pipe
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Flowable fill is used for
“beddings, encasements,
closure for tanks, pipes, and
general backfill for trenches.”
The material is placed using
concrete construction
equipment- chute, pumping, or
other methods approved by the
engineer.
For most items of work, flowable
fill is incidental to other items of
work: pipe bedding, backfill, and
other encasements.
122
Selecting Pay Items
100s
101 Mobilization
102 Maintenance of Traffic
103 Temporary Work Struct.
104 Erosion/Sediment Control
109 Engineer’s Field Office
110 Clearing and Grubbing
120 Excavation and Embankment
121 Flowable Fill
125 Excavation for Structures and Pipe
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
For many items of work,
payment for excavation is
included in the item being
installed. No direct payment is
provided; payment is included in
the contract price for concrete or
the applicable structure.
123
Selecting Pay Items
100s
101 Mobilization
102 Maintenance of Traffic
103 Temporary Work Struct.
104 Erosion/Sediment Control
109 Engineer’s Field Office
110 Clearing and Grubbing
120 Excavation and Embankment
121 Flowable Fill
125 Excavation for Structures and
Pipe
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The 100s deal with General
Construction Operations,
Clearing the Construction site,
and Earthwork.
When unusual geotechnical
situations are present,
coordinate with the District or
State Geotechnical Engineer.
They will be able to assist with
recommended design solutions,
specifications, and pay items.
Selected items are described in
the Structure Design Guidelines
(SDG), as identified in the
Instructions for Design
Standards.
124
Selecting Pay Items
100s
141 Settlement Plate Assembly
144 Geotechnical
145 Geotechnical Fabrics
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Settlement Plate Assembly is
used when directed by the
District or State Geotechnical
Engineer. Complete technical
specifications will be required,
based on project conditions.
125
Selecting Pay Items
100s
141 Settlement Plate Assembly
144 Geotechnical
145 Geotechnical Fabrics
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The 144 pay items and
specifications should only be
used with guidance from the
District or State Geotechnical
Engineer. Complete Technical
Specifications will be necessary.
126
Selecting Pay Items
100s
141 Settlement Plate Assembly
144 Geotechnical
145 Geotechnical Fabrics
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Selected geotechnical fabrics
are shown on index 501. All
other applications should be
used as directed by the District
or State Geotechnical Engineer.
Note: No separate payment is
made for fabrics used to wrap
pipes or line trenches, such as
French drain. Refer to the
applicable drainage
specifications for these
applications.
127
Selecting Pay Items
100s
141 Settlement Plate Assembly
144 Geotechnical
145 Geotechnical Fabrics
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Looking at the last group of
100s…
Stabilization, subbase, and
reseating existing concrete
pavement are used in
accordance with the pavement
design manuals.
128
Selecting Pay Items
100s
160 Stabilizing
161 Predesigned Subbase
162 Prepared Soil Layer
173 Pressure Grouting
175 Cracking and Reseating Existing
Concrete Pavement
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Type B Stabilization “serves as
a working platform to permit the
efficient construction of the base
material” – per the Flexible
Pavement Design Manual.
Consult this manual for
appropriate use of the pay item.
129
Selecting Pay Items
100s
160 Stabilizing
161 Predesigned Subbase
162 Prepared Soil Layer
173 Pressure Grouting
175 Cracking and Reseating Existing
Concrete Pavement
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Section 161- Predesigned
Subbase is used only for
shoulder and non-traffic areas.
130
Selecting Pay Items
100s
160 Stabilizing
161 Predesigned Subbase
162 Prepared Soil Layer
173 Pressure Grouting
175 Cracking and Reseating Existing
Concrete Pavement
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
There are three commonly used
applications for a prepared soil
layer:
The finish soil layer is used for
areas to be seeded, mulched,
and/or planted: i.e. grass or sod.
An organic soil layer or blanket
material is used only when
required by a permit.
These items are generally NOT
used for Landscape Operations;
landscape bed preparation is
included in the lump sum
payment for installing plants.
Detail all soil requirements in the
landscape plans and/or
specifications.
131
Selecting Pay Items
100s
160 Stabilizing
161 Predesigned Subbase
162 Prepared Soil Layer
173 Pressure Grouting
175 Cracking and Reseating Existing
Concrete Pavement
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Section 173 is to be used for
subsurface applications only.
Due to the technical nature of
this work, coordinate the use of
this item with the State
Geotechnical Engineer in the
Structures Design Office.
132
Selecting Pay Items
100s
160 Stabilizing
161 Predesigned Subbase
162 Prepared Soil Layer
173 Pressure Grouting
175 Cracking and Reseating Existing
Concrete Pavement
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The use of the 175 pay items
should be coordinated with the
District or State Pavement
Design Engineer. In the past,
these items were used to reseat
concrete pavement before
placing asphalt surface. A
review of the subsurface
conditions may be
recommended before selecting
this item of work.
133
Selecting Pay Items
100s
160 Stabilizing
161 Predesigned Subbase
162 Prepared Soil Layer
173 Pressure Grouting
175 Cracking and Reseating Existing
Concrete Pavement
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The 200s deal with Base
Courses.
Most base course designs use
Optional Base.
When needed, reworked
limerock, asphalt treated
permeable base, or Cement
treated permeable base may be
used. Refer to the specifications
and/or Pavement Design
Handbook for additional
information.
134
Selecting Pay Items
200s
204 Graded Aggregate Base
210 Reworking Limerock Base
285 Optional Base
286 Turnout Construction
287 Asphalt Treated Permeable Base
288 Cement Treated Permeable Base
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
While Section 204 exists in the
specifications, payment for work
under this section is included
under Optional Base.
135
Selecting Pay Items
200s
204 Graded Aggregate Base
210 Reworking Limerock Base
285 Optional Base
286 Turnout Construction
287 Asphalt Treated Permeable Base
288 Cement Treated Permeable Base
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Reworking limerock base is
included only when directed by
the District Construction or
Pavement Design Engineer.
Note that two pay items work
together: the first is for the
work/labor described by the
specifications; the second pay
item is for the new material
provided by the contractor.
136
Selecting Pay Items
200s
204 Graded Aggregate Base
210 Reworking Limerock Base
285 Optional Base
286 Turnout Construction
287 Asphalt Treated Permeable Base
288 Cement Treated Permeable Base
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Optional Base is a plan quantity
item, paid per square yard.
Note that the thickness required
varies with the base material
selected by the Contractor. The
required thickness is shown on
Index 514 of the Design
Standards.
Base options may be limited,
according to guidance in the
Plans Preparation Manual.
137
Selecting Pay Items
200s
204 Graded Aggregate Base
210 Reworking Limerock Base
285 Optional Base
286 Turnout Construction
287 Asphalt Treated Permeable Base
288 Cement Treated Permeable Base
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The Turnout construction items
are for constructing the base
portion of the turnout area on
widening or resurfacing projects,
as shown on index 516.
The asphalt pavement and
friction course are paid
separately.
138
Selecting Pay Items
200s
204 Graded Aggregate Base
210 Reworking Limerock Base
285 Optional Base
286 Turnout Construction
287 Asphalt Treated Permeable Base
288 Cement Treated Permeable Base
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Asphalt and Cement Treated
Permeable Base are
constructed in accordance with
Index 287. Note that payment
for new construction may be
different for rehabilitation work.
Additional subdrainage items
may be necessary, based on
project conditions.
139
Selecting Pay Items
200s
204 Graded Aggregate Base
210 Reworking Limerock Base
285 Optional Base
286 Turnout Construction
287 Asphalt Treated Permeable Base
288 Cement Treated Permeable Base
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The first part of the 300s deal
with Bituminous Treatment
Surface Courses (Asphalt).
The specifications include
several sections with no pay
items; these sections include
material and construction
requirements. Payment for
these items is included in the
asphalt material quantities.
140
Selecting Pay Items
300s
315 Stress Absorbing Membrane
327 Milling
334 Superpave Asphalt Concrete
337 Friction Course
339 Miscellaneous Asphalt Pavement
341 Asphalt Rubber Membrane
Interlayer
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The remaining sections within
the 300s are for concrete
pavement and approach slabs.
141
Selecting Pay Items
300s
346, 347 Concrete Requirements
350 Cement Concrete Pavement
352 Grinding Concrete Pavement
353 Concrete Pavement Slab
Replacement
370 Bridge Approach Expansion Joints
(for concrete pavement)
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Looking at the individual
sections within the 300s:
Section 315 is infrequently used;
designers should contact the
State Pavement Design Office
when considering this item.
142
Selecting Pay Items
300s
315 Stress Absorbing Membrane
327 Milling
334 Superpave Asphalt Concrete
337 Friction Course
339 Miscellaneous Asphalt Pavement
341 Asphalt Rubber Membrane
Interlayer
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Milling is frequently used to
remove existing asphalt
pavement. Milling can also be
used to improve ridability and
cross slope of the finished
pavement. The amount of
material milled- the depth, must
be shown in the plans.
The contractor takes ownership
of the milled material, and may
transport it to the asphalt plant
for future recycling.
143
Selecting Pay Items
300s
315 Stress Absorbing Membrane
327 Milling
334 Superpave Asphalt Concrete
337 Friction Course
339 Miscellaneous Asphalt Pavement
341 Asphalt Rubber Membrane
Interlayer
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Superpave is the primary
material used for most asphalt
roadways.
The superpave pay items are
selected based on the traffic
level. These levels vary from A
(low traffic level- quiet rural
roads) to E (high traffic levelbusy interstate). Levels C and D
are used most frequently.
While the quantity measurement
of the superpave is made per
ton, a pay adjustment will be
applied, based on the quality of
the asphalt. Details for
measurement and payment are
included in the specification.
144
Selecting Pay Items
300s
315 Stress Absorbing Membrane
327 Milling
334 Superpave Asphalt Concrete
337 Friction Course
339 Miscellaneous Asphalt Pavement
341 Asphalt Rubber Membrane
Interlayer
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The friction course items are
measured and paid similar to
the superpave. Quantity
measurement is made per ton
and a pay adjustment will be
applied, based on the quality of
the friction courses.
145
Selecting Pay Items
300s
315 Stress Absorbing Membrane
327 Milling
334 Superpave Asphalt Concrete
337 Friction Course
339 Miscellaneous Asphalt Pavement
341 Asphalt Rubber Membrane
Interlayer
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Two items of note for Asphalt:
First: several binder options are
available for both the Superpave
and Friction Course options.
Selection of the binder should
be in accordance with the
flexible pavement manual, or as
directed by the District
Pavement Design Office.
Second, “Warranty” options are
available for some asphalt/
resurfacing contracts. These
options balance material and
performance requirements over
extended periods of time. Refer
to the various types of
innovative contracts for
additional details. These options
should only be included when
directed by the District Design or
Construction Office.
146
Selecting Pay Items
300s
315 Stress Absorbing Membrane
327 Milling
334 Superpave Asphalt Concrete
337 Friction Course
339 Miscellaneous Asphalt Pavement
341 Asphalt Rubber Membrane
Interlayer
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Miscellaneous Asphalt is used
“where vehicular traffic does not
travel, such as under guardrail,
bicycle paths, median
pavement, sidewalks, etc.”
Estimated quantities, per the
specification, are based on 100
lbs/square yard, per inch of
thickness.
147
Selecting Pay Items
300s
315 Stress Absorbing Membrane
327 Milling
334 Superpave Asphalt Concrete
337 Friction Course
339 Miscellaneous Asphalt Pavement
341 Asphalt Rubber Membrane
Interlayer
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
According to the Flexible
Pavement Design Manual, an
asphalt rubber membrane
interlayer, ARMI, “should
normally be used over cracked
and reseated concrete
pavement. An ARMI may also
be useful as a moisture barrier if
subgrade moisture is entering
the pavement system through
capillary action and causing a
rippling of the asphalt surface.”
148
Selecting Pay Items
300s
315 Stress Absorbing Membrane
327 Milling
334 Superpave Asphalt Concrete
337 Friction Course
339 Miscellaneous Asphalt Pavement
341 Asphalt Rubber Membrane
Interlayer
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Sections 346 and 347 detail the
concrete requirements for
various classes of structural and
non-structural concrete. No
direct payment is made under
these sections. The concrete
material is paid according to the
application: bridge structures,
sidewalk, inlets, etc.
