The Age of Jackson, Reform and Industrial Growth

Report
THE AGE OF
JACKSON, REFORM
AND INDUSTRIAL
GROWTH
1824-1860
The Rise of Mass Democracy
1825-1840
I. The Corrupt Bargain
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Early 1820’s sectional differences
emerge after the Panic of 1819
and the Missouri Compromise
New types of political parties
emerged, became accepted
New styles of campaigns,
banners, badges, politicking
1828 new party, Democrats
1830’s Whig Party emerges
Two party system part of checks
and balances of political power
More people began to vote (78%
in1840)
I. The Corrupt Bargain
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1824- Last of the old style elections
Adams (MA), Clay (KY), Wm. Crawford
(GA), Jackson (TN) all running for president
Jackson strongest personal appeal, support
from the West
Won a majority of the vote, did not win in
electoral college
Clay (also Speaker of the House), threw
support behind Adams
Clay hated Jackson (from 1818 Florida
foray)
Did not like Adams either, but both were
nationalist
I. The Corrupt Bargain
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1825 vote in House gave election
to Adams, Clay becomes Sec. of
State (seen as stepping stone to
presidency)
Supporters of Jackson called it a
corrupt bargain
Condemned Clay
No positive evidence of “corrupt
bargain”, Clay was qualified to
be Sec. of State
Changed political system, no more
elections behind closed doors
II. Yankee Misfit in the White House
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Adams could be an irritable loner
Great Sec. of State, poor president
Not good at politics
Did not have popular support
Kept people in office, didn't do political favors
for supporters
Nationalistic views and ideas in contrast with
national mood turning towards sectionalism and
state’s rights
Southerners thought he might take infringe on
their “peculiar institution”
Land policies and Indian policies turned off
Westerners
III. Going “Whole Hog” for Jackson in 1828
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By 1828 Democrat-Republicans split
into two groups
National Republicans supported
Adams
Republicans supported Jackson
Jackson seem as champion of common
man
Mudslinging, accusations in election of
1828
Vote split along sectional lines
West and South supported Jackson
New England supported Adams
Vote split in rest of country but
Jackson won the electoral vote handily
Shift of political power from eastern
seaboard to emerging western states
IV. Old Hickory as President
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Jackson from humble beginnings
Force of personality and power of leadership led to rise to national prominence
First president from the west, frontier aristocrat, slave owner
Election seen as rise of “peoples champion”
Wild inauguration, supporters flooded Washington, and wrecked White House
Conservatives saw this as the rise of the dreaded democratic mob
V. The Spoils System
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Under Jackson spoils system used on a
large scale (rewarding supporters with
political jobs)
Washington was due for an overturn in
the established powers, many had been
around since the early 1800’s
Rewarding cronies led to scandal, but it
was an important element to the
development of the two party system
Promise of “spoils” led to party loyalty
instead of economic, class and
geographic loyalties
VI. The Tricky “Tariff of Abominations”
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Tariffs had protected American Industry against European
competition
Invited retaliatory tariffs against American goods
Tariff raised in 1824, 1828
Southerners thought tariffs discriminated against them
Tariff of 1828 called “Tariff of Abominations”, “Black Tariffs”
Southerners sold goods on world market, unprotected by tariffs,
forced to buy manufactured good in a market protected by tariffs
Northeast was having a boom in manufacturing, how was the South
doing?
