Unit 9: Political & Economic Systems

Unit 8:
Political & Economic Systems
I. World Political Systems
A. a state (country) is
defined piece of territory
occupied by a sovereign
group of people.
1. boundaries are
determined by people
and can be
a. artificial, such as a
line of latitude or
b. natural, such as a
river or coastline.
Border cities can arise as points of trade between two countries
2. a nation is a group of people with a
common culture living in the same
a. a nation-state occurs when that
territory is sovereign
b. a stateless nation occurs when that
group of people do not have a
sovereign territory in which to live.
The Kurds of
Northern Iraq.
decolonization Map
c. a satellite
nation is a
group of
by another
B. world governments are classified by the
role of the individual citizen
1. a democracy is controlled by the
citizens of the state,
a. it is characterized by…
i. free and fair elections
ii. majority rule with respect for
the rights of the minority
iii. a written constitution which
spells out the powers and duties
of the government as well as
lists the freedoms and rights of
the people that cannot be
taken away
iv. a free enterprise or capitalist
economic system
b. democracies can be…
i. direct when citizens
can vote on all issues.
ii. representative or a
republic when citizens
elect representatives
to vote on issues for
c. types of democracy
i. constitutional monarchy
– royalty is limited by a
ii. parliamentary –
legislative and executive
functions are combined
in a single legislative
iii. federal republic – powers
are divided between
local and national
Intimidation led
to unfair election
in Zimbabwe.
2. a dictatorship, or
oligarchy is controlled by
one person or a small
group of people
a. it is characterized
i. fixed elections or
no elections at all
ii. military force
may be used to
gain and retain
Military force used to deter
protesters at Tiananmen Square
in China.
Adolf Hitler
Long live the great Stalin!
Kim Jong Il
North Korea
b. types of dictatorships
i. authoritarian/autocracy
– the dictator has
absolute power
ii. totalitarian – dictator
exercises their power
over every aspect of the
citizens’ lives.
iii. communist – small
group of people make
all economic decisions as
well all political
Mohammad Khatami
Prince Abdullah
Saudi Arabia
iv. monarchy/aristocracy –
royalty is in power and is
not limited by a
v. theocracy – religious
leaders rule based on
religious law
vi. military state – military
leaders rule supported by
armed forces
General Than Shwe
International Organizations
• United Nations- International Organization of
193 countries committed to:
1. maintaining international peace and security
Security Council May approve military action to be carried out by joint
forces. (U.N. has no standing army) Ex. North Korea, Iraq
Peacekeeping operations may monitor a ceasefire, establish a buffer zone,
help former opponents carry out a peace agreement, protect the delivery of
humanitarian aid, assist with the demobilization of former fighters and their
return to normal life, set up mine-clearance programes, supervise or
conduct elections, train civilian police, and monitor respect for human rights.
Ex. Cyprus, Haiti, East Timor, etc.
Current U.N. Peacekeeping Operations
2. developing friendly relations among nations.
3. promoting better living standards
4. promoting human rights universal human rights
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Parade Magazine
World’s Worst Dictators
Human Rights Watch
Amnesty International
Freedom House
Reporters Without Borders
Committee To Protect Journalists
State Department Bureau of Democracy,
Human Rights, and Labor
Unit 9:
Political & Economic Systems
II. World Economic Systems
A. in a traditional economy
1. people live by
subsistence activities
2. no formal system of
3. trade or barter with
B. Market economy
C. Command economy
D. Mixed economy, one
formal economic system is
used, but contains
elements of others
1. capitalism (free enterprise) is based on a
market economy.
a. resources, businesses, and industry are
all privately owned
b. buyers make the economic decisions
c. prices are determined by the market
d. standard of living is determined by
personal success
e. jobs are determined by the individual
and their level of education
2. socialism is based on a command
economy, however many operate as
mixed economy
a. resources, businesses, and industry
are all publicly owned
b. the government makes the
economic decisions
c. prices are determined by the
d. standard of living is determined by
personal success
e. jobs are determined by the
individual and their level of
3. communism is based on a
command economy
a. resources, businesses, and
industry are all publicly owned
b. the government makes the
economic decisions
c. prices are determined by the
d. standard of living is the same
for everyone
e. jobs are determined by the
f. the government is a
The Cold War
• The Cold War was a
continuing state of political
and military tension between
the powers of the Western
world(Capitalism), and the
Soviet Union (communists)
• Since both sides possessed
large stockpiles of nuclear
weapons open warfare could
have resulted in mutual
• Fall of Berlin Wall and USSR
Opened up more of the world
to Global Trade.
Globalization is
• A term used to describe
Unit 11
interdependence of people
the world with regard to
economies, cultures,
and environments.
1. countries buy products
(import) from other countries
because other countries have
the resources to produce it better or cheaper
2. countries sell products (export) to other countries to
bring money into the country and have a larger
market for their goods
3. multinational companies have locations in different
countries to facilitate business in those countries
4. a favorable balance of trade exists when a country
exports more than it imports
Intergovernmental Economic Organizations
 Supranational organization is
a type of multi-national
confederation, where
negotiated power is
delegated to an authority by
governments of member
states ex. European Union
&African Union
Maps of Trade Blocs
 Trade Blocs- intergovernmental agreement that allows
regional barriers to trade(tariffs), to be reduced or
eliminated among the participating states.
Ex. NAFTA (North America), ASEAN (Southeast Asia), EFTA(Europe)

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