149
Selecting Pay Items
300s
346, 347 Concrete Requirements
350 Cement Concrete Pavement
352 Grinding Concrete Pavement
353 Concrete Pavement Slab
Replacement
370 Bridge Approach Expansion Joints
(for concrete pavement)
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Section 350 is for cement
concrete pavement only. The
pay items associated with this
section should not be used for
concrete structures, approach
slabs, or other miscellaneous
work.
150
Selecting Pay Items
300s
346, 347 Concrete Requirements
350 Cement Concrete Pavement
352 Grinding Concrete Pavement
353 Concrete Pavement Slab
Replacement
370 Bridge Approach Expansion Joints
(for concrete pavement)
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Section 352 is applicable only
for grinding concrete pavement.
It is not applicable for bridge
decks or approach slabs.
Grinding is now required for all
new concrete pavement, in
addition to specified existing
concrete pavement. Payment
will be made for all areas to be
ground.
151
Selecting Pay Items
300s
346, 347 Concrete Requirements
350 Cement Concrete Pavement
352 Grinding Concrete Pavement
353 Concrete Pavement Slab
Replacement
370 Bridge Approach Expansion Joints
(for concrete pavement)
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Section 353 is used to replace
complete slabs of concrete
pavement. Joint construction is
included in the payment for the
slab.
These items are not applicable
for non-pavement areas such as
bus pads, approach slabs, etc.
152
Selecting Pay Items
300s
346, 347 Concrete Requirements
350 Cement Concrete Pavement
352 Grinding Concrete Pavement
353 Concrete Pavement Slab
Replacement
370 Bridge Approach Expansion Joints
(for concrete pavement)
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Section 370 is applicable only
where concrete pavement
meets a bridge approach slab.
For expansion joints on a
bridge, refer to the applicable
items in Section 458.
153
Selecting Pay Items
300s
346, 347 Concrete Requirements
350 Cement Concrete Pavement
352 Grinding Concrete Pavement
353 Concrete Pavement Slab
Replacement
370 Bridge Approach Expansion
Joints (for concrete pavement)
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
There are a number of sections
associated with the Structures
group.
The sections address concrete
placement, reinforcement, …
154
Selecting Pay Items
400s
400 Concrete Structures
407 Three Sided Precast Culvert
410 Precast Concrete Box Culvert
411-413 Cracks in Structures
415 Reinforcing Steel
416 Anchors and Dowels
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
drainage structures, …
Selecting Pay Items
400s
425 Inlets, Manholes, and Junction
Boxes
430 Pipe Culvers and Storm Sewers
431 Pipe Liner
435 Plate Pipe & Arch Culverts
436 Trench Drains
440 Underdrains
443 French Drains
444 Deep Drainage Wells
449 Precast Concrete Drainage
Products
155
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
precast and prestressed
construction, …
Selecting Pay Items
400s
450 Precast Prestressed Concrete
Construction
451 Prestressed Soil Anchors
452 Precast Segmental Bridge
Construction
156
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
foundations, …
Selecting Pay Items
400s
453 Epoxy Joints- Precast Segment
455 Structures Foundations
457 Integral Pile Jackets
458 Bridge Deck Joints
459 Bitumen Coating and Polyethylene
Sheeting on Concrete Piles
157
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
movable bridges, and timber.
Selecting Pay Items
400s
460 Str Steel & Misc Metals
461 Multirotational Bearings
462 Post-Tensioning
465 Movable Bridge
470 Timber Structures
471 Fender System
158
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Looking at the individual
sections…
Section 400 addresses the
construction of concrete
structures.
Culverts, endwalls,
superstructures, substructures,
and approach slabs are paid per
cubic yard of concrete,
according to the class of
concrete specified in the plans,
design standards, or
specifications.
For other concrete items, the
designer should verify pay items
and units of measure with the
specifications or design
standards.
159
Selecting Pay Items
400s
400 Concrete Structures
407 Three Sided Precast Culvert
410 Precast Concrete Box Culvert
411-413 Cracks in Structures
415 Reinforcing Steel
416 Anchors and Dowels
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Sections 407 and 410 address 3
and 4 sided precast culverts.
The 3-sided precast culvert is
paid per length. Variables
included with the pay item
account for the span and height.
(Do not adjust the length to
account for multiple barrels.)
The 4 sided precast box culvert
is paid by concrete and steel
quantities. The precast box
culvert may be used in lieu of
cast-in-place culverts, subject to
the specification requirements.
160
Selecting Pay Items
400s
400 Concrete Structures
407 Three Sided Precast Culvert
410 Precast Concrete Box Culvert
411-413 Cracks in Structures
415 Reinforcing Steel
416 Anchors and Dowels
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Sections 411 through 413
address the methods and
materials for repairing various
cracks in existing structures.
For precast, prestressed items,
payment for sealer is included in
the precast item.
For cast-in-place surfaces to be
sealed, payment is made per
gallon of sealer. Note that Class
5 coatings are paid under
section 400 items.
161
Selecting Pay Items
400s
400 Concrete Structures
407 Three Sided Precast Culvert
410 Precast Concrete Box Culvert
411-413 Cracks in Structures
415 Reinforcing Steel
416 Anchors and Dowels
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Reinforcing steel is paid per
pound for most structures.
Example: superstructure,
substructure, bulkhead,
approach slabs, box culverts
When reinforcement is included,
per standard or specification, no
separate payment is made.
Example: endwalls, traffic
separators,slabs around pull
boxes, light pole foundations
Read the applicable specs and
standards.
162
Selecting Pay Items
400s
400 Concrete Structures
407 Three Sided Precast Culvert
410 Precast Concrete Box Culvert
411-413 Cracks in Structures
415 Reinforcing Steel
416 Anchors and Dowels
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Section 416 addresses anchors
and dowels used for structural
applications, including traffic
railing barrier applications.
There is no separate payment
for the work described in this
section. All work is incidental to
the applicable structural item(s).
163
Selecting Pay Items
400s
400 Concrete Structures
407 Three Sided Precast Culvert
410 Precast Concrete Box Culvert
411-413 Cracks in Structures
415 Reinforcing Steel
416 Anchors and Dowels
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
There are many types of inlets,
manholes, and junction boxes.
Refer to the Design Standards
for the correct type for each
location.
When minor changes to a
standard are needed, detail the
change in the plans and use the
pay item that corresponds to the
standard.
The “Special” pay item should
only be used when the design
standards are not applicable.
Complete designs, including
reinforcement details, are
required in the plans.
164
Selecting Pay Items
400s
425 Inlets, Manholes, and Junction
Boxes
430 Pipe Culvers and Storm Sewers
431 Pipe Liner
435 Plate Pipe & Arch Culverts
436 Trench Drains
440 Underdrains
443 French Drains
444 Deep Drainage Wells
449 Precast Concrete Drainage
Products
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Section 430 details the materials
and installation requirements for
drainage pipe and end sections.
Drainage pipe is paid according
to plan quantity.
For JPA utility applications, refer
to the utility items in the 1000s
group.
165
Selecting Pay Items
400s
425 Inlets, Manholes, and Junction
Boxes
430 Pipe Culvers and Storm Sewers
431 Pipe Liner
435 Plate Pipe & Arch Culverts
436 Trench Drains
440 Underdrains
443 French Drains
444 Deep Drainage Wells
449 Precast Concrete Drainage
Products
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Pipe liner is used to rehabilitate
an existing pipe. Normally, pipe
liner is installed from one
drainage structure to another,
along an entire length of pipe.
Designers should coordinate
with the State Drainage Office
prior to using any partial length
or sectional liners, as a full
length liner or pipe replacement
may be more cost effective.
In addition to showing the pipe
length and location in the plans,
the contract documents must
include the allowable materials
and/or material requirements.
166
Selecting Pay Items
400s
425 Inlets, Manholes, and Junction
Boxes
430 Pipe Culvers and Storm Sewers
431 Pipe Liner
435 Plate Pipe & Arch Culverts
436 Trench Drains
440 Underdrains
443 French Drains
444 Deep Drainage Wells
449 Precast Concrete Drainage
Products
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Plate pipe and pipe arch
culverts are installed similarly to
optional pipe of Section 430.
Measurement and payment are
also by plan quantity.
If coatings are required, a note
should be included in the plans.
Bituminous coating materials
are specified in Section 944.
Other coating materials may
require a tech spec. Payment for
coatings are included in the
culvert.
167
Selecting Pay Items
400s
425 Inlets, Manholes, and Junction
Boxes
430 Pipe Culvers and Storm Sewers
431 Pipe Liner
435 Plate Pipe & Arch Culverts
436 Trench Drains
440 Underdrains
443 French Drains
444 Deep Drainage Wells
449 Precast Concrete Drainage
Products
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Trench drain is installed in
accordance with Index 206, for
use in gutters and driveways.
Payment is made per plan
quantity, and includes pipe,
concrete backfilling, outlet pipe,
and grate.
168
Selecting Pay Items
400s
425 Inlets, Manholes, and Junction
Boxes
430 Pipe Culvers and Storm Sewers
431 Pipe Liner
435 Plate Pipe & Arch Culverts
436 Trench Drains
440 Underdrains
443 French Drains
444 Deep Drainage Wells
449 Precast Concrete Drainage
Products
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Unlike many other drainage
items, Underdrain is measured
in place for payment.
The pipe, fittings, aggregate,
filter fabric, and incidentals are
included in the linear foot
payment. Additional details are
included in the design
standards, index 286.
169
Selecting Pay Items
400s
425 Inlets, Manholes, and Junction
Boxes
430 Pipe Culvers and Storm Sewers
431 Pipe Liner
435 Plate Pipe & Arch Culverts
436 Trench Drains
440 Underdrains
443 French Drains
444 Deep Drainage Wells
449 Precast Concrete Drainage
Products
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
French drain is installed in
accordance with the Drainage
Manual. Note that all French
drain should be paid with the
443 pay items, rather than the
component materials for pipe,
filter fabric, and rock.
170
Selecting Pay Items
400s
425 Inlets, Manholes, and Junction
Boxes
430 Pipe Culvers and Storm Sewers
431 Pipe Liner
435 Plate Pipe & Arch Culverts
436 Trench Drains
440 Underdrains
443 French Drains
444 Deep Drainage Wells
449 Precast Concrete Drainage
Products
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Drainage wells for roadway
drainage applications are used
infrequently; project specific
technical specifications will be
required.
For Roadway or Landscapingirrigation operations, refer to the
730 items.
171
Selecting Pay Items
400s
425 Inlets, Manholes, and Junction
Boxes
430 Pipe Culvers and Storm Sewers
431 Pipe Liner
435 Plate Pipe & Arch Culverts
436 Trench Drains
440 Underdrains
443 French Drains
444 Deep Drainage Wells
449 Precast Concrete Drainage
Products
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Section 449 details
requirements for precast
concrete drainage products.
Payment is incidental to the
various items of work, under
other sections.
172
Selecting Pay Items
400s
425 Inlets, Manholes, and Junction
Boxes
430 Pipe Culvers and Storm Sewers
431 Pipe Liner
435 Plate Pipe & Arch Culverts
436 Trench Drains
440 Underdrains
443 French Drains
444 Deep Drainage Wells
449 Precast Concrete Drainage
Products
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Precast items described in
sections 450, 451, and 451
should be coordinated with the
design standards. Note that pay
item guidance is provided in the
instructions for design
standards, according to the
applicable index.
173
Selecting Pay Items
400s
450 Precast Prestressed Concrete
Construction
451 Prestressed Soil Anchors
452 Precast Segmental Bridge
Construction
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Separate payment for soil
anchors is only for permanent
applications.
Payment for anchors used with
temporary walls is included in
the price of the temporary wall.