Tariff was an easy scapegoat
VI. The Tricky “Tariff of Abominations”
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These feeling were heightened by the fear
that the federal government would interfere
with slavery
Missouri Compromise, Denmark Vesey slave
rebellion (1822), mounting pressure in
support of abolition (in US and abroad)
Tariff seen as issue to the South as a way to
take a stand for states’ rights
South Carolina took the lead
1828 The South Carolina Exposition secretly
written by John Calhoun (vice president)
Wrote that tariff was unjust and
unconstitutional, proposed that states should
nullify tariff within their own borders
VI. “Nullies” in South Carolina
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Tariff of 1832 tipped balance in SC to support nullification
Delegates declared tariff null and void in state
Threatened to take state out of the Union
No other Southern states actively supported SC actions
Jackson would not permit defiance, dispatched military
reinforcements to state to enforce, collect tariff
Jackson endorsed tariff
Henry Clay stepped in to broker a compromise
VI. “Nullies” in South Carolina
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Compromise Tariff Bill of 1833-would
reduce tariff 10% over 8 years
Debate broke down over sectional lines
South favored compromise, Jackson would
not have to use the military
Force Bill also passed at the same time,
authorized president to use military to
collect tariff
SC delegates met again repealed
ordinance of nullification, but they nullified
force bill
Only winner was Clay, seen as hero that
saved the country
VII. The Trail of Tears
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Jacksonians committed to Western Expansion, Native Americans in the way
Since 1790’s American policy toward Indians, they were recognized as
separate nations
Acquired land through treaties, terms violated regularly as Anglo settlement
pushed west
Some tribes assimilated into American culture, some resisted it
Cherokee of GA, NC assimilated into American ways (part of 5 Civilized
Tribes- Creek, Choctaw, Seminole, Chickasaw)
Cherokee embraced civilization- written constitution, written legal code,
alphabet
Some were even slave holders
1830- Congress passes Indian Removal Act, appropriated money to remove
Indians to permanent reservation west of the Mississippi (act supported by
Jackson, Southerners and Westerners)
Jackson, like many Westerners thought Indians needed to be removed east of
the Mississippi, open land to white settlement
VII. The Trail of Tears
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1828- Georgia Legislature declared
Cherokee tribal council illegal,
asserted jurisdiction over their lands
Cherokees appealed to Supreme
Court (two separate cases)
Court upheld rights of Indians
Jackson disagreed with the Supreme
Court, ordered removal of Indians
(“Marshall made his decision, now let
him enforce it”)
Uprooted more than 100,000 Indians,
westward movement known as the
Trail of Tears
1836 Bureau of Indian Affairs
established to administer relations
with Native Americans
As settlers pushed west the permanent
frontier for Indians gradually shrank
and many other guarantees went up
in smoke
VII. The Trail of Tears
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Sauk and Fox Indians in Wisconsin
and Illinois resisted eviction
Led by Black Hawk the rebellion was
crushed by American troops in 1832
(Black Hawk War)
Seminoles waged a bitter guerilla
war for seven years in the swampy
Everglades (1835-1842)
Leader Osceola was captured under
a flag of truce, some fled deeper
into the swamps, 4/5’s were moved
to Oklahoma
VIII. The Bank War
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Jackson distrusted big business and the Bank of the
US
Why?
