The Decline and Fall of the Romanov Dynasty

Report
The Decline and Fall of the
Romanov Dynasty Part 1
Case Study
Modern History Preliminary Course
By
S.Angelo
History Head Teacher
East Hills Girls Technology High School
2007
Background Information
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Major themes
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Historical development
Agrarian problems and the peasants
Economic and industrial development
Role of the State
The Nobility
The development of ideas and ideologies
Historical development
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Kiev and Novgorod were settled and developed by Slavs
Tartars overran most of Russia and stopped the developments in Kiev
Novgorod continued to develop and traded with the Hanseatic League
The Tartar rule was largely instrumental in determining the pattern for Russia –
local lords – boyars – ruled their own estates and surrounding areas with no
overall chief
In order to rid Russia of the Tartars the people had to unite
The Prince of Moscow gained power through this process and became the Tzar
of Muscovy
The Tartars were eventually expelled and a new kingdom set up in Moscow by
Ivan the Terrible
At the end of the 16th Century development in Russia was similar to other
countries
However, the desire to dominate all areas led to the defeat of Novgorod and the
destruction of trade and the merchant class until the late 19th century
It also destroyed any form of democratic rule without a ruler
Agrarian problems and the peasants
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Tartar domination stressed agriculture rather than trade as an economic basis
This was to ensure self sufficiency
Society blended autocracy and feudalism and was state controlled
Patriarchal groups were the main landholding unit
Land could be seized by the strong and weaker groups had no protection in law
By the end of the 16th century free peasants had become serfs
This was most likely due to the reliance of landowners for labour to work on their
estates
Kovalevensky suggests that this may also have been linked to the economic
dependence of serfs on the landowner for tools, animals and other necessities which
were borrowed and repaid in labour
In the 17th century laws were enacted restricting the movement of peasants
(Restrictive Code of 1649)
Indebtedness, custom and legislation now meant the peasants were in actuality serfs
3 kinds of serfs
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obrok = paid rent in money or kind
Barshchina = worked a certain number of days on landowners’ estates
Household serfs
Economic and industrial development
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Tradespeople were also bonded and could not move freely
Industry was not part of towns, but rural until the 19th century when the State
took control
Trade was limited and the largest market was the regular army
Peter the Great encouraged the development of factories and peasants
were forced to work in them
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Industrial development was hampered by great distance and lack of an
adequate communication system – first railway was not built until 1850 and
not developed until the 1880s
Religious beliefs also hampered the development of the economy and
industry
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The larges were cotton and textiles
The move to Greek orthodox meant a belief in thrift, frugality, simplicity
Agricultural development was not geared to produce for sale
Industrial production was limited by the state
Role of the State
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Every group in society had to give some service to
the state
Landowners were the military, administrative,
economic and financial agents of the State
In turn the State depended on the Nobility
By 1800 Russia had a population of 36 million
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54% serfs of landowners; 40% state serfs
6% (about 2 million) were not serfs
The Nobility
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The 18th century saw a revival of privilege and demand for more privilege
and power by the Nobility
In some countries this led to revolution, centralized government, new
bureaucracy, or parliamentary reforms
In Russia the Nobles were a class with a Table of Ranks which existed
virtually intact until 1917
The most powerful group was the Guards Regiment until 1825
Catherine the Great freed Nobles from state service in 1762
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Charter of Nobility codifying their privileges
control over local government
monopoly over land and serf ownership
Nobles were mostly poverty stricken
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Poor harvests – poor soil and climate
Division by inheritance (smaller landholdings)
Lack of improvement in technique
Dependence on the tsars for land
The development of ideas and ideologies
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The intelligentsia until the end of the 19th century were usually Nobility – most others were
illiterate
Liberalism developed fostered by the ideas from young officers during the Napoleonic Wars
The landowners had no share in the administration
Education was limited to the upper classes