174
Selecting Pay Items
400s
450 Precast Prestressed Concrete
Construction
451 Prestressed Soil Anchors
452 Precast Segmental Bridge
Construction
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The 452 pay item is intended to
cover the set-up costs for a
segmental casting yard. It is
required for all Segmental
Bridge projects. Coordinate with
the District Structures Design
Office, as needed, with this item.
175
Selecting Pay Items
400s
450 Precast Prestressed Concrete
Construction
451 Prestressed Soil Anchors
452 Precast Segmental Bridge
Construction
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Per the specification, “this
Section applies to precast
segmental structures with
multiple shear joints in webs and
joints with suitable shear keys in
precast substructure segments.”
There is no separate payment
for the work completed under
this section; it is included under
the precast item(s).
176
Selecting Pay Items
400s
453 Epoxy Joints- Precast Segment
455 Structures Foundations
457 Integral Pile Jackets
458 Bridge Deck Joints
459 Bitumen Coating and Polyethylene
Sheeting on Concrete Piles
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Section 455 is an extensive
section dealing with piling,
drilled shafts, spread footings,
and auger cast piles.
Note that foundations for some
lighting and mast arm structures
are required to meet the
foundation requirements of
Section 455. However, no
separate payment is made for
the foundation; payment is
incidental to the item being
installed.
177
Selecting Pay Items
400s
453 Epoxy Joints- Precast Segment
455 Structures Foundations
457 Integral Pile Jackets
458 Bridge Deck Joints
459 Bitumen Coating and Polyethylene
Sheeting on Concrete Piles
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
CSL tubes: While Crosshole
Song Logging tubes are placed
in all drilled shafts, the CLS
testing pay item is only used for
non-redundant bridges
structures, for drilled shafts
identified in the plans. The CSL
testing pay item is NOT used for
miscellaneous structures such
as mast arms or high mast
lighting.
Refer to the BOE or
specification for details on
additional testing, when defects
are suspected.
178
Selecting Pay Items
400s
453 Epoxy Joints- Precast Segment
455 Structures Foundations
457 Integral Pile Jackets
458 Bridge Deck Joints
459 Bitumen Coating and Polyethylene
Sheeting on Concrete Piles
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Integral pile jackets are used to
protect piles in extreme
environments. Due to the
variable conditions, coordination
with the State Materials Office is
recommended during early
plans development.
The pay items are normally
used for rehabilitation projects.
Corrosion experts in the State
Materials Office will assist with
the appropriate pay item
number(s).
179
Selecting Pay Items
400s
453 Epoxy Joints- Precast Segment
455 Structures Foundations
457 Integral Pile Jackets
458 Bridge Deck Joints
459 Bitumen Coating and Polyethylene
Sheeting on Concrete Piles
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
There are several types of
bridge joints described in the
458 specification, including
poured- with and without backer
rod, and strip seals.
Additional types of products are
available, but will require
Technical Special Provisions for
both the material and installation
requirements.
All items should be used in
accordance with the design
standards.
180
Selecting Pay Items
400s
453 Epoxy Joints- Precast Segment
455 Structures Foundations
457 Integral Pile Jackets
458 Bridge Deck Joints
459 Bitumen Coating and Polyethylene
Sheeting on Concrete Piles
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Guidance on the use of this item
is included in the Soils and
Foundations Handbook.
Note that the area for payment
of polyethylene sheeting is
based on the area of the pile
wrapped, not the quantity of
material applied (area x layers).
181
Selecting Pay Items
400s
453 Epoxy Joints- Precast Segment
455 Structures Foundations
457 Integral Pile Jackets
458 Bridge Deck Joints
459 Bitumen Coating and
Polyethylene Sheeting on Concrete
Piles
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The 500s include a wide range
of incidental construction.
Sections include filter fabric, …
182
Selecting Pay Items
500s
502 Shear Connectors
504 Steel Grid Floors
506 Bridge Drainage System
510 Navigation Lights- Fixed bridges
514 Plastic Filter Fabric
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
barriers, sidewalk, curbs, …
Selecting Pay Items
500s
520 Gutter, Curb, Traffic Separator
521 Barriers, Railing, Parapets
522 Sidewalk
523 Patterned/Textured Pavement
524 Ditch & Slope Pavement
525 Asphalt Curb
526 Architectural Pavers
527 Detectable Warnings
183
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
sound barriers, guardrail,
retaining walls, fencing, …
Selecting Pay Items
500s
530 Riprap
534 Sound Barriers
536 Guardrail
538 Resetting Guardrail
540 High Tension Cable Barrier
544 Crash Cushions
546 Rumble Strips
548 Retaining Wall Systems
550 Fencing
184
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
conduit installation, painting,
coatings,…
Selecting Pay Items
500s
555 Directional Bore
556 Jack & Bore
557 Vibratory Plowing
560 Painting Structural Steel
561 Painting Structural Steel- Rehab
562 Galvanized Surfaces
563 Anti-Graffiti Coating Systems
185
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
turf, and landscape.
Selecting Pay Items
500s
570 Performance Turf
571 Plastic Erosion Mat
580 Landscape Installation
186
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Looking now at the individual
sections within the 500s…
Section 502 details the
requirements for shear
connectors.
No separate payment is made
for the 502 work; payment is
incidental to Section 460
structural steel.
187
Selecting Pay Items
500s
502 Shear Connectors
504 Steel Grid Floors
506 Bridge Drainage System
510 Navigation Lights- Fixed bridges
514 Plastic Filter Fabric
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Steel grid floors are used for
roadway and sidewalk floors on
the movable spans of bridges.
Payment for the steel grid floors
is made per square foot of the
plan quantity area, and includes
paint, filling (as called for in the
plans), and welding.
188
Selecting Pay Items
500s
502 Shear Connectors
504 Steel Grid Floors
506 Bridge Drainage System
510 Navigation Lights- Fixed bridges
514 Plastic Filter Fabric
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Bridge drainage systems are
paid per length of pipes and
number of drains. All material
requirements must be included
in the plans or specifications.
The bridge drainage system is
currently paid per drain, as well
as the length of drainage piping.
As necessary, coordinate with
the District or State Drainage
Office for drainage
requirements.
189
Selecting Pay Items
500s
502 Shear Connectors
504 Steel Grid Floors
506 Bridge Drainage System
510 Navigation Lights- Fixed bridges
514 Plastic Filter Fabric
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Note that Section 510 is
applicable only to fixed bridges.
Movable bridges should refer to
Section 465.
The Navigation Light system
must be completely detailed in
the plans. Remember to include
material requirements, as well
as installation and/or
performance requirements.
Payment is by lump sum.
190
Selecting Pay Items
500s
502 Shear Connectors
504 Steel Grid Floors
506 Bridge Drainage System
510 Navigation Lights- Fixed bridges
514 Plastic Filter Fabric
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Plastic filter fabric has several
different applications: drainage,
stabilization, and riprap. Refer to
the applicable standards and
specifications to determine if
separate payment is made for
this item.
191
Selecting Pay Items
500s
502 Shear Connectors
504 Steel Grid Floors
506 Bridge Drainage System
510 Navigation Lights- Fixed bridges
514 Plastic Filter Fabric
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
All payment quantities in this
section are based on the plan
quantity, and include the
concrete, reinforcing steel,
joints, and finishing.
Refer to the Design Standards
for valid types of each item.
192
Selecting Pay Items
500s
520 Gutter, Curb, Traffic Separator
521 Barriers, Railing, Parapets
522 Sidewalk
523 Patterned/Textured Pavement
524 Ditch & Slope Pavement
525 Asphalt Curb
526 Architectural Pavers
527 Detectable Warnings
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Barrier walls described in
Section 521 and the Design
Standards are paid according to
the plan quantity measurement.
Removal of barrier walls from
bridges should be included in
the Removal of Existing
Structures pay item.
Removal of barrier walls from
the roadway may be included
under clearing and grubbing, or
paid separately for removal, per
length.
193
Selecting Pay Items
500s
520 Gutter, Curb, Traffic Separator
521 Barriers, Railing, Parapets
522 Sidewalk
523 Patterned/Textured Pavement
524 Ditch & Slope Pavement
525 Asphalt Curb
526 Architectural Pavers
527 Detectable Warnings
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Sidewalks are normally installed
with 4” or 6” thickness,
according to the standards. The
6” sidewalk is used where
driveways cross the sidewalk
path.
Payment for new sidewalk
includes the installation of
detectable warnings at curb
ramps, in accordance with
Section 527.
194
Selecting Pay Items
500s
520 Gutter, Curb, Traffic Separator
521 Barriers, Railing, Parapets
522 Sidewalk
523 Patterned/Textured Pavement
524 Ditch & Slope Pavement
525 Asphalt Curb
526 Architectural Pavers
527 Detectable Warnings
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Pay Items for Bus Bay/Boarding
Pad and Bus Shelter Pad are
also available within the
Sidewalk section. Note that the
Bus Bay pay item is only used
for the roadway portion of a bus
pad.
The Bus Shelter Pad pay item is
only used when a shelter area is
to be included. (Graphic
request: bay, pad, and shelter,
with or without bus)
For both items, remember to
include concrete requirements,
reinforcement, joint, and other
details in the contract
documents.
195
Selecting Pay Items
500s
520 Gutter, Curb, Traffic Separator
521 Barriers, Railing, Parapets
522 Sidewalk
523 Patterned/Textured Pavement
524 Ditch & Slope Pavement
525 Asphalt Curb
526 Architectural Pavers
527 Detectable Warnings
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Section 523 details patterned /
textured pavement for both
concrete and asphalt
applications.
Designers should refer to the
latest PPM guidance prior to
including this item of work on a
project.
196
Selecting Pay Items
500s
520 Gutter, Curb, Traffic Separator
521 Barriers, Railing, Parapets
522 Sidewalk
523 Patterned/Textured Pavement
524 Ditch & Slope Pavement
525 Asphalt Curb
526 Architectural Pavers
527 Detectable Warnings
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Ditch and slope pavement are
detailed in Section 524. The
work includes payment for
earthwork, filter fabric, and
skimmers, according to the
specs and standards.
Per the specification, “The
square yard quantity includes
any ditch blocks with ditch or
slope pavement on top.”
When concrete core ditch blocks
are used without ditch or slope
pavement, separate payment is
made for the concrete. “The
cubic yard pay item includes any
ditch block within a grass or
earth ditch, without other
pavement on top.”
197
Selecting Pay Items
500s
520 Gutter, Curb, Traffic Separator
521 Barriers, Railing, Parapets
522 Sidewalk
523 Patterned/Textured Pavement
524 Ditch & Slope Pavement
525 Asphalt Curb
526 Architectural Pavers
527 Detectable Warnings
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Section 525 details Asphalt
Curb. Not that payment for this
section is for permanent asphalt
curb applications only.
Payment for temporary asphalt
separator is included under
Maintenance of Traffic.
198
Selecting Pay Items
500s
520 Gutter, Curb, Traffic Separator
521 Barriers, Railing, Parapets
522 Sidewalk
523 Patterned/Textured Pavement
524 Ditch & Slope Pavement
525 Asphalt Curb
526 Architectural Pavers
527 Detectable Warnings
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Architectural pavers are used for
both roadway and sidewalk
applications. Refer to the PPM
for guidance on acceptable
applications for pavers.
Payment is made per area, with
no deduction for manholes or
utility structures within the
normal area.
199
Selecting Pay Items
500s
520 Gutter, Curb, Traffic Separator
521 Barriers, Railing, Parapets
522 Sidewalk
523 Patterned/Textured Pavement
524 Ditch & Slope Pavement
525 Asphalt Curb
526 Architectural Pavers
527 Detectable Warnings
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Detectable warnings are the
“bumps” used to warn persons
of the curb ahead. They must
meet ADA requirements.
When installed on new concrete
or asphalt surfaces, the
detectable warning is included in
the cost of the sidewalk or
pedestrian walkway.
Separate payment for the
detectable warnings is made
only when installed on existing
surfaces. Note: existing is
defined as in-place prior to the
contract.