Banks minted gold and silver coins
Paper money printed by private banks (value
fluctuated with health of bank and amount of money
printed
Bank of US source of credit, principle depository of
federal money, source of credit and stability
Acted like another branch of government
VIII. The Bank War
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Bank not accountable to people, existed to
make a profit for investors, seen as against
“American "way
1832 Bank War begins
Webster, Clay push for recharter of Bank to
make it a political issue in election of 1832
If passed and signed by Jackson it would
alienate his western followers, if vetoed he
would loose support of wealthy, influential
easterners
Jackson vetoed, declared bank
unconstitutional, found it harmful to nation
Another instance of Jackson regarding
executive branch superior to judicial branch
Jackson expands power of executive branch
IX. Old Hickory Wallops Clay in 1832
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Clay and Jackson squared off in election of
1832
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First time third party ran, Anti-Masonic Party
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Supporters in NY, Middle states, New England
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Against secret societies, support from
evangelical Protestants (use political power to
bring moral and religious change)
Jacksonians against government interference in
social and economic life
First use of nominating conventions
Clay had support from businessmen and
eastern newspapers
Jackson wins election handily (219-49 in
electoral college
X. Burying Biddle’s Bank
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Charter for Bank of US expire 1836
Fear of Biddle to bring back bank, Jackson wants
to take it out
1833 Jackson removes federal deposits, bleed
bank dry
Had to reshuffle cabinet to find people to support
him
Biddle calls in loans from Bank to show
importance, causes financial panic
Jackson places funds in state banks (“pet banks”)
Banks flood country with paper money, currency
becomes unreliable
1836- Specie Circular required public lands to be
purchased with hard currency (gold, silver
currency)
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Put brakes on land speculation, sales
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Causes financial panic and crash in 1837
XI. The Birth of the Whigs
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1830’s new political party emerges- Whigs
Hatred of Jackson was what they rallied around
Whigs were led by Clay, Calhoun, Webster
Attracted groups alienated by Jackson- supporters of
American System, southern states righter's, northern
industrialists, absorbed evangelical protestants from AntiMasonic Party
Progressive in support of active government programs and
reforms, called for internal improvements
Supported prisons, asylums, public schools and the market
economy
Claimed to be defenders of common man (stole from
Democrats)
XII. Election of 1836
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Martin Van Buren chosen as Jackson’s
successor
Whigs don’t nominate single
candidate, many candidates for
regional appeal
Wanted to put election in hands of
House
Van Buren won election easily
Van Buren inherited problems over
which he had no control
Did not have the force of personality
that Jackson had to deal with
problems
Depression, possible war with
Canada, depression
XIII. Depression, Doldrums and the Independent
Treasury
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Panic 1837 caused by over-speculation on lands,
borrowed money based on shaky currency and
wildcat banks
Jackson’s policies on the Bank of the US
Rising grain prices
British Banks calling in loans
Caused commodity prices to drop, land sales to fall
off, factories closed, high unemployment and bank
closures
XIII. Depression, Doldrums and the Independent
Treasury
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Whigs tried to make government more active to
end depression (expansion of credit, tariffs), Van
Buren kept government out of economy
Van Buren tried to help economy through the
“Divorce Bill”, keeping government out of banking
by establishing an independent treasury, caused
credit to shrink
Not popular
1840- Passed by Congress, repealed next year,
revived in 1846 and continued until the Civil War
XIV. Gone to Texas
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Americans want Texas, remote backwater of Spanish Empire
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US abandoned claim in 1819
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1823- new Mexican government gives land to Stephen Austin
to bring settlers
2 conditions settlers had to become Mexican citizens, become
Catholic
Ignored by settlers, annoyed by presence of Mexican soldiers
and government
Settlers typical American individualist, did not want to be
pushed around
Slavery an issue, outlawed in Mex., settlers brought slaves
anyway
1836 Mex. Leader Santa Ana attempts to repress Texans
independence
XV. The Lone Star Rebellion
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Early 1836 Texans declare independence
Santa Anna attacks Alamo and Goliad
become rallying cries for Texans, galvanized
Americans behind Texas cause
Gen. Sam Houston lures Mexicans east to San
Jacinto (near present day Houston), and
defeats Santa Anna
Forces Santa Anna to sign treaty giving land to
Rio Grande to Texas and removing troops from
region
Mex. Does not recognize agreement
Texas becomes an independent republic but
wanted to be part of the United States
Refused admission, abolitionists did want new
slave state
Seen as a plot against slavery to Southerners
XVI. Log Cabins and Hard Cider of 1840
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1840 Van Buren runs again for president,
Whigs get behind one candidate William
Henry Harrison
Harrison, war hero and Indian fighter
Views n issues vaguely known
Played as a “common man”, really from old
Virginia family
Selected John Tyler as VP
Plan was to drive corrupt Jacksonians from
White House
Harrison won, time for Whig ideas of
government action to stimulate the economy
XVII. Two Party System
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1840’s American politics adopt populist, democratic style
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Old aristocracy seen as bad
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Politicians wanted to claim humble beginnings, politicians had to adopt
“common touch”
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Resulted in formation of vigorous and durable two party system
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Both parties grew out of Jeffersonian Republicanism
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Democrats were for the liberty of the individual, state’s rights, federal
restraint
Whigs supported national bank, protective tariffs, internal improvements
and moral reforms
Both mass based, appeal led to compromise within the parties, kept
extreme views from becoming dominant, reduced sectionalism
FORGING THE NATIONAL
ECONOMY
1790-1860
I. Westward Movement
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Americans constantly pushed west, cheap land opportunity
First part of 19th century new immigrants joined movement
(Irish, Germans)
New machinery allowed crops to be cultivated quicker, goods
produced faster, expectations for workers changed
New methods of transportation allowed goods, people and
products to move quicker
Origins of market oriented economy
I. Westward Movement
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Jackson symbolized the rise of trans-Appalachia
Raw frontier seen as typically American
1850 half of all Americans under 30
Seen as restless energetic, always on the move
Demographic center of America had move steadily westward
Reality of pioneer life was grim (especially for women)
Rugged individualism became part of national character- Was this true?
