1 The principles of the traditional classification
of the English vocabulary
2 Notional and functional parts of speech.
3 The field structure of the English vocabulary.
4 New approaches to the vocabulary
The division of words into classes
Semantic (meaning)
Formal (form)
Functional (function)
derivational features
a set of grammatical
function in the sentence
Traditional grammar approach
• Scherba: notional parts of speech
(N, V, Adv, Adj, Pron, Num)
Functional parts of speech
(art, prep, conj, part, modal words, interj)
• V.Vinogradov: notional parts of speech
(N, V, Adv, Adj, Pron, Num, the
category of state (alone, alive,ashore)
Functional: particles proper, linking
particles, prepositions,conjunctions)
• M. Blokh (semantico-grammatical analysis):
Notional (names): N,V,Adv,Adj
pronominal words (substitutes of names):
pronouns, numbers, words of broad semantcs
(“do”, ”thing” etc. )
Functional words: prep, conj, particles,
determiners etc.
Modern approaches
• J. Sweet divided the vocabulary
on the morphological properties into
declinables (N, Adj, V) and indeclinables (Adv, Prep,
Conj, Interj).
on the basis of the syntactic functioning of definite
classes of words into
- nominal words (noun-words) include nounpronouns, noun-numerals, infinitives, gerunds;
- adjective words include adjective pronouns,
adjective numerals, particles;
- verb group includes personal forms and verbals.
• Glison’s classification is based on two formal
indications: morphological form and word-order
(the group which has formal indications of wordchanging (N, V, Adj, Adv)
and the group which has no such indications.
nouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs
• Sledda distinguishes inflectional (nominals,
verbals, adjectivals, adverbials) and positional
classes. He also adds 8 smaller classes here:
auxiliary verbs, determiners, prepositions
conjunctions and different classes of pronouns.
O. Jespersen proposed a classification based on
the lexical meaning and morphological function
of the word in the phrase.
(The theory of three ranks)
• primary word (Adj + N) e.g. a barking dog
• secondary word (Adj + N) - a barking dog
• tertiary words: a furiously barking dog
In the junction we find primaries and adjuncts,
In the sentence I see a dog we find nexus (I see)
and adnex (a dog)
The field structure of the English Vocabulary
parts of speech
1 The lexical meaning is
bright and distinct
2 They аre open classes
3 They perform certain
functions in the sentence
4 They form the "Lexical
Paradigm of Nomination“
1 The lexical meaning is
very general and weak;
2 they are closed systems
(include a limited number of
3 function as linking and
specifying words.
4 They have obligatory
The Lexical Paradigm of Nomination
Fancy - to fancy - fanciful - fancifully
To decide – decision – decisive – decisively
Beauty – to beautify – beautiful - beautifully
an end - to end -final - finally" (lexemic suppletivity),
gratitude - grateful - gratefully - to express
gratitude (phrasemic suppletivity).
one, it, they … - to do, to make, to act … - such,
same, similar … - thus, so, there…

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