200
Selecting Pay Items
500s
520 Gutter, Curb, Traffic Separator
521 Barriers, Railing, Parapets
522 Sidewalk
523 Patterned/Textured Pavement
524 Ditch & Slope Pavement
525 Asphalt Curb
526 Architectural Pavers
527 Detectable Warnings
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Riprap materials are used to
protect slopes from erosion. The
Drainage Manual provides
guidance on material selection,
based on location and water
flow velocity.
Measurement and payment of
riprap materials varies from
cubic yard measurement for
sand-cement, to Ton
measurement for rubble or
stone. Per the specifications, the
weight may be determined by
railroad weight, truck weight, or
barge displacement.
201
Selecting Pay Items
500s
530 Riprap
534 Sound Barriers
536 Guardrail
538 Resetting Guardrail
540 High Tension Cable Barrier
544 Crash Cushions
546 Rumble Strips
548 Retaining Wall Systems
550 Fencing
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Section 534 sound barriers are
paid by plan quantity, per square
foot. Measurement, per the
specification, is from the top to
bottom of the panel, along the
length shown in the plans. The
cost of the foundation is
included in the payment.
Anti-graffiti or other coatings are
paid separately.
202
Selecting Pay Items
500s
530 Riprap
534 Sound Barriers
536 Guardrail
538 Resetting Guardrail
540 High Tension Cable Barrier
544 Crash Cushions
546 Rumble Strips
548 Retaining Wall Systems
550 Fencing
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Guardrail is normally paid as a
length or “run”, with separate
payment for the end anchorage
assembly. Refer to the design
standards for limits of payment.
Posts, blocks, rubrail, nested
panels, and pipe rail are
included in the payment length.
Do not double the length for
double face guardrail. Payment
is based on the centerline
length.
203
Selecting Pay Items
500s
530 Riprap
534 Sound Barriers
536 Guardrail
538 Resetting Guardrail
540 High Tension Cable Barrier
544 Crash Cushions
546 Rumble Strips
548 Retaining Wall Systems
550 Fencing
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
When the guardrail removal pay
item is used, detail whether the
materials should be stockpiled,
delivered to a maintenance
yard, or disposed of by the
contractor.
Do not use the removal item for
guardrail that is to be reset
within the same project or
contract. Refer to Section 538
for resetting.
204
Selecting Pay Items
500s
530 Riprap
534 Sound Barriers
536 Guardrail
538 Resetting Guardrail
540 High Tension Cable Barrier
544 Crash Cushions
546 Rumble Strips
548 Retaining Wall Systems
550 Fencing
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Resetting guardrail includes the
removal and placement of
guardrail. The contractor will
provide new offset blocks and
hardware.
Panels or posts damaged by the
contractor will be replaced at no
additional cost.
Non-salvagable or additional
new panels needed will be paid
per length, according to the
specification.
205
Selecting Pay Items
500s
530 Riprap
534 Sound Barriers
536 Guardrail
538 Resetting Guardrail
540 High Tension Cable Barrier
544 Crash Cushions
546 Rumble Strips
548 Retaining Wall Systems
550 Fencing
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The specifications and
standards for High Tension
Cable Barrier are currently
under development. Contact the
monitor in the State Roadway
Design Office for the latest
guidance.
206
Selecting Pay Items
500s
530 Riprap
534 Sound Barriers
536 Guardrail
538 Resetting Guardrail
540 High Tension Cable Barrier
544 Crash Cushions
546 Rumble Strips
548 Retaining Wall Systems
550 Fencing
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Formerly called Impact
Attenuators, Crash Cushions
are commonly used at the
approach of guardrail or
concrete barrier walls. Index 430
of the Design standards
provides guidance on the
products available for various
applications
An Optional pay item is
available, subject to the limits
shown on Index 430. While the
designer may select a specific
brand, “the reasons for
restricting to a specific brand
must be documented in the
project design file.”
207
Selecting Pay Items
500s
530 Riprap
534 Sound Barriers
536 Guardrail
538 Resetting Guardrail
540 High Tension Cable Barrier
544 Crash Cushions
546 Rumble Strips
548 Retaining Wall Systems
550 Fencing
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Refer to the PPM, Vol 1,
Chapter 4, for complete
information on the selection of
crash cushions.
208
Selecting Pay Items
500s
530 Riprap
534 Sound Barriers
536 Guardrail
538 Resetting Guardrail
540 High Tension Cable Barrier
544 Crash Cushions
546 Rumble Strips
548 Retaining Wall Systems
550 Fencing
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The Rumble Strips section
includes both raised and
ground-in types.
Raised strip sets may be either
thermoplastic or asphalt,
installed on the roadway or
paved shoulder. Payment is
made per set.
Ground-in strips are installed
along the shoulder. Plan
quantity payment is made per
mile, excluding any bridge
lengths.
209
Selecting Pay Items
500s
530 Riprap
534 Sound Barriers
536 Guardrail
538 Resetting Guardrail
540 High Tension Cable Barrier
544 Crash Cushions
546 Rumble Strips
548 Retaining Wall Systems
550 Fencing
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Retaining wall systems include a
variety of proprietary products
listed on the Qualified Products
List (QPL).
Payment for these wall systems
is based on the plan quantity of
the wall, as described in the
specifications.
Retaining wall systems are often
detailed with separate
component plans. The pay items
should be loaded with the
roadway pay items, even when
attached to a structure.
210
Selecting Pay Items
500s
530 Riprap
534 Sound Barriers
536 Guardrail
538 Resetting Guardrail
540 High Tension Cable Barrier
544 Crash Cushions
546 Rumble Strips
548 Retaining Wall Systems
550 Fencing
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Most fencing is either Type A
“wire fabric farm fence”, Type B
“chain link”, or Type R “bridge
fencing”.
Special Type fencing should
only be used for wood or plastic
“decorative” fencing. Detail
material requirements in the
plans or specs.
Feature options include barbed
wire, full or partial enclosure, or
vinyl coating. Special features
need to be detailed in the
specifications or plans. Material
requirements may be needed in
the plans or specifications.
211
Selecting Pay Items
500s
530 Riprap
534 Sound Barriers
536 Guardrail
538 Resetting Guardrail
540 High Tension Cable Barrier
544 Crash Cushions
546 Rumble Strips
548 Retaining Wall Systems
550 Fencing
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Directional Bore, Jack & Bore,
and Vibratory Plowing are
methods used to install cable
and/or conduit.
Payment for Installation includes
the outer conduit materials or
“sleeve”, as detailed in the
plans. The inner “content” is
paid separately, under the
appropriate items for cable
and/or conduit.
212
Selecting Pay Items
500s
555 Directional Bore
556 Jack & Bore
557 Vibratory Plowing
560 Painting Structural Steel
561 Painting Structural Steel- Rehab
562 Galvanized Surfaces
563 Anti-Graffiti Coating Systems
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Sections 560 and 561 detail
painting and coating
requirements for structural steel.
Section 560 addresses new
steel. Payment for this work is
included in the price per pound
for the structural steel item.
Section 561 addresses
rehabilitation painting or coating
of existing structural steel.
Lump Sum payment includes all
work detailed in the plans and
specifications.
213
Selecting Pay Items
500s
555 Directional Bore
556 Jack & Bore
557 Vibratory Plowing
560 Painting Structural Steel
561 Painting Structural Steel- Rehab
562 Galvanized Surfaces
563 Anti-Graffiti Coating Systems
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Section 562 addresses the
repair of galvanized surfaces.
Payment is included in the item
being treated or repaired.
214
Selecting Pay Items
500s
555 Directional Bore
556 Jack & Bore
557 Vibratory Plowing
560 Painting Structural Steel
561 Painting Structural Steel- Rehab
562 Galvanized Surfaces
563 Anti-Graffiti Coating Systems
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Anti-graffiti coating systems
include both sacrificial and nonsacrificial materials. These items
should be coordinated with the
District Maintenance Office.
Measurement is made per
square foot, based on the plan
quantity of the projected area;
no allowance is made for
surface texture.
215
Selecting Pay Items
500s
555 Directional Bore
556 Jack & Bore
557 Vibratory Plowing
560 Painting Structural Steel
561 Painting Structural Steel- Rehab
562 Galvanized Surfaces
563 Anti-Graffiti Coating Systems
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Performance Turf includes both
grassing and sodding. All
mowing, watering, and other
incidentals are included in the
payment for turf.
While the designer may call for
sod in selected locations, the
contractor should be given the
turf option (seed, sod, or other
methods) whenever possible.
216
Selecting Pay Items
500s
570 Performance Turf
571 Plastic Erosion Mat
580 Landscape Installation
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Section 571 details
requirements for plastic erosion
mats (turf reinforcement mat),
as shown in the standards, and
used with Performance Turf.
Payment is made per area, with
no allowance for overlaps.
Do not use this pay item for
other materials or special
erosion “mats”. Refer to the
specs or BOE for drainage &
erosion transition mats.
217
Selecting Pay Items
500s
570 Performance Turf
571 Plastic Erosion Mat
580 Landscape Installation
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Landscape work is paid as two
lump sum pay items: large
plants and small plants. Large
plants includes trees in 7 gallon
containers, or larger, and most
palms. Small plants includes all
other plants, as well as
incidental work.
All work should be detailed in
the plans, in accordance with
the PPM.
218
Selecting Pay Items
500s
570 Performance Turf
571 Plastic Erosion Mat
580 Landscape Installation
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The 600s are for Traffic Control
Devices.
Sections within the 600s include
grounding, conduit, pull
boxes,…
219
Selecting Pay Items
600s
603 General Requirements
608 Guaranties
611 Acceptance
620 Signal Installation Grounding
630 Conduit
632 Signal And Interconnect Cable
634 Span Wire Assembly
635 Pull and Junction Boxes
639 Electrical Power
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
… poles, signals, …
Selecting Pay Items
600s
641 Prestressed Conc Poles
649 Steel Strain Poles, Mast Arms,
Monotube Assemblies
650 Vehicular Signal Assemblies
653 Pedestrian Signal Assemblies
659 Signal Head Retrofit Auxiliaries
660 Inductive Loop Detectors
665 Pedestrian Detector Assembly
220
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
… and controllers.
Note that all of the Signals
specifications, min specs,
standards, and pay items are
currently under review. Refer to
the applicable office web pages
for the latest updates and
implementation schedules.
221
Selecting Pay Items
600s
670 Traffic Controller Assembly
671 Traffic Controllers
676 Controller Cabinets
678 Controller Accessories
690 Removal of Existing Traffic Signal
Equipment
699 Internally Illuminated Signs
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Looking at the individual
sections…
When working with Traffic
Control Devices, two important
sources of information become
applicable:
The Minimum Specifications for
Traffic Control Signal Devices
(MTSCSD), otherwise known as
“min specs”, provide
performance and acceptance
criteria.
The Approved Product List
(APL) lists products that are
approved for use on Florida’s
roadways. Note that inclusion on
the APL does not imply that
FDOT has developed
construction specifications, or
will use the product on state
roads.
222
Selecting Pay Items
600s
603 General Requirements
608 Guaranties
611 Acceptance
620 Signal Installation Grounding
630 Conduit
632 Signal And Interconnect Cable
634 Span Wire Assembly
635 Pull and Junction Boxes
639 Electrical Power
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
APL items are approved for use
local agencies. They have met
MUTCD requirements, and are
acceptable for use in Florida.
Note: MUTCD is the Manual for
Uniform Traffic Control Devices.
(Pronounced M-U-T-C-D)
Section 603 brings the min
specs and APL into construction
contracts.
223
Selecting Pay Items
600s
603 General Requirements
608 Guaranties
611 Acceptance
620 Signal Installation Grounding
630 Conduit
632 Signal And Interconnect Cable
634 Span Wire Assembly
635 Pull and Junction Boxes
639 Electrical Power
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Sections 608 and 611 provide
basic guidance for Guaranties
and Acceptance. There is no
separate payment for these
requirements.
224
Selecting Pay Items
600s
603 General Requirements
608 Guaranties
611 Acceptance
620 Signal Installation Grounding
630 Conduit
632 Signal And Interconnect Cable
634 Span Wire Assembly
635 Pull and Junction Boxes
639 Electrical Power
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The grounding section includes
general requirements for
protection against faults, surge
currents, and lightning
transients.