II. Shaping the Western Landscape
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People molded physical environment
Left behind fields destroyed by tobacco cultivation
Planted “Kentucky Bluegrass” from charred canfields,
1820-1840 trappers, mountain men had decimated
beaver across the West
Buffalo, sea otters were hunted into near extension for
their fur
Ecological Imperialism- exploitation of Americas natural
bounty
II. Shaping the Western Landscape
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Many Americans revered nature
American wilderness seen as unique to many
Europeans
Wild unspoiled land one of the nations defining
attributed- move west you can always start over
Inspired literature, painting and by the end of the
1800’s a conservation movement
III. The March of the Millions
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Population doubling every 25 years
By 1860 there were 33 states, 4th most populous
country in the world
Urban growth- by 1860 there were 43 cities with
more than 20,000 (1790 only 3)
Urbanization brought problems (inadequate public
services, poor housing)
1823 Boston developed first sewer system, 1842
NYC first piped in water supply
III. The March of the Millions
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By 1840’s population growth comes from immigration
Most Irish and German
What caused them to come to America?
Europe had surplus of population, running out of room
America seen as land of opportunity
Freedom of European class system
Abundant, cheap land
No compulsory military service
IV. The Emerald Isle Moves West
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Mid 1840’s potato crop failure
pushes many out of Ireland
1830-1860 2 million Irish come to the
United States
New comers too poor to buy land,
stayed in cities on eastern seaboard
(NYC largest Irish city in the world)
Irish had to take worst jobs, poorest
housing- viewed as a social menace
Competed with African Americans for
jobs (Irish did not support abolition)
Formed Irish only clubs (Ancient Order
of Hibernians, Molly Maguire's)
IV. The Emerald Isle Moves West
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Irish acquired property and
improved lives in America
Politicians wanted to cultivate
Irish vote
Many entered politics and
gained control of political
machines (NYC Tammany Hall)
Dominated police departments
V. The German Forty-Eighters
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1830-1860 over 1.5 million Germans immigrated to US
Uprooted farmers, political refugees
German immigrants better off than Irish, had more money
Moved to Middle West, established farms
Less political power, widely scattered population
V. The German Forty-Eighters
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Germans more educated than Irish,
supported public schools
Were not supporters of slavery
Fled militarism of Europe, became
isolationists
Language, culture viewed as
suspicious by many
Settled in colonies, separate from
surrounding community
Brought Old World drinking habits
(brought beer to America
VI. Flare-ups of Antiforeignism
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Immigration inflamed anti-foreign sentiment
Feared they would take jobs, worried about
“popish” newcomers
1840’s Immigrants establish separate Catholic
school system, protect children from Protestant
indoctrination
By 1850 Catholics largest single religious group in
America
VI. Flare-ups of Antiforeignism
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“Nativists” rally for political action, form
Know-Nothing Party 1849
Wanted restrictions on immigration, easier
ways to deport “aliens”
Promoted literature to expose foreigners
(most of it untrue)
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Mass violence 1834, Catholic convent burned
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1844 Philadelphia nativists, Irish Catholics riot
Effects of immigration
a.