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1824 the Minister for Public Instruction stated that knowledge was only good when it was used like salt –
used appropiately
Education was graded according to the social level and future occupation of the students
Slavophiles developed – a group of landholders with close connections to their estates and the
provinces
Westerners – anti bureaucratic group supported by the petty nobility, lower clergy, merchants,
younger sons
However all these developments took place in the shadow of censorship laws brought in by
Nicholas I in 1826 which meant nothing political could be discussed
Literature then became the vehicle for dissemination of ideas
Philosophy was suppressed
Karl Marx’s Capital was allowed because it was an academic theory for specialists
After 1848 all Russians living abroad were recalled, no foreigners were allowed in and no reports
of the French Revolution were published
In 1850 scholars and universities could no longer get material from abroad
You could not even use the word evolution because it sounded too much like revolution
Key Terms and Concepts
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Autocracy
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Liberalism
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Lit. Russia lover –
Serfdom
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Lit. Slav lover – landowners who had close connections with their estate and
provinces
Russophile
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Political theory that government powers should be limited and the rights and
freedoms of individuals should be protected
Slavophile
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Rule by one person with unrestricted power
Basis of social and economic order – bound a class to give services, good or
money to another privileged class
Orthodoxy
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Christian belief of the Greek-speaking Orthodox Church; the government and
ruler were intimately linked – the ruler was the earthly reflection of God and
reinforced the concept of autocracy
Key People: The Romanovs
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The Romanovs ruled Russia 1613 – 1918
– Mikhail Romanov 1613 - 1644
– Alexis 1645 – 1676 – relied on his boyar advisers and there were many
uprisings 1648, 1662, 1670-71
– Peter the Great – transformed Russia; wars, religious, political
– Elizabeth I (daughter of Peter the Great) 1741 – 1762
– Peter III & Catherine the Great (German princess) – reformer – attempts to
westernise Russia; - support for nobility – increase in education; medical;
expansion wars – Russo-Turkish; Poland
– Alexander I 1801 – 1825 – restored some freedoms; increased army;
Napoleon’s invasion of Russia – and defeat of French
– Nicholas I 1825 – 1855 – Decembrist revolt; Crimean War
– Alexander II 1855 – 1881 – encouraged the arts – Tchaikovsky; Tolstoy;
Pushkin; Gogol; Dostoyevsky; reforms – abolition of serfdom – Emancipation
Acti 1861 - 52 m (45%) freed
– Alexander III 1881 – 1894 – development of Marxism; Bolshevik and Meshevik
groups; Lenin – unrest -> tighter controls
– Nicholas II 1894 – 1918 revolution; war; and the 1917 revolt ending with the
assassination of the last of the Romanov family
Geography & Maps and Graphs
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Examine your maps/graphs
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Topography
Weather
Time Zones
Provinces and Population
Industry
Consider the significance of each one for the history of
Russia. Discuss and write a report of about 250
words citing your evidence with clear reference to
each of the maps. Submit for comment.
Topography
Source: http://www.iiasa.ac.at/Research/FOR/russia_cd/rel_maps.htm#land
Weather
Temperature
Snow
An n u al
Ave r age
16
De c
14
No v
12
Oct
10
Sep
8
Au g
Norilsk
Moscow
Novosiblisk
Ju l
Norilsk
Moscow
Novosibirsk
6
4
2
Ju n
Fe b
Jan
-40 -35 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5
0
5
10 15
20 25
Ju
ly
Au
g
Se us
t
pt
em
be
r
O
ct
ob
e
No
ve r
m
b
e
De
ce r
m
be
r
Ja
nu
a
Fe r y
br
ua
ry
M
ar
ch
Apr
Ap
ril
M
ay
Ju
ne
0
May
Russian Time Zones
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Time Zones – consider the problems with so many different
time zones
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Source: http://www.worldtimezone.com/time-russia24.php
Population: People and Races
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https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/rs.html
Russian 79.8%, Tatar 3.8%, Ukrainian 2%, Bashkir 1.2%, Chuvash
1.1%, other or unspecified 12.1% (2002 census)
Slavic
Turkic
Iranian
Romance
Letto-Lithuanian
Finno-Ugrian
Mongolian & Korean
Ibero-Caucasian
Germanic
INDUSTRY – by 1900
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http://library.thinkquest.org/C005121/data/rus
sia.htm
Railroads (1250 miles in 1860 and 15500
miles by 1880) – exportation of grain
Petroleum – ½ world’s production of oil
Steel & coal
Foreign capital used
Internet Resources
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http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook39.html
http://www2.sptimes.com/Treasures/TC.2.3c.html

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