There is no separate payment;
work is included in the item
being grounded.
Note that the requirements of
this specification may be
referenced by lighting, signing,
or other non-signals
applications.
225
Selecting Pay Items
600s
603 General Requirements
608 Guaranties
611 Acceptance
620 Signal Installation Grounding
630 Conduit
632 Signal And Interconnect Cable
634 Span Wire Assembly
635 Pull and Junction Boxes
639 Electrical Power
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Section 630 provides the
requirements for conduit. Note
that a locate wire may be
required for fiber optic
installations.
For estimating quantities, if you
have a 100’ trench with 4
conduits, the total length of
conduit installed would be 400’.
The contractor will adjust the
unit bid price according to the
length of trench and number of
conduits.
Similarly for underpavement and
jacked conduit, the total length
of all conduits is recorded; the
contractor will adjust bid prices
when multiple conduits are run
together.
226
Selecting Pay Items
600s
603 General Requirements
608 Guaranties
611 Acceptance
620 Signal Installation Grounding
630 Conduit
632 Signal And Interconnect Cable
634 Span Wire Assembly
635 Pull and Junction Boxes
639 Electrical Power
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Signal cable within an
intersection is paid on a “per
intersection” basis. While no
allowance is made for large or
small intersections, the
contractor will bid according to
the size of the intersections
shown in the plans.
When signal cable is necessary
outside of an intersection, such
as for beacons or signs, the
cable is paid per foot.
When using fiber optic cable,
carefully review the available
specifications. Plan Details
and/or Technical Specs may be
necessary.
227
Selecting Pay Items
600s
603 General Requirements
608 Guaranties
611 Acceptance
620 Signal Installation Grounding
630 Conduit
632 Signal And Interconnect Cable
634 Span Wire Assembly
635 Pull and Junction Boxes
639 Electrical Power
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Span Wires with concrete poles
are the standard for most of the
state. Coastal areas, within
limits defined in the PPM,
generally use mast arms.
The standard span wire
assembly was updated with the
2009 PPM. Projects should be
updated according to current
guidance. Payment for the span
wire assembly is made per
intersection.
228
Selecting Pay Items
600s
603 General Requirements
608 Guaranties
611 Acceptance
620 Signal Installation Grounding
630 Conduit
632 Signal And Interconnect Cable
634 Span Wire Assembly
635 Pull and Junction Boxes
639 Electrical Power
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Pull and Junction boxes are paid
per each. The installation
requirements are shown in the
Design Standards. Note that the
items installed must be included
on the APL.
229
Selecting Pay Items
600s
603 General Requirements
608 Guaranties
611 Acceptance
620 Signal Installation Grounding
630 Conduit
632 Signal And Interconnect Cable
634 Span Wire Assembly
635 Pull and Junction Boxes
639 Electrical Power
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Electrical Power Service
Assemblies are used in
accordance with Design
Standard 17736.
Items may include conduit,
wore, meter, disconnect, and
other items shown in the design
standards.
230
Selecting Pay Items
600s
603 General Requirements
608 Guaranties
611 Acceptance
620 Signal Installation Grounding
630 Conduit
632 Signal And Interconnect Cable
634 Span Wire Assembly
635 Pull and Junction Boxes
639 Electrical Power
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Prestressed Concrete Poles for
signals applications are shown
on index 17725. The poles
installed must be listed on the
QPL.
Note that the type of pole is
included in the pay item
description, but plan details are
necessary to indicate the pole
length and mounting height.
231
Selecting Pay Items
600s
641 Prestressed Conc Poles
649 Steel Strain Poles, Mast Arms,
Monotube Assemblies
650 Vehicular Signal Assemblies
653 Pedestrian Signal Assemblies
659 Signal Head Retrofit Auxiliaries
660 Inductive Loop Detectors
663 Vehicle Detector Assemblies
665 Pedestrian Detector Assembly
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Refer to the current PPM for
guidance on mast arm
installations. Generally, these
will only be used in coastal
areas.
The pay item structure details
the design wind speed and arm
length.
When using steel strain poles,
plan details are needed for pole
type and height.
Monotube Assemblies are not
included in the design
standards; complete design
details are required in the plans.
232
Selecting Pay Items
600s
641 Prestressed Conc Poles
649 Steel Strain Poles, Mast Arms,
Monotube Assemblies
650 Vehicular Signal Assemblies
653 Pedestrian Signal Assemblies
659 Signal Head Retrofit Auxiliaries
660 Inductive Loop Detectors
663 Vehicle Detector Assemblies
665 Pedestrian Detector Assembly
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Traffic Signal assemblies
include the signal with LED
indicators, backplates, visors,
and all incidentals to complete
the signal assembly.
Note that these assemblies are
to be used for permanent
installations only; temporary
installations should use the
appropriate Maintenance of
Traffic items in Section 102.
233
Selecting Pay Items
600s
641 Prestressed Conc Poles
649 Steel Strain Poles, Mast Arms,
Monotube Assemblies
650 Vehicular Signal Assemblies
653 Pedestrian Signal Assemblies
659 Signal Head Retrofit Auxiliaries
660 Inductive Loop Detectors
663 Vehicle Detector Assemblies
665 Pedestrian Detector Assembly
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Pedestrian Signal Assemblies
allow for various types. Note
that the LED Countdown is the
current standard.
234
Selecting Pay Items
600s
641 Prestressed Conc Poles
649 Steel Strain Poles, Mast Arms,
Monotube Assemblies
650 Vehicular Signal Assemblies
653 Pedestrian Signal Assemblies
659 Signal Head Retrofit Auxiliaries
660 Inductive Loop Detectors
663 Vehicle Detector Assemblies
665 Pedestrian Detector Assembly
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The 659 pay items are used
only for retrofit applications. On
new installations, all backplates,
visors, and attachment
hardware is included in the
signal head assembly.
235
Selecting Pay Items
600s
641 Prestressed Conc Poles
649 Steel Strain Poles, Mast Arms,
Monotube Assemblies
650 Vehicular Signal Assemblies
653 Pedestrian Signal Assemblies
659 Signal Head Retrofit Auxiliaries
660 Inductive Loop Detectors
663 Vehicle Detector Assemblies
665 Pedestrian Detector Assembly
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Section 660 currently describes
various types of loop detectors.
As additional types of vehicle
detection are approved, the
contents of this section may be
incorporated with Section 663
for Vehicle Detector Assemblies.
Refer to the latest specifications
and design standards for
detector requirements.
236
Selecting Pay Items
600s
641 Prestressed Conc Poles
649 Steel Strain Poles, Mast Arms,
Monotube Assemblies
650 Vehicular Signal Assemblies
653 Pedestrian Signal Assemblies
659 Signal Head Retrofit Auxiliaries
660 Inductive Loop Detectors
663 Vehicle Detector Assemblies
665 Pedestrian Detector Assembly
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Pedestrian Detectors include
both standard and accessible
types. Refer to the Traffic
Engineering Manual for
assistance with determining the
appropriate type for project
conditions.
237
Selecting Pay Items
600s
641 Prestressed Conc Poles
649 Steel Strain Poles, Mast Arms,
Monotube Assemblies
650 Vehicular Signal Assemblies
653 Pedestrian Signal Assemblies
659 Signal Head Retrofit Auxiliaries
660 Inductive Loop Detectors
663 Vehicle Detector Assemblies
665 Pedestrian Detector Assembly
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The 670 group of items includes
controllers and cabinets.
Coordinate with the District
Traffic Engineering & Operations
office to ensure that the
proposed equipment is
compatible with the local
agency.
238
Selecting Pay Items
600s
670 Traffic Controller Assembly
671 Traffic Controllers
676 Controller Cabinets
678 Controller Accessories
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Section 690, Removal of
Existing Traffic Signal
Equipment: Per the
specifications, “The Department
retains ownership of the
equipment removed unless
otherwise state in the Contract
Documents.
As necessary, the plans should
indicate the location for delivery
of removed signal equipment.
239
Selecting Pay Items
600s
690 Removal of Existing Traffic
Signal Equipment
699 Internally Illuminated Signs
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
While the 699 Internally
Illuminated Signs are “signs”,
they are normally included with
the signals category, due to their
connections with the signalized
intersections.
These signs should be tabulated
and detailed in the Signalization
plans and category.
240
Selecting Pay Items
600s
690 Removal of Existing Traffic Signal
Equipment
699 Internally Illuminated Signs
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The 700s are for Traffic Control:
Signing & Pavement Markings,
…
241
Selecting Pay Items
700s
700 Highway Signing
701 Audible and Vibratory Markings
705 Object Markers & Delineators
706 Reflective Pavement Markers
709 Traffic Stripes- Two Reactive
Components
710 Painted Traffic Markings
711 Thermoplastic Traffic Stripes and
Markings
713 Permanent Tape Stripes and
Markings
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The 700s are for Traffic Control:
Signing & Pavement Markings,
Lighting, Monitoring, and ITS.
242
Selecting Pay Items
700s
714 Motorist Aid Call Boxes
715 Highway Lighting
741-747 Traffic Monitoring Site
750-751 Architectural Work
780-786 Intelligent Transportation
System (ITS)
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Highway Signing covers both
roadside and overhead signs.
For single and multi-post sign
assemblies, refer to the
standards for the appropriate
sizes.
Payment includes the sign(s)
and post(s), furnished and
installed.
For lighted signs, payment
includes electrical work.
243
Selecting Pay Items
700s
700 Highway Signing
701 Audible and Vibratory Markings
705 Object Markers & Delineators
706 Reflective Pavement Markers
709 Traffic Stripes- Two Reactive
Components
710 Painted Traffic Markings
711 Thermoplastic Traffic Stripes and
Markings
713 Permanent Tape Stripes and
Markings
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
For overhead signs, the pay
items separate the operation,
span length, and sign size.
As for all signs, foundations and
electrical work are included in
the sign assembly payment.
Monotube assemblies require
complete specifications,
drawings, and details.
Coordinate with the maintaining
agency, as standard sign
structures may be preferred.
244
Selecting Pay Items
700s
700 Highway Signing
701 Audible and Vibratory Markings
705 Object Markers & Delineators
706 Reflective Pavement Markers
709 Traffic Stripes- Two Reactive
Components
710 Painted Traffic Markings
711 Thermoplastic Traffic Stripes and
Markings
713 Permanent Tape Stripes and
Markings
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Measurement and Payment of
Stripes and Pavement
Markings:
•Longitudinal Stripe (along
direction of traffic) is paid per
net mile (solid) or gross mile
(skip).
•Transverse Stripe (across the
direction of traffic) is paid per
foot.
•Dotted, Guidelines, and 6-10
Gap Extension lines are paid
per foot.
Refer to the BOE for complete
measurement and payment
details.
245
Selecting Pay Items
700s
700 Highway Signing
701 Audible and Vibratory Markings
705 Object Markers & Delineators
706 Reflective Pavement Markers
709 Traffic Stripes- Two Reactive
Components
710 Painted Traffic Markings
711 Thermoplastic Traffic Stripes and
Markings
713 Permanent Tape Stripes and
Markings
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Refer to the PPM, vol 1, 7.2.8
for guidance on selecting
pavement marking materials.
Did you know- the arrows,
symbols and messages are paid
separately?
show pavement arrows? Arrows
are paid as a complete marking,
regardless of the number of
“points” or directions on the
marking.
246
Selecting Pay Items
700s
700 Highway Signing
701 Audible and Vibratory Markings
705 Object Markers & Delineators
706 Reflective Pavement Markers
709 Traffic Stripes- Two Reactive
Components
710 Painted Traffic Markings
711 Thermoplastic Traffic Stripes and
Markings
713 Permanent Tape Stripes and
Markings
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Show bike lane arrow and
“bicycle person” symbol.
The cyclist is available as a
preformed thermoplastic
material, and should be 6’ tall, to
meet current standards.
Show bicycle with chevron
message The new “bicycle with
chevron” is one message.
Show sun pass lane/message
Each word is paid as a separate
message- “SUN PASS ONLY”
would be paid as 3 messages.