b.
c.
made America more pluralistic society
Growth of economy really did not
jeopardize wealth of others
Labor of immigrants helped fuel economic
expansion
VII. Creeping Mechanization
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1750 Industrial Revolution begins in England with
mass production of textiles
End of muscle, animal power beginning of machine
power
Slow to catch on in US cheap land, labor scarce
Capital in short supply, raw materials in America
were untapped
1840’s rise of immigration caused labor pool to grow
VIII. Whitney Ends Fiber Famine
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Samuel Slater from England steals
plans for first textile machines
1791 first efficient machine for spinning
cotton
1793 Eli Whitney invents first cotton gin
(separates cotton fiber from seeds,
50X more effective than human labor
Changed history of America made
cotton growing profitable enterprise
VIII. Whitney Ends Fiber Famine
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Slavery had been dying out
Invention of cotton gin caused more acres to be
cleared -Cotton Kingdom moved westward (into AL,
MS)
Cotton sent to mills in New England
Factories were established in Northeast
Little manufacturing in South, capital tied up in land
and slaves
New England ideal for industrialization
a)
soil too poor for farming,
b)
dense population, markets available,
c)
shipping allowed for export of finished products
d)
large poor immigrant population for labor
e)
rapid rivers good for water powered mills
IX. Marvels in Manufacturing
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Consequences of embargo 1807 and War of 1812 was
capital kept in America
Used to invest in American manufacturing
After war British flood America with cheap goods, Tariff of
1816 attempts to protect American manufacturing
Eli Whitney develops idea of mass produced interchangeable
parts for muskets, by 1850 became the basis of mass
production
Most factories located in the northeast (industrial plant of
America)
IX. Marvels in Manufacturing
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1846 Isaac Singer, Elias Howe invent sewing
machine (mass production of clothes)
Patents increased 306 in 1800, 28,000
1860
Legal status of business organizations
changed
Limited liability principle allowed investors to
invest in companies
Companies could concentrate capital
Investment capital companies used in textiles,
railroads, insurance and banking
1844 Invention of telegraph (Samuel Morse)
brought world closer together
(revolutionized exchange of information)
X. Workers and Wage Slaves
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Industrial Revolution end of age
of close personal relationships
with boss
Spindle Cities grew up around
factories to house workers
Hours long, wages low, poor
working conditions
Could not form labor unions to
improve life at work (criminal
conspiracy)
Child labor a huge problem
X. Workers and Wage Slaves
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Wages did rise (1820’s-1830’s)
More workers could vote
Supported Democratic Party of Jackson
Fight against all forms of privilege (Bank of US), reflected
anxiety about new capitalist economy
1840 Van Buren reduces work day for federal workers, states
eventually followed
Workers gained right to strike but usually lost
They could easily be replaced by workers “fresh off the boat”
from Europe
Commonwealth vs. Hunt (1842), Mass; unions were not
conspiracies
XI. Women and the Economy
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Women left farms, went to work in factories
Gave them greater economic independence
Lowell Mills (Mass.) seen as a model workplace
for “factory girls”
Factory provided income, protected morality
Overall employment opportunities for women
were scarce
Influence of Harriet Beecher Stowe, many
women became teachers (feminized profession)
Vast majority of working women single
XI. Women and the Economy
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Women married, left jobs
Work as wives and mothers called “cult of domesticity”, glorified
functions as a homemaker
A.
Home was women’s sphere
B.
Love determined choice of spouse
C.
Nuclear family became closer
D.
Home was a refuge from the industrial world
E.
Number of children per family dropped
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Domestic feminism in the home, growing power and influence of women
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New ideas of raising children, family more child centered, affectionate
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Children raised by morals of “modern family” were good citizens
XII. Western Farmers Reap a Revolution in the Fields
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Farms were changing the West
Pioneer families planted corn, lots of it
Staple market item, had many uses
Western goods floated down Mississippi River
Fed the south
Western Farmers wanted to cultivate more acres
but soil hard to break up
1837 John Deere introduces steel plow
1830’s Cyrus McCormick introduces mechanical
reaper, could do the work of 5 men
Farmers could plant more land, rise of large scale
cash crop agriculture for region
Farmers became businesspeople, looked east for a
new market for their crops
XIII. Highways and Steamboats
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Need for cheap and efficient carriers of
products
1790’s Lancaster Turnpike first highway
(charged toll and made a huge profit)
Turnpike building spurred western
development, allowed for easy access to the
West
Use of federal funds to build roads opposed
by state’s righter's and Eastern states (fear
of loss of population)
1811 Federal government builds
Cumberland Road (finished 1852)
XIII. Highways and Steamboats
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1807 Robert Fulton launches steamboat
craze
Steamboats could travel upstream, against
the current
Navigable rivers two way arteries of
transportation
1820- sixty steamboats on Mississippi River
1860- over 1,000
Steamboats opened up West and South
Goods could be shipped out cheaply,
quickly
Bring in manufactured goods
New population centers grew up along the
banks
XIV. “Clinton’s Big Ditch” in New York
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Canal cutting craze
1817-1825 New York financed
building of Erie Canal, linked
Great Lakes and Hudson River
Cost of shipping and time of
transportation dropped
Value of land along canal went up,
new cities (Rochester, Syracuse)
Interior cities population exploded
(Chicago, Detroit, Cleveland)
Settlers migrated from northeast to
Midwest
XVI. Iron Horse
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Railroad not limited by geography
1828 first RR in US
1860 30,000 miles of track, most of
it in north
Faced opposition from canal
backers, considered as public
menace
Problems overcome by technologydifferences in gauge (as time went
by became more standardized),
improvements in brakes, Pullman
sleeping car introduced (1859)
XVII. Cables, Clippers and Pony Riders
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1858- first trans-Atlantic telegraph cable connected Europe and US
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1840’S-1850’s- “Golden Age of American Shipping”
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Clipper Ships rapidly move freight across Pacific, eventually replaced by
steam powered ships
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1860- Pony Express established, folded after 18 months (telegraph better)
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Dying technology of wind and muscle power, replaced by machines
XIV. The Transport Web Binds the Union
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Before 1830 West linked to
South by Mississippi River
Building of RR linked North to
West, robbed Mississippi
River of it’s traffic
NYC became major port of
nation
Emergence of continental
economy, each region
specialized in economic
activity
IXX. The Market Revolution
Market Revolution transformed country from small, scattered
subsistence farmers and workshops into national network of industry
and commerce
 Questions over who should regulate economy? Who owns technology?
A.
Supreme Court decisions sided with liberal state laws that
encouraged greater competition in the marketplace “rights of the
community”
 Self sufficient households transformed
A.
Wage earners went to work, made money and purchased
manufactured goods
B.