Other symbols and messages
are shown on the design
standards.
247
Selecting Pay Items
700s
700 Highway Signing
701 Audible and Vibratory Markings
705 Object Markers & Delineators
706 Reflective Pavement Markers
709 Traffic Stripes- Two Reactive
Components
710 Painted Traffic Markings
711 Thermoplastic Traffic Stripes and
Markings
713 Permanent Tape Stripes and
Markings
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Audible and Vibratory marking
have specific applications, as
directed “for rural construction
projects, excluding limited
access facilities.”
Refer to the BOE or PPM for
additional guidance.
248
Selecting Pay Items
700s
700 Highway Signing
701 Audible and Vibratory Markings
705 Object Markers & Delineators
706 Reflective Pavement Markers
709 Traffic Stripes- Two Reactive
Components
710 Painted Traffic Markings
711 Thermoplastic Traffic Stripes and
Markings
713 Permanent Tape Stripes and
Markings
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Object Markers are used to
mark obstructions within or
adjacent to the roadway;
delineators are used to indicate
the alignment of the roadway.
Both are to be used in
accordance with the design
standards and the MUTCD.
No separate payment is made
for object markers mounted on
vehicular impact attenuators,
according to Section 544.
249
Selecting Pay Items
700s
700 Highway Signing
701 Audible and Vibratory Markings
705 Object Markers & Delineators
706 Reflective Pavement Markers
709 Traffic Stripes- Two Reactive
Components
710 Painted Traffic Markings
711 Thermoplastic Traffic Stripes and
Markings
713 Permanent Tape Stripes and
Markings
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Raised Retro-Reflective
Pavement Markers (RPMs) are
used to supplement pavement
markings. Refer to the
standards for correct usage.
250
Selecting Pay Items
700s
700 Highway Signing
701 Audible and Vibratory Markings
705 Object Markers & Delineators
706 Reflective Pavement Markers
709 Traffic Stripes- Two Reactive
Components
710 Painted Traffic Markings
711 Thermoplastic Traffic Stripes and
Markings
713 Permanent Tape Stripes and
Markings
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Two Reactive component
pavement marking is used on
concrete surfaces, as described
in the PPM, vol 1, 7.2.8.
251
Selecting Pay Items
700s
700 Highway Signing
701 Audible and Vibratory Markings
705 Object Markers & Delineators
706 Reflective Pavement Markers
709 Traffic Stripes- Two Reactive
Components
710 Painted Traffic Markings
711 Thermoplastic Traffic Stripes and
Markings
713 Permanent Tape Stripes and
Markings
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Painted traffic marking materials
are used in both MOT and final
surface applications.
252
Selecting Pay Items
700s
700 Highway Signing
701 Audible and Vibratory Markings
705 Object Markers & Delineators
706 Reflective Pavement Markers
709 Traffic Stripes- Two Reactive
Components
710 Painted Traffic Markings
711 Thermoplastic Traffic Stripes and
Markings
713 Permanent Tape Stripes and
Markings
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Thermoplastic markings are
used as “the Department’s
primary material to be used for
permanent markings on asphalt
surfaces.”
– PPM, vol 1, 7.2.8
Some Districts will apply
thermoplastic during
construction operations, in lieu
of a final surface paint. The
remaining Districts will apply
thermoplastic under a
maintenance contract, following
the completion of construction
contract. Coordinate with your
District Design Office for current
district policy.
253
Selecting Pay Items
700s
700 Highway Signing
701 Audible and Vibratory Markings
705 Object Markers & Delineators
706 Reflective Pavement Markers
709 Traffic Stripes- Two Reactive
Components
710 Painted Traffic Markings
711 Thermoplastic Traffic Stripes and
Markings
713 Permanent Tape Stripes and
Markings
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Permanent Tape is an option for
use on concrete surfaces.
High performance tapes are
required for longitudinal
markings; standard tapes are
limited to transverse lines,
arrows, and messages.
254
Selecting Pay Items
700s
700 Highway Signing
701 Audible and Vibratory Markings
705 Object Markers & Delineators
706 Reflective Pavement Markers
709 Traffic Stripes- Two Reactive
Components
710 Painted Traffic Markings
711 Thermoplastic Traffic Stripes and
Markings
713 Permanent Tape Stripes and
Markings
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Motorist aid call boxes are still
used along the Turnpike and
selected major roadways.
Note that the call box pad is
included in the payment for the
complete call box installation.
When replacing/upgrading the
pad, “modify”, don’t forget to
detail the removal, storage, and
reinstallation of the call box
assembly. Damaged boxes must
be replaced by the contractor, at
no additional cost.
255
Selecting Pay Items
700s
714 Motorist Aid Call Boxes
715 Highway Lighting
741-747 Traffic Monitoring Site
750-751 Architectural Work
780-786 Intelligent Transportation
System (ITS)
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Most lighting installations are
“furnish and install” for a
complete installation. The
foundation is included in the
cost of the pole, even for high
mast pole installations that
require more extensive
foundations.
Conduit is paid as the length
from point A to B, with no
additional quantity for sweeps or
vertical distances. Note- when
multiple conduits are included in
a trench, payment is based on
the total length of conduit, not
the length of the trench.
For example: 4 conduits in a
100 foot trench = 400 total feet
of conduit.
256
Selecting Pay Items
700s
714 Motorist Aid Call Boxes
715 Highway Lighting
741-747 Traffic Monitoring Site
750-751 Architectural Work
780-786 Intelligent Transportation
System (ITS)
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Coordinate the use of the Traffic
Monitoring Site specifications
and pay items with the
responsible office. Technical
specifications may be required.
257
Selecting Pay Items
700s
714 Motorist Aid Call Boxes
715 Highway Lighting
741-747 Traffic Monitoring Site
750-751 Architectural Work
780-786 Intelligent Transportation
System (ITS)
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Architectural pay item should
only be used with “significant”
architectural work. Coordinate
the use of these items with the
State Architect.
New or Rehab work on a
complete building is paid under
Section 750. Component work
only, i.e. water, HVAC,
communications, or electrical,
may be paid under the
appropriate 751 items. Do not
use the 751 items when
complete work is paid under the
750 item.
258
Selecting Pay Items
700s
714 Motorist Aid Call Boxes
715 Highway Lighting
741-747 Traffic Monitoring Site
750-751 Architectural Work
780-786 Intelligent Transportation
System (ITS)
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
When asbestos is known to
exist, contact the Architectural
Section for specific guidance.
Special contracts exist for
asbestos removal.
Refer to Section 465 for Bridge
Tender House. Coordinate with
the Moveable Bridge Section of
the State Structures Design
Office.
259
Selecting Pay Items
700s
714 Motorist Aid Call Boxes
715 Highway Lighting
741-747 Traffic Monitoring Site
750-751 Architectural Work
780-786 Intelligent Transportation
System (ITS)
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
ITS, or Intelligent Transportation
Systems incorporate several
types of vehicle detection to
help traffic move efficiently.
Some ITS systems are
incorporated into local
signalization systems, and may
be designed into the
signalization plans.
Design guidance is provided in
the PPM, Vol. 1, Chapter 7.
Revisions are currently
underway to “merge” ITS and
signalization specifications and
pay items. Refer to the
specifications and BOE for the
latest information.
260
Selecting Pay Items
700s
714 Motorist Aid Call Boxes
715 Highway Lighting
741-747 Traffic Monitoring Site
750-751 Architectural Work
780-786 Intelligent Transportation
System (ITS)
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
When possible, pay items for
ITS components were specified
for “complete assemblies”. For
example, the Dynamic Message
Sign (DMS) includes the sign,
structure, foundation,
electronics, and testing for a
fully operational sign.
Refer to the specifications for
work and materials included with
each pay item.
261
Selecting Pay Items
700s
714 Motorist Aid Call Boxes
715 Highway Lighting
741-747 Traffic Monitoring Site
750-751 Architectural Work
780-786 Intelligent Transportation
System (ITS)
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The mass transit items currently
have very limited use. If your
project involves mass transit,
please coordinate with your
District Estimates Office to
further develop this group of
items.
262
Selecting Pay Items
800s


Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The 900s are a special group of
items. They may involve new or
different contracting rules,
specifications, or other
situations.
263
Selecting Pay Items
900s
Developmental, Monitored, Limited use,
or other Special Pay Items
999- 2 Lump Sum Contract
999- 16 Partnering
999- 20 Disputes Review Board
999- 25 Initial Contingency Amt
999-102 Speed and Law Enforcement
Officer
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
When a specification is under
development, a pay item may be
assigned using a 9xx-SSS-###
format, where xx is the year,
SSS is the proposed
specification section number,
and ### is a sequential number
to define any additional
description. It is not necessary
to completely define an “abcdef” pay item structure while the
specification is under
development.
For developmental, monitored or
limited use items, a monitor from
the responsible office
(structures, drainage, etc.) will
264
Selecting Pay Items
900s
Developmental, Monitored, Limited
use, or other Special Pay Items
999- 2 Lump Sum Contract
999- 16 Partnering
999- 20 Disputes Review Board
999- 25 Initial Contingency Amt
999-102 Speed and Law Enforcement
Officer
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Lump Sum contracts are
frequently used for small
contracts with known quantities,
where minimal adjustments are
anticipated. A “duplicate” project
is maintained with pay items and
quantities for estimating and
reporting purposes.
265
Selecting Pay Items
900s
Developmental, Monitored, Limited use,
or other Special Pay Items
999- 2 Lump Sum Contract
999- 16 Partnering
999- 20 Disputes Review Board
999- 25 Initial Contingency Amt
999-102 Speed and Law Enforcement
Officer
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
When partnering is
recommended by the
construction office, a lump sum
amount is included with the
contract to provide for meeting
rooms, facilitator fees, and travel
expenses of the facilitator.
When this item is used, District
Specifications Office should
coordinate with the Contracts
Administration Office.
266
Selecting Pay Items
900s
Developmental, Monitored, Limited use,
or other Special Pay Items
999- 2 Lump Sum Contract
999- 16 Partnering
999- 20 Disputes Review Board
999- 25 Initial Contingency Amt
999-102 Speed and Law Enforcement
Officer
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
There are several specifications
available for a Disputes Review
Board, depending on project
conditions. The construction
office should determine whether
a Regional or Statewide
Disputes Review Board is
recommended.
The goal of the Disputes Review
Board is to resolve project
issues, before costly legal action
becomes necessary.
267
Selecting Pay Items
900s
Developmental, Monitored, Limited use,
or other Special Pay Items
999- 2 Lump Sum Contract
999- 16 Partnering
999- 20 Disputes Review Board
999- 25 Initial Contingency Amt
999-102 Speed and Law Enforcement
Officer
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The initial contingency amount
is determined by construction, in
accordance with the CPAM.
While this is a non-bid item, it
allows the construction office to
encumber funds for unforeseen
work and supplemental
agreements.
268
Selecting Pay Items
900s
Developmental, Monitored, Limited use,
or other Special Pay Items
999- 2 Lump Sum Contract
999- 16 Partnering
999- 20 Disputes Review Board
999- 25 Initial Contingency Amt
999-102 Speed and Law Enforcement
Officer
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
The Speed and Law
Enforcement Officer is a non-bid
pay item used where active law
enforcement is necessary. The
funds included with this pay item
are used for contracts between
the department and state or
local law enforcement. This pay
item is used at the discretion of
the Engineer, and not for the
Contractor’s operations.
Refer to the Maintenance of
Traffic pay item when a Traffic
Control Officer is needed for
controlling signalized
intersections, traffic pacing, or
other actions detailed in the
design standards.
269
Selecting Pay Items
900s
Developmental, Monitored, Limited use,
or other Special Pay Items
999- 2 Lump Sum Contract
999- 16 Partnering
999- 20 Disputes Review Board
999- 25 Initial Contingency Amt
999-102 Speed and Law Enforcement
Officer
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Pay Items within the 1000-1999
range are for use on Utility JPA
projects only.
Common use utility items, such
as pipe and fittings, are included
in sections 1000-1099.