Home became a place of refuge from work, separate sphere for
women
 Gap between have and have-nots grew, greatest in cities
 Rising wages helped diffuse potential conflict between classes
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THE FERMENT OF REFORM
AND CULTURE
Chapter 15
1790-1860
I. Reviving Religion
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Third revolution in antebellum period (political,
economic) transformation of American character
More educated, upstanding, improve society
Promoted new religions, better public schools, rights
for women, abstinence from alcohol and abolition
of slavery
Drew reforming impulse from religion
Beginning in the 1790’s into early 19th century
Second Great Awakening transformed place of
religion in US
I. Reviving Religion
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Most Americans in first half of 19th century attended
church
Not old Puritan theology but new rational theology
based on reason and science
Many Founding Fathers were supporters of Deism
(Supreme Being endowed humans with capacity for
moral behavior, belief in reason not faith)
Deism inspired Unitarianism
Unitarianism began in New England end of 1700’s
Stressed essential goodness of human nature, not
hellfire doctrine of Calvinism
I. Reviving Religion
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1800 new wave of revivals began
on southern and western frontiers,
called Second Great Awakening
Converted souls, reorganized
churches and spawned numerous
new sects
Affected many areas of American
life from prison reform, the women’s
movement and abolition of slavery
Spread through “camp meetings”
that lasted several days
Many saved returned to old ways
after meetings over, provided social
outlet on lonely frontier
I. Reviving Religion
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Methodists, Baptists gained most converts,
each sect promoted personal salvation,
democratic control over church affairs
Preachers called circuit riders
Charles Grandison Finney greatest of revival
preachers, great orator
Became president of Oberlin College (Ohio),
hotbed of abolitionism
Second G.A. caused feminization of religion,
most ardent supporters of new religions and
era’s reforms
Demonstrated ambivalence toward changing
world (economic, industrial, market
revolutions)
II. Denominational Diversity
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Revivals caused fragmentation of religions
Western New York “Burned Over District”
because so many preachers came and preached
hellfire and damnation
1830’s- Millerites (Adventists) came from this
region
Leader said Christ would return on a certain
date, did not happen
Second G.A. widened lines between classes
Prosperous, conservative not affected by
revivalism
Easterners, better educated
Methodists, Baptists form less prosperous, newly
established regions
Less educated, less prosperous
Religions split over slavery issues (north and
south
III. A Desert Zion in Utah
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1830- Joseph Smith reported he
received golden plates after a visit
from an angel
Became Book of Mormon
Truly native American religion
Opposition to Mormon beliefs, ways
caused group to migrate west
Antagonized non-Mormons, voting as a
unit, practicing polygamy, cooperative
economic practices
1844 Smith and brother murdered by a
mob in Carthage, IL
Leadership of Mormons taken up by
Brigham Young
III. A Desert Zion in Utah
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1846-1847 Young leads Mormon pioneers to Utah
1848 -5,000 settlers
Irrigation, hard work, luck, leadership of Young- community
thrived, became a frontier theocracy
Clashed with Washington government, could not control Young
1857 send federal army to allow US appointed judges to
serve, inability to conform to American standards of culture
delayed statehood until 1896
IV. Free Schools for Free People
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Tax supported primary schools for children of the poor, wealthy used private
tutors
During first half of 1800’s tax supported schools seen as good for teaching
American ways and democracy
Little red schoolhouse became a shrine of democracy
School teachers poorly trained, poorly paid
Reform brought by Horace Mann, campaigned for better school houses, better
pay, expanded curriculum
Noah Webster, wrote school books designed to promote patriotism
William McGuffey (McGuffey’s Readers) lessons in patriotism
V. Higher Goals for Higher learning
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Many small, denominational colleges established during this
period in the South and West
First state supported universities established (University of
North Carolina 1795, University of Virginia 1819)
Changes in curriculum from traditional religious training to
modern languages and the sciences
Women’s education grew (frowned upon earlier)
Oberlin College in Ohio opened doors to women and blacks
Tax supported libraries, magazines, traveling lecturers
expanded zeal for learning to wider audiences
VI. An Age of Reform
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Reform campaigns inspired by religion sought
to build a more perfect society
Appealed to middle class women as a way to
escape home, enter arena of public affairs
Reformers wanted to reaffirm traditional
values in a world disrupted and transformed
by the changes brought by industrialization
Debtor’s prisons were abolished
Criminal punishment was reformed, idea of
prison as place for reform established
Treatment of mentally ill, led by Dorthea Dix
Insane Asylums were places of brutal
treatment and she campaigned to make them
more humane, idea of mental illness born at
this time
VII. Demon Rum-The Old Deluder
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Drinking problem attracted attention of
nation
Caused decrease in efficiency of labor,
higher risk of accidents in new industrial
machines
1826- American Temperance Society
founded in Boston
Drinkers seen as scourge from Old World
Temperance pledges signed, “Cold Water
Army”
Melodramatic books demonstrated evils
of alcohol (Ten Nights in a Barroom and
What I Saw There-1854)
Drinking dropped as the century wore on,
so the movement worked
VIII. Women in Revolt
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Women’s place was in the home, could not vote or own property
Legally regarded as minors
Changing economy separated men and women into different spheres
Women were artistic and refined, keepers of societies conscience
During antebellum period female reformers became more vocal
Most were from middle class families, white
Began to demand rights for women
Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, Grimke sisters all
fought for women’s rights (many had Quaker backgrounds and were
abolitionists)
1848- Seneca Falls Convention
Women's Rights Convention, Stanton read “Declaration of Sentiments”,
based on Declaration of Independence, “all men and women created equal”
Things changed for women by the eve of the Civil War some had property
rights, beginning to gain admission to colleges- still they could not vote
IX. Wilderness Utopias
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Over 40 cooperative communities established to live out the
reform minded ideals of the age, most did not last long
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1825- New Harmony, Indiana established by Robert Owen
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1841 Brook Farm, Mass. Based on ideas of transcendentalism
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1848- Oneida Community in NY practiced free love, selection
of parents for superior offspring
Did better than most, manufactured goods that supported
community
Shakers established by Mother Anne Lee, started in 1770’s and
grew to almost 6,000 members, known for simple furniture
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Communities that promised equality for all members
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Many were in rural, isolated areas
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Based on religious ideas and principles
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Members typically worked common land and property
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Many quickly ran into futility and failed because after the
founder passed away each idealist had their own vision
X. The Dawn of Scientific Achievement
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Early American inventions centered practical gadgets, not
pure science (plow, mechanical reaper, etc.)
Some scientific talent in America
Most notably John J. Audubon, studied birds of America in
detail
American medicine primitive and life was short (avg. 50
years)
XI. Artistic Achievements
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American architecture copied European
styles
Thomas Jefferson was the best American
architect in early America
Competent painters, Gilbert Sullivan
(portraits of Washington), John Trumbull
(Revolutionary War scenes)
Hudson River School of painters,
romanticized local landscapes (misty,
foggy, rainy, man very small)
Competition for paintings comes from
daguerreotype (crude type of photo)
Minstrel show, performers in “black face"
became popular forms of entertainment
XII. Blossoming of National Literature
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Most influential publications up to this point
were political essays (Common Sense,
Federalist)
Nationalism and spirit of independence
after War of 1812 new group of writers
emerged, “Knickerbocker Group”,
Washington Irving, James Fenimore Cooper,
William Cullen Bryant
American themes of nature, the supernatural
and individualism
Novels widely read in Europe, legitimized
American literature
Natty Bumppo became the archetype of the
American westerner
XIII. Trumpeters of Transcendentalism
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Began in New England
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Release from liberalizing straightjacket of Puritan ideology
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Reaction to John Locke and that truth is acquired through the senses
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Each person possesses an inner light or “Oversoul”
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Beliefs included commitment to self- reliance, fundamental truth came form
experience
Rejected authority and conventional wisdom
Best know Emerson, Thoreau
Thoreau lived in cabin on Walden Pond in Mass. For two years wrote Walden:
Or Life in the Woods
Refused to pay poll tax in Mexican-American War, wrote essay On the Duty of
Civil Disobedience
Idealistic tract promoting nonviolence
Thoreau saw civil disobedience as the right of individuals to refuse to obey laws
they feel are unjust
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Walt Whitman wrote Leaves of Grass, became poet laureate of democracy
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Writings reflected leaving behind Old World, embracing new

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