Other utility applications are:
1500s Sanitary Sewer
1600s Water Main
1700s Power Transmission
1800s Communications
1900s Fuel Transmission
270
Selecting Pay Items
1000s
1000 Utility Work, LS
1050 Utility Pipe
1055 Utility Fittings
1060 Utility Structures
1080 Utility Fixtures
1135 Guys and Anchors
1501 Lift Station- Sanitary Sewer
1644 Fire Hydrant
1720 Transformer
1820 Telephone/Communications
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
All of the utility items will require
Technical Special Provisions
and/or plan details to cover the
description, materials,
installation, measurement, and
payment information.
Note that historical costs for
utility items vary widely, due to
project-by-project requirements
and specifications.
271
Selecting Pay Items
1000s
1000 Utility Work, LS
1050 Utility Pipe
1055 Utility Fittings
1060 Utility Structures
1080 Utility Fixtures
1135 Guys and Anchors
1501 Lift Station- Sanitary Sewer
1644 Fire Hydrant
1720 Transformer
1820 Telephone/Communications
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Generic Items are “intended to
support one-time usage pay
items or specialty situations
where a standard pay item is not
available, and for which it is not
practical to create a new pay
item.”
While these pay items are
readily available, there are no
specifications, plan details, or
cost history available.
Complete rules for these items
are included in Chapter 6. Here
is a brief summary of the rules:
 Must not be used if there is an
existing pay item.
 Must not be used to violate or
circumvent standard pay items.
272
Selecting Pay Items
Generic Items
000-AAA-BBB
000-100-BBB Structures
000-200-BBB Roadway
000-300-BBB Signing/Pavement
Marking
000-400-BBB Lighting
000-500-BBB Signals/ITS
000-600-BBB Landscaping
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
 Must not be used to
circumvent the approval process
on developmental items.
 Must not be used as a work-
around for a pay item that has
been rejected for statewide
usage by Central Office.
 Must not to be used for sole-
sourcing of materials/ methods
for items of work.
Coordination with the
responsible office (Roadway,
Structures, Traffic Ops, etc.) is
recommended, as similar
requests from multiple districts
may encourage development of
specs, standards, and/or pay
items.
273
Selecting Pay Items
Generic Items
000-AAA-BBB
000-100-BBB Structures
000-200-BBB Roadway
000-300-BBB Signing/Pavement
Marking
000-400-BBB Lighting
000-500-BBB Signals/ITS
000-600-BBB Landscaping
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
Generic Pay Items are
formatted as 000-AAA-BBB,
where
AAA is the Design
Group/Trns•port Category (100
for Structures, 200 for Roadway,
etc.), and
BBB is the Sequential Number
that can be re-used.
Selecting Pay Items
Generic Items
000-AAA-BBB
000-100-BBB Structures
000-200-BBB Roadway
000-300-BBB Signing/Pavement
For all generic pay items, the
unit of measure is shown as
“ZZ”. Within the supplemental
description, the Estimator
provides a brief description of
the work and unit of measure.
274
Marking
000-400-BBB Lighting
000-500-BBB Signals/ITS
000-600-BBB Landscaping
Basis of Estimates- Part 2
As an example, a Roadway
“Widget” using a Generic Pay
Item might be shown as:
000-200- 1 Roadway Design
Group- Generic Pay Item 1
(Widget, each)
Selecting Pay Items
Generic Items
000-AAA-BBB
000-100-BBB Structures
000-200-BBB Roadway
Complete specs and/or details
are required for each item. Load
the generic pay item into the
corresponding Trnsport
category.
275
000-300-BBB Signing/Pavement
Marking
000-400-BBB Lighting
000-500-BBB Signals/ITS
000-600-BBB Landscaping
Basis of Estimates
This concludes this part.
If you would like to view
additional material, please
select the Part you would like to
view.
Part 1: Introduction to the Basis of
Estimates
Part 2: Selecting Pay Items
Part 3: Estimating and Review
276
Basis of Estimates
Please select the Part you
would like to view.
Part 1: Introduction to the Basis of
Estimates
Part 2: Selecting Pay Items
Part 3: Estimating and Review
277
Basis of Estimates
This concludes this part.
If you would like to view
additional material, please
select the Part you would like to
view.
Part 1: Introduction to the Basis of
Estimates
Part 2: Selecting Pay Items
Part 3: Estimating and Review
278
Basis of Estimates
Please select the Part you
would like to view.
Part 1: Introduction to the Basis of
Estimates
Part 2: Selecting Pay Items
Part 3: Estimating and Review
279
Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Part 3 of this CBT is intended for
reviewers- both consultant and
FDOT.
It is organized into 3 sectionsUpdates, General Conditions,
and Categories & Pay Items.
This Part of the CBT is
dependent upon users sharing
experiences with others. Please
send your comments to
[email protected]
Thank you for your help.
280
Part 3- Estimating and Review
Updates
General Conditions
Categories & Pay Items
Structures, Roadway, Signing &
Pavement Marking, Lighting, Signals,
ITS, Landscaping, Utilities
Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Updates: Includes major
changes to the specifications,
standards, pay items, and
related handbooks or manuals.
General Conditions: Includes
general information for
estimates reviews.
Categories & Pay Items:
Estimating and Review issues,
by category
Please select a section to
proceed.
281
Part 3- Estimating and Review
Updates
General Conditions
Categories & Pay Items
Structures, Roadway, Signing &
Pavement Marking, Lighting, Signals,
ITS, Landscaping, Utilities
Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Updates are normally
implemented for either the
January or July letting.
Specifications, standards,
and/or pay items will be
coordinated for these letting
dates.
Do not implement changes
before/after these scheduled
dates, without approval of the
responsible office, as some
“pieces” of an issue may be tied
to implementation dates. For
example, an “old” specification
may refer to an “old” standard
and valid QPL items. The “new”
specification and standard will
be implemented together, with
“new” qualified products to meet
the new requirements.
282
Part 3- Estimating and Review
Updates
Basis of Estimates
Specifications
Design Standards and Instructions
Plans Preparation Manual
Structures Manual
Florida Greenbook
Pavement Design Manual
Basis of Estimates- Part 3
When beginning reviews for
January or July letting projects,
ensure that you have the latest
updates.
All estimators and reviewers
should be registered for the
Contact Database to receive
updates from the Estimates,
Roadway, and Structures
Design offices. Several other
offices also use the Contact
Database to keep users
informed of bulletins, revisions,
and other important information.
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Part 3- Estimating and Review
Updates
Basis of Estimates
Specifications
Design Standards and Instructions
Plans Preparation Manual
Structures Manual
Florida Greenbook
Pavement Design Manual
Basis of Estimates- Part 3
If a project letting date is
changed, the plans,
specifications, and pay items
should be completely reviewed
for compliance with the
appropriate updates.
Part 3- Estimating and Review
Updates
Basis of Estimates
Specifications
Design Standards and Instructions
Plans Preparation Manual
Structures Manual
Florida Greenbook
Pavement Design Manual
284
Basis of Estimates- Part 3
General Conditions
Estimating and review varies by
project, depending on many
factors. This section will help to
address these factors, providing
some guidance for consultant
and FDOT estimators.
285
Part 3- Estimating and Review
Updates
General Conditions
Categories & Pay Items
Structures, Roadway, Signing &
Pavement Marking, Lighting, Signals,
ITS, Landscaping, Utilities
Basis of Estimates- Part 3
The general conditions or
factors affecting an estimate
include Historical Cost, Project
Conditions, Incidentals,
Quantity, Operation, and
Specifications.
These factors are not in order of
significance. They may vary
from project-to-project, or even
item-to-item.
286
Part 3- Estimating and Review
General Conditions
•Historical Cost
•Project Conditions
•Incidentals
•Quantity
•Operations
•Specs, Notes, details
Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Frequently used items have
historical costs available. The
estimator should consider the
number of contracts, as well as
the “normal” use of the pay item.
Historical costs should not be
used for “special” or unusual
situations, or those with limited
cost history.
The Item Average Unit Cost
report or the LRE Reference
Price are good sources for
historical costs.
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General Conditions
•Historical Cost
•Project Conditions
•Incidentals
•Quantity
•Operations
•Specs, Notes, details
Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Project Conditions affect prices
in many ways.
Location- Haul distances, near
or far, may affect the price of
asphalt and concrete products.
Rural/Urban- Traffic conditions
may affect production rates, as
well as MOT and incidental
costs.
Night Work or Limited lane
closures- Restrictions may affect
the time or locations available
for work, increasing labor costs.
Seasons- While Florida does not
experience significant snow or
frozen ground, spring break and
athletic events may impact
some projects with increased
MOT costs.
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Part 3- Estimating and Review
General Conditions
•Historical Cost
•Project Conditions
•Incidentals
•Quantity
•Operations
•Specs, Notes, details
Basis of Estimates- Part 3
The Trnsport CES module,
available only to FDOT
Estimators, uses various project
conditions within the regression
models. These include county,
season, work type, and
rural/urban location.
Engineering experience and
knowledge of local traffic
conditions may be the best tool
for considering project
conditions.
289
Part 3- Estimating and Review
General Conditions
•Historical Cost
•Project Conditions
•Incidentals
•Quantity
•Operations
•Specs, Notes, details
Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Most items of work call for the
contractor to “furnish and
install”, for a complete and
accepted item of work.
Normal incidentals, i.e.
hardware or coatings, are
detailed in the standards or
specifications.
When the designer calls for
additional items of work to be
included in an item of work,
these incidentals generally
increase bid prices. Significant
changes should be addressed
with separate or “special”
payment.
290
Part 3- Estimating and Review
General Conditions
•Historical Cost
•Project Conditions
•Incidentals
•Quantity
•Operations
•Specs, Notes, details
Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Price decreases with increased
quantity?
In general, larger quantities yield
better unit prices, as the
equipment and set-up costs
associated with an item are
distributed over a larger
quantity. Unit prices stabilize
when materials and labor
become the significant factors.
291
Part 3- Estimating and Review
General Conditions
•Historical Cost
•Project Conditions
•Incidentals
•Quantity
•Operations
•Specs, Notes, details
Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Installed cost=
Price vs. Quantity
Materials
+ Equipment
+ Labor
Unit price on small quantities is
normally higher, due to
equipment set-up or labor costs.
$
District X
District Y
District Z
Quantity
292
Basis of Estimates- Part 3
The Trnsport CES module is an
excellent tool for pricing items
based on quantity. Regression
models will provide price vs
quantity graphs, as needed.
These graphs are also helpful
for identifying when price varies
by district or market area.
Unfortunately, the regression
models only work when
historical data is available. For
infrequently used items with
minimal history, other estimating
tools must be used.
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Part 3- Estimating and Review
General Conditions
•Historical Cost
•Project Conditions
•Incidentals
•Quantity
•Operations
•Specs, Notes, details
Basis of Estimates- Part 3
While the normal operation of
work is to “furnish and Install”, it
is possible to have other
operations:
Install, relocate, Adjust, Modify,
Remove, Dispose, Stockpile, or
Place Out of Service.
The contract documents should
be carefully reviewed to ensure
that these operations are clearly
defined. Most of these
operations will require a plan
detail and/or Tech Spec.
Don’t “break out” payment for
separate operations or
incidental work. For example, do
not separate foundation work for
lighting, signing, signals or ITS
poles.
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Part 3- Estimating and Review
General Conditions
•Historical Cost
•Project Conditions
•Incidentals
•Quantity
•Operations
•Specs, Notes, details
Basis of Estimates- Part 3
EXAMPLE: bubble or other
stand-out graphic?
Items should be stockpiled only
when the District Maintenance
or maintaining agency requests
the item.
For example, electrical
conductor has a salvage value.
The contractor will factor this
amount into the bid for removal
of the conductor.
FDOT is not in the “scrap metals
business”. Do not stockpile
conductor, unless specifically
requested.
295
Part 3- Estimating and Review
General Conditions
•Historical Cost
•Project Conditions
•Incidentals
•Quantity
•Operations
•Specs, Notes, details
Basis of Estimates- Part 3
The Designer should ensure
that EVERY ITEM OF WORK
has complete information:
Description, either in words or
plan detail drawing
Material Requirements,
including maintenance or
replacement requirements
during construction
Construction or Installation
requirements
Method of Measurement
Basis of Payment
296
Part 3- Estimating and Review
General Conditions
•Historical Cost
•Project Conditions
•Incidentals
•Quantity
•Operations
•Specs, Notes, details
Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Ensure that the plans (sheets,
standards), specs (special
provisions, supplemental
specifications, Tech Specs), and
pay items agree.
Any conflicts could result in
supplemental agreements.
297
Part 3- Estimating and Review
General Conditions
•Historical Cost
•Project Conditions
•Incidentals
•Quantity
•Operations
•Specs, Notes, details
Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Most design should be
completed in accordance with
the existing standards and
specifications. Minor changes
can be completed with approved
modifications.
If the existing specification
does not apply, coordinate with
the District Specifications staff.
If the spec does not apply,
then the pay item likely does
not apply; coordinate with the
District Estimates staff.
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General Conditions
•Historical Cost
•Project Conditions
•Incidentals
•Quantity
•Operations
•Specs, Notes, details
Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Why did they do that?
Standard or Special?
Incidental or Separate?
LF or Each?
There are many ways to design.
While FDOT provides many
standards, there are situations
were non-standard is chosen.
Understanding “why” a nonstandard choice was made will
improve the estimate or review
process. It is the responsibility of
the estimator & reviewer to
determine which items will affect
the contractor’s work and price.
299
Part 3- Estimating and Review
General Conditions
•Historical Cost
•Project Conditions
•Incidentals
•Quantity
•Operations
•Specs, Notes, details
Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Categories & Pay Items
This section is set-up to review
estimate and pay item issues,
by category.
Additional information may be
available, by pay item section, in
part 2 of the CBT.
With each category or
component plans, the reviewer
should ensure that the items
shown on the plans correspond
with the tabulation sheets and
summary of quantities.
300
Part 3- Estimating and Review
Updates
General Conditions
Categories & Pay Items
Structures, Roadway, Signing &
Pavement Marking, Lighting, Signals,
ITS, Landscaping, Utilities
Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Select a Category, or enter to
continue.
Part 3- Estimating and Review
Updates
General Conditions
Categories & Pay Items
Structures, Roadway, Signing &
Pavement Marking, Lighting, Signals,
ITS, Landscaping, Utilities
301
Basis of Estimates- Part 3
The structures category header
is of significant importance to
the estimator, as this information
is used for FHWA and FDOT
reporting.
At a minimum, the estimator
should verify that the Project
Edit Report structures header
information is correct. Run
this report with EVERY review
submittal.
If any of the Work Program
fields are incorrect, notify the
Project Manager and/or District
Work Program Office to make
corrections.
302
Part 3- Estimating and Review
Categories & Pay Items
Structures, Roadway, Signing &
Pavement Marking, Lighting, Signals,
ITS, Landscaping, Utilities
Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Verify that the length, width, and
other category information is
correct. For bridge widening,
only the widened width is
entered; do not include the
existing or new total width.
Bridge Graphic?:
New/Replacement bridgesuse the total length and outsideto-outside width
Widened bridges- use the total
length and only the widened
width (usually 1 or 2 lanes
added to outside)
Bridge Repairs- use the total
length and out-to-out width
For variable width bridges, enter
the average width, so that the
length*width total will equal the
total bridge area.
303
Part 3- Estimating and Review
Categories & Pay Items
Structures, Roadway, Signing &
Pavement Marking, Lighting, Signals,
ITS, Landscaping, Utilities
Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Graphic: Parallel
(northbound/southbound) sideby-side bridges
While parallel bridges are often
designed together, it is important
to load each bridge in a
separate category, so that the
bridge number, dimensions,
quantities, and payments can be
made correctly.
Retaining Wall pay items are
loaded in the roadway category,
even when they are located at
the bridge abutment.
304
Part 3- Estimating and Review
Categories & Pay Items
Structures, Roadway, Signing &
Pavement Marking, Lighting, Signals,
ITS, Landscaping, Utilities
Basis of Estimates- Part 3
If there is minimal roadway or
other work, it is possible to have
only structures plans. When this
occurs, Mobilization, MOT, initial
contingency, and other
incidental items may appear in
the structures category.
The bridge report will separate
the “true bridge costs” from the
miscellaneous or “incidental”
bridge costs.
305
Part 3- Estimating and Review
Categories & Pay Items
Structures, Roadway, Signing &
Pavement Marking, Lighting, Signals,
ITS, Landscaping, Utilities
Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Roadway
The roadway plans cover a wide
range of activities. Some of the
most common
306
Part 3- Estimating and Review
Categories & Pay Items
Structures, Roadway, Signing &
Pavement Marking, Lighting, Signals,
ITS, Landscaping, Utilities
Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Miscellaneous Concrete, Items
400-1-15, 400-2-15, etc.
Prior to July 2009, 5 CY of Misc
Concrete was included on most
projects, for use as directed by
the Engineer. It was used
primarily around pull & junction
boxes, light poles, etc.
After July 1, 2009, no separate
payment is made for
miscellaneous concrete. The
work and materials are
incidental to the item being
installed- box, pole, etc.
Watch for old plan notes
referencing these pay items;
they should be removed.
307
Part 3- Estimating and Review
Categories & Pay Items
Structures, Roadway, Signing &
Pavement Marking, Lighting, Signals,
ITS, Landscaping, Utilities
Basis of Estimates- Part 3
524 Ditch and Slope Pavement
Ditch Blocks: included in SY
price for ditch pavement. Paid
separately (CY) only when there
is no ditch or slope pavement
308
Part 3- Estimating and Review
Categories & Pay Items
Structures, Roadway, Signing &
Pavement Marking, Lighting, Signals,
ITS, Landscaping, Utilities
Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Signing & Pavement Marking
Specifications for pavement
markings continue to change as
new materials become
available. Some materials, such
as Audible and Vibratory
Pavement Markings, are
intended only for outside
longitudinal stripes. Other
products may be limited to
undivided rural roads. The
Designer should follow PPM
guidance for selection of
pavement markings.
309
Part 3- Estimating and Review
Categories & Pay Items
Structures, Roadway, Signing &
Pavement Marking, Lighting, Signals,
ITS, Landscaping, Utilities
Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Signing & Pavement Marking
Directional Arrows: Several
years ago, separate pay items
existed for single, double, and
triple point arrows. When pay
items were restructured,
payment was changed to
“arrows”, per each. The intent
was for each arrow, regardless
of the number of points.
310
Part 3- Estimating and Review
Categories & Pay Items
Structures, Roadway, Signing &
Pavement Marking, Lighting, Signals,
ITS, Landscaping, Utilities
Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Lighting
Light Poles complete: Both
standard highway and high mast
lighting include everything from
the luminaire to the foundation;
they are complete. No separate
payment is made for drilled
shafts, excavation, or other
incidentals.
Light Poles, Special Design
should only be used when the
design standards do not apply.
Decorative, historical, and
unique designs are common
uses for Special Design light
poles.
311
Part 3- Estimating and Review
Categories & Pay Items
Structures, Roadway, Signing &
Pavement Marking, Lighting, Signals,
ITS, Landscaping, Utilities
Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Conduit: Conduit is paid as the
length from point A to B, with no
additional quantity for sweeps or
vertical distances. Note- when
multiple conduits are included in
a trench, payment is based on
the total length of conduit, not
the length of the trench.
For example: 4 conduits in a
100 foot trench = 400 total feet
of conduit.
312
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Categories & Pay Items
Structures, Roadway, Signing &
Pavement Marking, Lighting, Signals,
ITS, Landscaping, Utilities
Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Signals
Mast Arms: According to the
PPM, Mast Arms are called for
within 10 miles of the coastline.
All other locations should have
span wire assemblies. Refer to
the PPM for details.
Conduit: Conduit is paid as the
length from point A to B, with no
additional quantity for sweeps or
vertical distances. Note- when
multiple conduits are included in
a trench, payment is based on
the total length of conduit, not
the length of the trench.
For example: 4 conduits in a
100 foot trench = 400 total feet
of conduit.
313
Part 3- Estimating and Review
Categories & Pay Items
Structures, Roadway, Signing &
Pavement Marking, Lighting, Signals,
ITS, Landscaping, Utilities
Basis of Estimates- Part 3
ITS component requirements
are changing.
ITS and other local signalization
systems are frequently merging,
especially in urban areas. Watch
for updates to the specifications,
standards, and pay items. As
necessary, signals and/or ITS
pay items may be used in either
component plans.
314
Part 3- Estimating and Review
Categories & Pay Items
Structures, Roadway, Signing &
Pavement Marking, Lighting, Signals,
ITS, Landscaping, Utilities
Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Most ITS Items are “all
inclusive” for complete
installations. Read the available
specifications to verify which
incidentals are included.
315
Part 3- Estimating and Review
Categories & Pay Items
Structures, Roadway, Signing &
Pavement Marking, Lighting, Signals,
ITS, Landscaping, Utilities
Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Landscaping design varies
considerably between districts,
as well as between projects.
All landscape work should be
detailed in the landscape plans,
according to the PPM.
There are two pay items for
landscaping: small plants and
incidentals, and large plants.
Both items are lump sum,
although individual plants and
incidental items must be
tabulated in the plans.
316
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Categories & Pay Items
Structures, Roadway, Signing &
Pavement Marking, Lighting, Signals,
ITS, Landscaping, Utilities
Basis of Estimates- Part 3
No Landscape plans?
The PPM allows some minor
landscape work to be detailed in
the roadway plans. See PPM vol
2, ch 26.
When there are no landscape
pay items, tree protection and
other incidental work is included
in the related roadway pay
item(s). Ensure that the work is
detailed completely.
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Categories & Pay Items
No Landscaping
Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Irrigation work may be included
with either Landscape or
Roadway plans. Ensure that the
component plans and
specifications provide complete
details, including material
requirements.
318
Part 3- Estimating and Review
Categories & Pay Items
Structures, Roadway, Signing &
Pavement Marking, Lighting, Signals,
ITS, Landscaping, Utilities
Basis of Estimates- Part 3
Utility work varies by project and
utility company. Details and/or
Technical Specs are required for
every item of work. Ensure that
material and installation
requirements are included.
Due to the technical nature of
these items, historical
information is of limited value.
“Ballpark” price ranges may
assist the estimator, but project
requirements should be the
primary consideration.
319
Part 3- Estimating and Review
Categories & Pay Items
Structures, Roadway, Signing &
Pavement Marking, Lighting, Signals,
ITS, Landscaping, Utilities
Demonstrate webgate reports.
320
Basis of Estimates
This concludes this part.
If you would like to view
additional material, please
select the Part you would like to
view.
Part 1: Introduction to the Basis of
Estimates
Part 2: Selecting Pay Items
Part 3: Estimating and Review
321
322
Basis of Estimates- Index

Part 1: Introduction to the Basis
of Estimates
 General Information
 BOE Online
 Chapters
 Chapter 1: Updates &
Registration
 Chapter 2: Units of Measure
 Chapter 5: Contact Lists
 Chapter 6: Pay Item
Requests
 Chapter 7: Plan Notes
 Chapter 8: Forms
 Chapter 9: Trnsport &
Webgate
 Chapter 10: Formatting Items
323

Part 2- Selecting
Pay Items
 100s
 200s
 300s
 400s
 500s
 600s
 700s
 800s
 900s
 Utilities

Part 3- Estimating and
Review
 Updates
 January, this year
 July, this year
 January, next year
 July, next year
 General Conditions
 Categories & Pay Items
Structures, Roadway,
Signing & Pavement
Marking, Lighting,
Signals, ITS,
Landscaping, Utilities
Updates to this CBT
History of revisions
June 2009: created 1st draft of CBT, with parts 1 and 2 based on
previous BOE training. Part 3 in early development.
324
Updates to the CBT
Pending questions
Should the presentation be separated into 3 files?
How do we ask Districts for help with maintaining the
presentation, especially part 3?
Link to specs throughout, if more info is available.
BOE Certification? Include in QC? Project Manager & Designer
requirement
325

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